Bak languages

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Bak
Bak–Bijago
Geographic
distribution:
Senegal, Guinea Bissau
Linguistic classification: Niger–Congo
Subdivisions:
  • Bak proper
  • Bijago
Glottolog: cent2230[1]

The Bak languages are a group of typologically Atlantic languages of Senegal and Guinea Bissau linked in 2010 to the erstwhile Atlantic isolate Bijago. Bak languages are non-tonal.

Languages[edit]


 Bak proper 

Balanta




Jola languages (Diola)



Papel languages





Bijago



Bayot, once assumed to be a Jola language, appears to be more divergent, perhaps even a language isolate.

Bijago[edit]

Bijago is highly divergent. Sapir (1971) classified it as an isolate within West Atlantic. However, Segerer (2010) showed that this is primarily due to unrecognized sound changes, and that Bijago is in fact close to the Bak languages. For example, the following cognates in Bijago and Joola Kasa (one of the Jola languages) are completely regular, but had not previously been identified:

Gloss Bijago Joola Kasa
head bu fu-kow
eye ji-cil

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Bak". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  • Guillaume Segerer and Florian Lionnet, 2010. "Isolates" in "Atlantic". Presentation at « Language Isolates in Africa », Lyons, Dec. 3–4.