Bahujan Samaj Party

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Bahujan Samaj Party
Chairperson Mayawati
Secretary-General Satish Chandra Mishra
Leader in Lok Sabha Rajesh Verma
Leader in Rajya Sabha Mayawati
Founded 1984
Headquarters 12, Gurudwara Rakabganj Road,
New Delhi - 110001
Newspaper Adil Jafri, Mayayug
Student wing Bahujan Samaj Student's Forum
Youth wing BSP Yuva Morcha
Ideology Dalit Socialism
Secularism
Social Engineering
Political position Centre-left
Colours Blue
Seats in Lok Sabha
21 / 545
Seats in Rajya Sabha
15 / 245
Seats in UP Legislative Assembly
80 / 403
Election symbol
Bahujan Samaj party symbol
Website
bspindia.org
Politics of India
Political parties
Elections

The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) (Hindi: बहुजन समाज पार्टी) is a national political party in India. It was formed mainly to represent Bahujans (literally meaning "People in majority"), referring to people from the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Castes (OBC) as well as minorities. The party claims to be inspired by the philosophy of B. R. Ambedkar. The BSP was founded by a Dalit charismatic leader Kanshi Ram in 1984, who was succeeded by Mayawati in 2003. The party's political symbol is an Elephant. In the 15th Lok Sabha the party has 21 members, making it the 4th-largest party. The BSP has its main base in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

Origin of the word "Bahujan"[edit]

The Pali word Bahujan is popularly found in the literature of Buddhism. Lord Buddha used this word to guide his disciples to work for the "Bahujan Hitay Bahujan Sukhay" (Meaning: Benefit and prosperity of majority people). Another meaning of the word Bahujan is people in majority. The BSP has historically drawn a loyal base of voters from India's lowest caste (Dalit). It has attempted to grow nationally as well, but has met limited success so far. Its current majority government in Uttar Pradesh was in large part due to a reach-out towards other castes, even some members of the upper castes.

History[edit]

Bahujan Samaj Party claims to represent the low and lowly. A man carrying the BSP flag.
Flags of "Bahujan Samaj Party" at Shivaji Park.

The party was founded in 1983 by Kanshi Ram . Due to his deteriorating health in the 1990s, former school teacher Mayawati became the party's de facto leader. The party's power grew quickly with seats in the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly and India's Lower House of Parliament. In 1993, following the assembly elections, Mayawati formed a coalition with Samajwadi Party President Mulayam Yadav as Chief Minister. In mid-1995, she withdrew support from his government, which led to a major incident where Mulayam Singh Yadav was accused of keeping her party legislators hostage to try to break her party. Since this, they have regarded each other publicly as chief rivals. Mayawati then sought the support of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) to become Chief Minister on 3 June 1995. In October 1995 the BJP withdrew support to her and fresh elections were called after President's Rule.

About The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)[edit]

The ideology of the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) is "Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation" of the "Bahujan Samaj ", which comprises the Scheduled Castes (SCs), the Scheduled Tribes (STs), the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and Religious Minorities such as Sikhs, Muslims, Christians, Parsis and Buddhists and account for over 85 per cent of the country's total population.

The people belonging to all these classes have been the victims of the "Manuwadi" system in the country for thousands of years, under which they have been vanquished, trampled upon and forced to languish in all spheres of life. In other words, these people were deprived even of all those human rights, which had been secured for the upper caste Hindus under the age-old "Manuwadi Social System".

Among the great persons (Mahapurush) belonging to "Bahujan Samaj", who fought courageously and with commitment against the brutal and oppressive Manuwadi system, for providing a level playing field to the downtrodden to help move forward in their lives with "self-respect" and at par with the upper castes Hindus, especially Baba Saheb Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar's socio-political campaign later proved to be very effective in this direction. bahujan samaj party logo

Though the contributions of leaders of the downtrodden communities like Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj, Narayana Guru and Periyar E. V. Ramaswami have been immense in the fight against the obnoxious Manuwadi system, but the struggle of Baba Saheb Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar, who was born in Scheduled Caste community, and that of Manyawar Kanshi Ram Ji later proved to be greatly effective and pregnant with far-reaching consequences.

Besides waging a spirited campaign against the Manuwadi Social System, Dr. Ambedkar instilled consciousness among not only the Dalits, but also among those belonging to other backward groups, which continue to be victimised and trampled under this oppressive and unjust Manuvadi Social System.

By virtue of his pivotal role in the framing of the Indian Constitution, these groups were given a number of rights in the Constitution on a legal basis to lead a life of dignity and self-respect. But he was fully conscious of the fact that these exploited sections of the society would not be able to get the full legal rights as long as the governments would remain dominated by the Manuwadi persons and parties.

That's why Dr. Ambedkar, during his lifetime, had counseled the "Bahujan Samaj" that if they wanted to fully enjoy the benefits of their legal rights, as enshrined in the Constitution, they would have to bond together all the Bahujan groups on the basis of unity and fraternity, bring them on a strong political platform and capture the "Master Key" of political power. This was to be the modus operandi for the formation of Bahujan Governments at the Centre and in States. Only such governments could enforce all the constitutional and legal rights of the "Bahujan Samaj" and provide opportunities to its People to move forward in all spheres of life besides enabling them to lead a life of "self-respect".

Keeping in view this observation and advice of Dr. Ambedkar, respected Manyawar Kanshi Ram Ji founded the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), with the help of his associates, on 14 April 1984. For many years while he enjoyed good health, he prepared the "Bahujan Samaj" to secure the "master key" of political power, which opens all the avenues for social and economic development.

However, being a diabetic and host of other serious ailments, his health did not permit him to lead an active political life for too long. On 15 December 2001, Manyawar Kanshi Ram Ji, while addressing a mammoth rally of the BSP at the Lakshman Mela Ground in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh on the banks of the river Gomti, declared Kumari (Miss) Mayawati Ji, then the lone Vice-President of the Party, as his only political heir and successor.

Moreover, on 15 September 2003, Manyawar Kanshi Ram Ji's health suffered a serious setback, and the entire responsibility of the Party fell on the shoulders of Bahan (Sister) Kumari Mayawati Ji. Later, on 18 September 2003, the Party, through a consensus and in keeping with its Constitution, made her its National President.

Being the National President of a National Party, Kumari Mayawati Ji in her address sought to assure that "I would like to make aware people of the country that my Party, the BSP, is committed to not only improving the socio-economic conditions of people belonging to the "Bahujan Samaj" but also of the poor among the upper caste Hindus, small and medium farmers, traders and people engaged in other professions.

But people of the Manuwadi mindset, even if they are in different fields of life, are acting under a conspiracy to project the image of the BSP as if it is confined to championing the cause of Dalits alone and is opposed to the upper castes Hindus and other sections of the society. Also, the BSP has nothing to do with the issues of national interest. However, on the basis of facts, I can say with firmness and conviction that all such talks are a bunch of lies, baseless and devoid of facts and are nothing else more than a slanderous campaign of the status quoits Manuwadi forces. The policies, objectives and ideology of the BSP are crystal clear and attuned to the welfare of the entire country and its vast population.

On the basis of its ideology, the BSP wants to sound the death-knell of the "Manuwadi Social System" based on the 'Varna' (which is an inequality social system) and striving hard and honestly for the establishment of an egalitarian and "Humanistic Social System" in which everyone enjoys JUSTICE (social, economic and political) and EQUALITY (of status and of opportunity) as enshrined in the PREAMBLE of the Constitution.

Further, our Party Constitution very clearly states that "the chief aim and objective of the Party shall be to work as a revolutionary social and economic movement of change with a view to realise, in practical terms, the supreme principles of universal justice, liberty, equality and fraternity enunciated in the Constitution of India."

Such a social system is wholly in the overall interest of the Country and all sections of the society too. If, in this missionary work of "Social Transformation", people of the upper castes (Hindus) shed their Manuwadi mindset and join hands with the Bahujan Samaj, our Party, with all due respect and affection would embrace them. Such people will be given suitable positions in the Party organisation in accordance with their ability, dedication and efficiency, and there would be no distinction between them and those belonging to the Bahujan Samaj. Also they will be fielded as Party candidates in the parliamentary and assembly elections, and if our government is formed, they will also be given ministerial berths.

These are not hollow talks because the BSP in the past, during the three successive governments, had implemented all such promises. In Uttar Pradesh, Ms. Mayawati government was formed four times, and on each occasion, upper castes people were inducted in the Council of Ministers. Even an upper caste person was appointed to an all-important post of Advocate General. They were given the Party ticket for Lok Sabha and Assembly elections and also nominated to the Parliament's Upper Chamber i.e. Rajya Sabha and state Legislative Councils.

In addition, upper caste people have been given high posts in the Party organisation. For example, Mr. Satish Chandra Mishra was nominated to the Rajya Sabha and also was made national general secretary of the Party. In similar fashion, other castes of the Upper Castes (Hindus) were promoted.

Thus, keeping in view all these facts, it would be injudicious and fallacious to hold that the BSP works for the welfare of a particular group or section. Yes, the Party does give priority to those sections, which have been ignored and scorned all along by the Manuwadi governments in all spheres of life. In addition, the BSP has always contributed positively to all issues pertaining to the welfare of the Country. The BSP has always taken an unequivocal stand on issues of the Country's welfare and never compromised on the issues related to the interest of the country whenever the need arose.

Aims and Objectives[edit]

The chief aim and objective of the party shall be to work as a revolutionary social and economic movement of change with a view to realise, in practical terms, the supreme principles of universal justice, liberty, equality and fraternity enunciated in the Constitution of India, to be followed by State in governance, and in particular summed up in the following extract from the Preamble of the Constitution.

We, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: Justice, social, economic and political; Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; Equality of status and opportunity; and promote among them all Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;"

The Party shall regard its ideology as a movement for ending exploitation of the weaker sections and suppression of the deprived through social and economic change in keeping with the above stated chief aim, and its political activity and participation in governance as an instrument of furthering such a movement and bringing in such a change.

This being the chief aim of the Party, the strategy of the Party in public affairs will be governed by the following general principles:�

1. That all citizens of India being equal before law are entitled to be treated as equal in true sense and in all matters and all walks of life, and where equality does not exist it has to be fostered and where equality is denied it has to be upheld and fought for.

2. That the full, free, uninhibited and unimpeded development of each individual is a basic human right and State is an instrument for promoting and realising such development;

3. That the rights of all citizens of India as enshrined in the Constitution of India and subject to such restrictions as are set out in the Constitution, have to be upheld at all costs and under all circumstances;

4. That the provisions of the Constitution requiring the State at Center and in States to promote with special care and protect the socio-economic interests of the weaker sections of the society denied to them for centuries, have to upheld and given practical shape in public affairs as a matter of prime most priority.

5. That economic disparities and the wide gaps between the 'haves' and the 'have nots' must not be allowed to override the political principle of "one man, one vote, one vote, one value" adopted by our republic.

6. That unless political empowerment is secured for the economically deprived masses they will not be able to free themselves from the shackles of economic and social dependence and exploitation.

In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the aims stated above the Party will work specially towards the following objectives:�

1. The Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes, the other Backward Castes, and the minorities, are the most oppressed and exploited people in India. Keeping in mind their large numbers, such a set of people in India is known as the Bahujan Samaj. The Party shall organise these masses.

2. The party shall work for these down trodden masses to�- a. to remove their backwardness; b. to fight against their oppression and exploitation; c. to improve their status in society and public life; d. to improve their living conditions in day to day life;

2. The social structure of India is based on inequalities created by caste system and the movement of the Party shall be geared towards changing the social system and rebuild it on the basis of equality and human values. All those who join the party with the commitment to co-operate in this movement of social change shall be ingratiated into the fold of the Party.

Towards the furtherance of the above noted aims and objectives the organisational units of Party as designated in this constitution, shall be empowered to:- 1. purchase, take on lease or otherwise acquire, and maintain, moveable or immovable property for the Party and invest and deal with monies of Party in such a manner as may from time to time be determined;

2. raise money with or without security for carrying out any of the aims and objectives of the Party;

3. to do all other lawful things and acts as are incidental or conducive to the attainment of any of the aforesaid aims and objectives,

Provided that none of these activities will be undertaken without the express approval of the National President.

Success in 2007 UP assembly elections[edit]

The 11 May 2007, the Uttar Pradesh state assembly election results saw the BSP emerge as a single majority party, the first to do so since 1991. The BSP President Ms. Mayawati began her fourth term as Chief Minister of UP and took her oath of office along with 50 ministers of cabinet and state rank on 13 May 2007, at Rajbhawan in the state capital of Lucknow. Most importantly, the majority achieved in large part was due to the party's ability to take away majority of upper castes votes from their traditional party, the BJP.

BSP is now the third largest national party of India in terms of vote percentages as per 2009 Lok Sabha Elections, having more than 10% vote share across the country.

2012 UP assembly elections[edit]

The party could manage only 80 seats as against 206 in 2007 assembly elections. BSP government was the first in the history of Uttar Pradesh to complete its full five-year term.[1] On 11 July 2012, the party in a major revamp, replaced Swami Prasad Maurya by R A Rajbhar as President of UP Unit.[2]

Secret successor of Mayawati[edit]

On 9 August 2009, Mayawati declared that she had chosen a successor from the 'jatav' community who is 18–20 years her junior. She has penned down his name in a sealed packet left in the safe custody of two of her close confidantes. The name of the successor will be disclosed on her death.[3]

Lok Sabha (Lower House)[edit]

Lok Sabha Term Indian
General Election
Seats
Contested
Seats
won
 % of
Votes
 % of Votes in
seats contested
State ( seats )
09 th Lok Sabha 1989 245 03 2.07 4.53 Punjab ( 1 )
Uttar Pradesh ( 2 )
10 th Lok Sabha 1991 231 02 1.61 3.64 Madhya_Pradesh(1)
Uttar Pradesh ( 1 )
11 th Lok Sabha 1996 210 11 4.02 11.21 Madhya Pradesh(2)
Punjab ( 3 )
Uttar Pradesh ( 6 )
12 th Lok Sabha 1998 251 05 4.67 9.84 Haryana ( 1 )
Uttar Pradesh ( 4 )
13 th Lok Sabha 1999 225 14 4.16 9.97 Uttar Pradesh (14)
14 th Lok Sabha 2004 435 19 5.33 6.66 Uttar Pradesh (19)
15 th Lok Sabha 2009 500 21 6.17 6.56 Madhya Pradesh(1)
Uttar Pradesh (20)
Vidhan Sabha Term UP
Elections
Seats
Contested
Seats
won
 % of
Votes
 % of Votes in
seats contested
12 th Vidhan Sabha 1993 164 67 11.12 28.52
13 th Vidhan Sabha 1996 296 67 19.64 27.73
14 th Vidhan Sabha 2002 401 98 23.06 23.19
15 th Vidhan Sabha 2007 403 206 30.43 30.43
16 th Vidhan Sabha 2012 403 80 25.95 25.95

Other states where BSP has a presence[edit]

Bihar Vidhan Sabha[edit]

Vidhan Sabha Term Bihar
General Election
Seats
Contested
Seats
won
 % of
Votes
 % of Votes in
seats contested
10 th Vidhan Sabha 1990 164 0 0.73 1.41
11 th Vidhan Sabha 1995 161 2 1.34 2.66
12 th Vidhan Sabha 2000 249 5 1.89 2.47
13 th Vidhan Sabha Feb. 2005 238 2 4.41 4.50
14 th Vidhan Sabha Oct. 2005 212 4 4.17 4.75
15 th Vidhan Sabha 2010 243 0 3.21 3.27

Chhattisgarh Vidhan Sabha[edit]

Vidhan Sabha Term Chhattisgarh
General Election
Seats
Contested
Seats
won
 % of
Votes
 % of Votes in
seats contested
2 nd Vidhan Sabha 2003 54 2 4.45 9.4
3 rd Vidhan Sabha 2008 90 2 6.11 6.11
4 th Vidhan Sabha 2013 90 1 4.27 4.29

Delhi Vidhan Sabha[edit]

Vidhan Sabha Term Delhi
General Election
Seats
Contested
Seats
won
 % of
Votes
 % of Votes in
seats contested
1 st Vidhan Sabha 1993 55 0 1.88 2.42
2 nd Vidhan Sabha 1998 58 0 3.09 3.63
3 rd Vidhan Sabha 2003 40 0 5.76 8.96
4 th Vidhan Sabha 2008 69 2 14.05 14.05
5 th Vidhan Sabha 2013 69 0 5.33 5.44

Haryana Vidhan Sabha[edit]

Vidhan Sabha Term Haryana
General Election
Seats
Contested
Seats
won
 % of
Votes
 % of Votes in
seats contested
8 th Vidhan Sabha 1991 26 1 2.32 7.67
9 th Vidhan Sabha 1996 67 0 5.44 7.2
10 th Vidhan Sabha 2000 83 1 5.74 6.22
11 th Vidhan Sabha 2005 84 1 3.22 3.44
12 th Vidhan Sabha 2009 86 1 6.73 7.05

Himachal Pradesh Vidhan Sabha[edit]

Vidhan Sabha Term Himachal Pradesh
General Election
Seats
Contested
Seats
won
 % of
Votes
 % of Votes in
seats contested
7 th Vidhan Sabha 1990 35 0 0.94 1.76
8 th Vidhan Sabha 1993 49 0 2.25 3.0
9 th Vidhan Sabha 1998 28 0 1.41 3.28
10 th Vidhan Sabha 2003 23 0 0.7 2.02
11 th Vidhan Sabha 2007 67 1 7.40 7.37
12 th Vidhan Sabha 2012 67 0 1.7 2.02

Madhya Pradesh Vidhan Sabha[edit]

Vidhan Sabha Term Madhya Pradesh
General Election
Seats
Contested
Seats
won
 % of
Votes
 % of Votes in
seats contested
9 th Vidhan Sabha 1990 183 2 3.54 5.89
10 th Vidhan Sabha 1993 286 11 7.05 7.86
11 th Vidhan Sabha 1998 170 11 6.15 11.39
12 th Vidhan Sabha 2003 157 2 7.26 10.62
13 th Vidhan Sabha 2008 230 7 8.97 9.29
14 th Vidhan sabha 2013 227 4 6.29 6.42

Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha[edit]

Vidhan Sabha Term Maharashtra
General Election
Seats
Contested
Seats
won
 % of
Votes
 % of Votes in
seats contested
8 th Vidhan Sabha 1990 122 0 0.42 0.98
9 th Vidhan Sabha 1995 145 0 1.49 2.82
10 th Vidhan Sabha 1999 83 0 0.39 1.24
11 th Vidhan Sabha 2004 272 0 4.0 4.18
12 th Vidhan Sabha 2009 287 0 2.35 2.42

Punjab Vidhan Sabha[edit]

Vidhan Sabha Term Punjab
General Election
Seats
Contested
Seats
won
 % of
Votes
 % of Votes in
seats contested
10 th Vidhan Sabha 1992 105 9 16.32 17.59
11 th Vidhan Sabha 1997 67 1 7.48 13.28
12 th Vidhan Sabha 2002 100 0 5.69 6.61
13 th Vidhan Sabha 2007 115 0 4.13 4.17
14 th Vidhan Sabha 2012 117 0 4.28 4.28

Rajasthan Vidhan Sabha[edit]

Vidhan Sabhaui Term Rajasthan
General Election
Seats
Contested
Seats
Won
 % of
Votes
 % of Votes in
seats contested
9 th Vidhan Sabha 1990 205 0 0.79 2.54
10 th Vidhan Sabha 1993 50 0 0.56 2.01
11 th Vidhan Sabha 1998 108 2 2.17 3.81
12 th Vidhan Sabha 2003 124 2 3.97 6.40
13 th vidhan sabha 2008 199 6 7.60 7.66
14 th vidhan sabha 2013 199 3 3.37 3.48

Uttarakhand Vidhan Sabha[edit]

Vidhan Sabha Term Uttarakhand
General Election
Seats
Contested
Seats
Won
 % of
Votes
 % of Votes in
seats contested
1 st Vidhan Sabha 2002 68 7 10.93 11.20
2 nd Vidhan Sabha 2007 69 8 11.76 11.76
3 rd Vidhan Sabha 2012 70 3 12.19 12.19

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://eciresults.nic.in/PartyWiseResult.htm
  2. ^ "BSP replaces U.P. chief". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 12 July 2012. 
  3. ^ "Mayawati talks of a secret successor : India". Nerve.in. Retrieved 12 July 2012. 

External links[edit]