Bayila (also known as baila) is a form of music popular in Sri Lanka and parts of India.[a] The genre originated centuries ago among the 'Sri Lankan Kaffirs' or Afro-Sinhalese communities (mixed communities of Portuguese, African and native Sinhalese people). It primarily utilises European instruments and rhythms found in Spain/Portugal, Sri Lanka, Africa and South India. In Mangalorea and Goa Bayila songs are played during parties and weddings, accompanied by dancing.
Bayila music, though popular as a folk art for centuries in the country, was introduced to Sri Lanka's mainstream during the early years of the 1960s when singer Wally Bastian (who was also a police officer) began adapting the 6/8 'kaffirhina' rhythms to accommodate Sinhala lyrics. By the 1970s, owing largely to the contributions of musicians MS Fernando and Maxwell Mendis, Bayila had grown to become a recognized (and respected) style of Sri Lankan popular music.
The term ‘bayila’ is adapted from the Portuguese verb 'bailar' meaning 'to dance'. Historically, Bayila was a popular folk tradition along the coastal districts where the Portuguese influence was strongest. These communities (consisting of Portuguese traders and the slaves that they had brought with them from the western coast of Africa) gradually combined with communities of native Sri Lankans. The musical style now referred to as "Bayila" emerged from this cultural interchange. The genre was quick to spread around the whole island of Sri Lanka and was even influenced by Cuban 'habanera' music, a form of dance music popular in the 1800s. The kafirs, particularly in Puttalam, view Bayila and Kaffirinha tradition to be as intertwined with wedding ceremonies as wine and cake . On the east coast of Batticaloa live Sri Lankan Burghers, the other group of inheritors of Bayila and Kaffirinha and the descendants from Portuguese. Along with some rhythmic elements, the often light-hearted comical lyrics and the Wada (debate), Bayila tradition appears to be uniquely Sri Lankan. With a history of over five hundred years, it is older than other relatively recent semi-classical traditions.
M.S. Fernando A.K.A. "Bayila Chakrawarthi" was a key figure in Sri Lankan Bayila history.[vague] Nithi Kanagaratnam also started Bayila's in Tamil in 1967 and was the key figure in the development of the same.
Today, this kaffirhina style (often referred to by its "6/8" time) has been adapted from violin, bongo drums, mandolin, box guitar and honky tonk piano to accommodate modern instruments — specifically the electric guitar and synthesiser/workstation keyboards, octapad, and drum kit. Due in part to this evolution, it is most often heard during parties, school reunions, charity dinner dances, hotel concerts and weddings. Contemporary Bayila is also characterized by comical lyrics, often loosely adapted from themes derived from Sri Lanka's history and/or folklore.
There are two subgenres of Bayila.
- Chorus Bayila — typical Bayila song
- Waada Bayila — this is a contest between several Bayila singers, often spontaneous. Judges give them a topic and competitors must compose their own lyrics for the specific Bayila rhythm. Marks are given in different criteria including quick-wittedness, meaningfulness, flow and rhyme.
Popular Bayila artists include M.S. Fernando, Anton Jones, Paul Fernando, Desmond de Silva, Nihal Nelson, Maxwell Mendis, Sunil Perera (The Gypsies), Saman De Silva, Danapala Udawaththa, Rajiv Sebastian, Claude de Zoysa, Marriazelle Goonathilake, Nithi Kanagaratnam, A.E.Manoharan, Dalreen.
Bayila has also influenced the music of many popular artists such as Annesley Malewana, Clarence Wijewardene, C.T Fernando, Anil Bharathi, Christopher Paul, Priya Peiris (La Bambas), Super Golden Chimes, Los Flamingos, Sunflowers (band), The Gypsies, even Pandit W. D. Amaradeva.
Radio broadcaster Vernon Corea has been credited with having helped to spread Bayila music to the English-speaking world via English-language programmes aired on Radio Ceylon and BBC Radio London during the late 1960s and 1970s.
In December 2006 a nonstop dance CD with greatest Bayila hits titled Sri Lankan Open House Party was released in Sri Lanka. The music was directed by renowned composer Suresh Maliyadde while the music to the CD was provided by Niresh Perera (The Gypsies) on drums, Mahinda Bandara (Fortunes) on guitar, Tilak Dias on bass, Tissasiri Perera on keyboard, and Visharadha Monaj Pieris on percussion. Singers powering these all time evergreens are Kanishka Wijetunga, Ganesha Wijetunga, Mariazelle Goonetilleke, and Suresh Maliyadde.
There are Baila songs in Tamil which were popularised by Nithi Kanagaratnam, Ceylon Manohar, M.P.Paramesh, Ramachandran, Amuthan Annamalai and many othes. Nithi Kanagartnam's song "Chinna Mamiye" (or "Sinna Mamiye") in particular is popular and the rhythm is quite like some of the konkani songs. Nithi started Tamil Bayila in 1967 and was dubbed as the "Father of Tamil Pops" in Sri Lanka. These songs are popular in Tamil Nadu, India and countries where the Tamils live.