Bakka, Lebanon

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Bakka
Beka, Bekka
Village
Country  Lebanon
Governorate Beqaa Governorate
District Rashaya District
Area
 • Total 2.36 sq mi (6.12 km2)
Elevation 4,860 ft (1,480 m)
Aaqbe
Bakka, Lebanon is located in Lebanon
Bakka, Lebanon
Magnify-clip.png
Shown within Lebanon
Alternate name Akbeh, Aqbe, Akbe, Aqbeh
Location 85 kilometres (53 mi) east of Beirut
Region Rashaya
Coordinates 33°35′36″N 35°55′28″E / 33.593334°N 35.924442°E / 33.593334; 35.924442
History
Cultures Roman
Site notes
Condition Ruins
Public access Yes

Bakka, Bekka or Beka is a village and municipality situated 85 kilometres (53 mi) east of Beirut in the Rashaya District of the Beqaa Governorate in Lebanon.[1][2]

Wadi Bakka[edit]

The Wadi Bakka or Wadi Bekka runs alongside the village. The wadi was the scene of the Battle of Wadi Bakka where a Druze uprising was put down by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt during the 1838 Druze revolt.[3]

Roman temple[edit]

There are the ruins of a Roman temple in the village that are included in a group of Temples of Mount Hermon.[4] George Taylor classified it as a prostylos temple and noted that the north and south walls remained standing and the podium floor had survived. The site has been heavily damaged by local construction of houses over the site. The temple featured an underground crypt that was accessible via one of the houses that had been built over it.[5]

A temple at Bakka is mentioned in sura 3 (Al-i-Imran), ayah 96 of the Qur'an, where it is said to be the site of the first place of worship to God by Adam.[6][7][8] Others also identify it with the Biblical "valley of Baca" from Psalms 84 (Hebrew: בך‎).[9][10] It is considered amongst Islamic exegetes to be an ancient name for Mecca, the most holy city of Islam. The temple at Bakka is described in the Qu'ran as the "first house established for people" as "a blessing ang guidance for all beings".[11][12]

Edward Robinson suggested that word bakka could have derived from the later Arabic meaning of crowd. Others have linked it to the Hebrew word bikha meaning plain.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Daniel M. Krencker; Willy Zschietzschmann (1938). Römische Tempel in Syrien: nach Aufnahmen und Untersuchungen von Mitgliedern der Deutschen Baalbekexpedition 1901-1904, pp. 205-269 & pl, 83-116, Otto Puchstein, Bruno Schulz, Daniel Krencker. W. de Gruyter & Co. Retrieved 17 September 2012. 
  2. ^ Ted Kaizer (2008). The Variety of Local Religious Life in the Near East In the Hellenistic and Roman Periods. BRILL. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-90-04-16735-3. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  3. ^ Nejla M. Abu Izzeddin (1993). The Druzes: A New Study of Their History, Faith, and Society. BRILL. pp. 218–. ISBN 978-90-04-09705-6. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  4. ^ Tallon, Maurice., “Sanctuaires et itinéraires romains du. Chouf et du sud de la Béqa,” Mélanges de l'université Saint Joseph 43, pp. 233-50, 1967.
  5. ^ George Taylor (1971). The Roman temples of Lebanon: a pictorial guide. Les temples romains au Liban; guide illustré. Dar el-Machreq Publishers. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  6. ^ Quran 3:96–97:

    The first House (of worship) appointed for men was that at Bakka: Full of blessing and of guidance for all kinds of beings:
    In it are Signs Manifest; (for example), the Station of Abraham; whoever enters it attains security; Pilgrimage thereto is a duty men owe to Allah,- those who can afford the journey; but if any deny faith, Allah stands not in need of any of His creatures.

    —Qur'an, sura 3 (Al-i-Imran), ayat 96-97
  7. ^ Cyril Glassé and Huston Smith (2003). The new encyclopedia of Islam (Revised, illustrated ed.). Rowman Altamira. p. 302. ISBN 978-0-7591-0190-6. 
  8. ^ William E. Phipps (1999). Muhammad and Jesus: a comparison of the prophets and their teachings (Illustrated ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-8264-1207-2. 
  9. ^ Daniel C. Peterson (2007). Muhammad, prophet of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 22–25. ISBN 978-0-8028-0754-0. 
  10. ^ Psalms 84:6, King James Version
  11. ^ William F. McCants (7 November 2011). Founding Gods, Inventing Nations: Conquest and Culture Myths from Antiquity to Islam. Princeton University Press. pp. 45–. ISBN 978-1-4008-4006-9. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  12. ^ Christoph Luxenberg (2007). The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran: A Contribution to the Decoding of the Language of the Koran. Verlag Hans Schiler. pp. 328–. ISBN 978-3-89930-088-8. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  13. ^ Emily Anne Beaufort Smythe Strangford (viscountess) (1862). Egyptian sepulchres and Syrian shrines: including some stay in the Lebanon, at Palmyra, and in western Turkey. Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts. pp. 294–. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 

External links[edit]