|This article does not cite any references or sources. (August 2007)|
|Planets, Stars and Atmosphere|
|Abode||16th floor in the Sky|
|Parents||Gök Tanrı and Yer Tanrı|
Bai-Ülgen or Ülgen (pron.: //; Old Turkic: Bey Ülgen; also spelled Bai-Ulgen, Bai-Ülgen, Bay-Ulgan, Bay-Ulgen, or Bay-Ülgen) is a Turkic and Mongolian creator-deity, usually distinct from Tengri but sometimes identified with him in the same manner as Helios and Apollo. His name is from Old Turkic bey, "rich", and ülgen, "magnificent". Ulgan is thought to be without a beginning and an end.
In Turkic and Mongolian mythology, the birch tree, regarded as a cosmic axis between earth and sky, was regarded as sacred to him, as was the horse (horse-sacrifice was a part of his worship). Ulgan symbolizes goodness, welfare, abundance, plenty of food, water, etc. Furthermore, he created earth, heaven and all living beings. In addition, he controls the atmosphere events and movements of stars. He creates land for people to live, humans' and animals' heads, and the rainbow. He was regarded as the patron god of shamans and the source of their knowledge.
It is believed that Ulgan has been created from Tengri (Tengere Kayra Khan). He is the highest deity after Tengri. Sometimes, Ulgan is compared with Tengri and they are thought to be the same. In some sayings, Ulgan takes place of Tengri, but not completely.
Ulgan is the enemy of Erlik who is the god of evil and darkness. Ulgen protects humankind against him.
Ulgan has seven sons, named “Karakuş, Karşıt, Pura Kan, Burça Kan, Yaşıl Kan, Er Kanım, Baktı Kan”, and nine daughters, named Akkızlar and Kıyanlar. His daughters are source of inspiration for shamans (reference?).
Bai-Ulgan lives on the sixteenth floor of the sky above the stars, sun and moon in a golden house. People can never reach him, except shamans or kams. Animals are used for sacrifice to him, especially horses. Once in every third, sixth, ninth, or twelfth year, shamans sacrifice a white horse at the first step of reaching Ulgan. Then he accompanies its soul, penetrates through all the layers of heaven until he reaches Ulgan. Firstly, kam meets Yayık who is the servant of Ulgan. This deity informs the kam whether or not the offering has been accepted, and the shaman learns of impending dangers, such as bad harvests.
- Çoban, Ramazan Volkan. Türk Mitolojisinde İyilik Tanrısı Ülgen’in İnanıştaki Yeri,Tasviri ve Kökeni (Turkish)
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