|Affiliation||Avatar of Vishnu or Adishesha|
|Mantra||Om Namo Narayanaya|
|Weapon||Plough used as mace|
Balarama (बलराम, Balarāma), also known as Baladeva, Balabhadra and Halayudha, is the elder brother of Krishna, he is considered as the Sankarshana form of Vishnu and the eighth avatar of Vishnu. In Vaishnavism, a major branch of Hinduism, Balarama is worshipped as an avatar of Adishesha, and he is described as such in the Bhagavata Purana. As brother of Krishna, he is worshipped either with his sibling as the eighth avatar of Vishnu, or with Rama, as the seventh.
He may have originated in Vedic times as a deity of agriculture and fertility. In scripture, Vishnu impregnated the belly of the goddess Devaki with two hairs, one black, one white. To ensure their safety, they were transferred before birth to Rohini. Krishna was born with darker complexion, while Balarama was fair. In Jainism he is known as Baladeva. He is often depicted with a drinking cup, pitcher, shield and sword.
The Mahabharata, attributed to Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa, describes Balarama as an incarnation of Adishesha, the serpent on which Vishnu rests.
Birth and origin
Balarama was a son of Yadava king Vasudeva. The evil king Kamsa, the brother of Devaki, was intent upon killing the children of his sister because of a prediction that he would die at the hands of her eighth son.
Vishnu then impregnated the belly of the goddess Devaki with two hairs, one black, one white. To ensure their safety, their essence was transferred before birth to Rohini, who also desired a child. At birth, Krishna had a darker complexion, while Balarama was born fair. The other name of Balarama is also Sankarshana, meaning a spirit transferred between two wombs.
He was named Rama, but because of his great strength he was called Balarama, Baladeva or Balabhadra, meaning "Strong Rama". He was born under Shravana nakshatra on Shraavana Purnima, or Raksha Bandhan.
He is often depicted with a drinking cup, pitcher, axe, shield and sword. Balarama may have originated in Vedic times as a deity of agriculture and fertility. In Jainism he is known as Baladeva.
Childhood and marriage
One day, Nanda Maharaja requested the presence of Gargamuni, his priest, to name the newborn Krishna and Balarama. When the Gargamuni arrived, Nanda Maharaja, received him well and requested the naming ceremony. Gargamuni then reminded Nanda Maharaja that Kaṁsa was looking for the son of Devaki, and if he performed the ceremony in opulence, it would come to his attention. Nanda Maharaja therefore asked Gargamuni to perform the ceremony in secret, and Gargamuni did so:
Because Balarama, the son of Rohini, increases the transcendental bliss of others, His name is Rama, and because of His extraordinary strength, He is called Baladeva. He attracts the Yadus to follow His instructions, and therefore His name is Sankarshana.—Bhagavata Purana, 10.8.12
Balarama spent his childhood as a cow herder with his brother Krishna. He killed Dhenukasura, an asura sent by Kansa, as well as Pralambasura and Mushtika wrestlers sent by the king. After the evil king died, Balarama and Krishna went to the ashrama of sage Sandipani's at Ujjayini for study. He later married Revati, the daughter of King Kakudmi, ruler of Kushasthali or Anarta
Kurukṣetra war of the Mahābhārata
Balarama taught both Duryodhana of the Kauravas and Bhima of the Pandavas the art of fighting with a mace. When war broke between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, Balarama cared for both sides, and so remained neutral. When the mighty Bhima defeated the more skilled Duryodhana by striking him in the groin with his mace, Balarama threatened to kill Bhima. This was prevented when Krishna reminded Balarama of the vow of Bhima—to kill Duryodhana by crushing the thigh he had exposed to Bhima's wife Draupadi.
In the Bhagavata Purana, it is described that after Balarama took part in the battle causing the destruction of the remainder of the Yadu dynasty, and witnessing the disappearance of Krishna, he sat down in a meditative state and departed from this world.
Status as avatar
Narratives of Balarama are found in the Mahabharata, Harivamsha, Bhagavata Purana and other Puranas. The Bhagavata Purana suggests Balarama as incarnation of Vishnu. He is classified in the vyuha avathar Sankarshana, of Vishnu where in Adishesha and Lakshmana is part of.
An earlier reference to Balarama is in Kautilya's Arthashastra (13.3) Early individual Balarama worship was followed by obeisance to Balarama alongside Krishna in various Vaishnava sects. The most revered temple of Balarama is in Jagannatha Puri.
Sage Atri's Samurtachanadhikara of Vaikhanasas, the most ancient school of Vaishnava theology, has described protocols for building temples and idols for Balarama and his consort. The Pancharatras, one of the earliest Vaishnava sects, worshiped Samkarshana as the second vyuha of Godhead. Krishna is usually depicted darker than Balarama. In Rama-lila, Balarama serves Ramachandra as his younger Brother, Lakshmana and in the current age (Kali yuga), Balarama spreads the 'Sankirtan movement' of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu as his close friend Nityananda.
Gaudiya Vaishnavas believe Balarama to be the supreme divinity, and worship him above Krishna. In their belief system, when Krishna is depicted, Baladeva is also always shown as his brother—sometimes elder, sometimes younger. They depict Balarama serving Krishna in all of his incarnations. Krishna has been described as creator, and Balarama his creative potency, with them being worshiped together as embodiment of Godhead.
Balarama is depicted as fair skinned, in contrast to his brother, Krishna, who is dark skinned, Krishna in Sanskrit means dark. His āyudhas, or weapons, are the plough hala and the gadā. He often wears blue garments and a garland of forest flowers. His hair is tied in a topknot, and he has earrings, bracelets and armlets, and he is known for his strength.
The Jain Puranas, notably, the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita of Acharya Hemachandra, narrate hagiographical accounts of nine Baladevas or Balabhadras, who are believed to be the śalākāpuruṣas (literally "torch-bearers, great personalities"). These nine Baladevas are: Achala, Vijaya, Bhadra, Suprabha, Sudarśana, Ānanda, Nandana, Padma (Rama in Hinduism) and Rāma (Balarama in Hinduism).
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- "Lord Balarama is the original Vishnu; therefore anyone remembering these pastimes of Lord Balarama in the morning and the evening will certainly become a great devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and thus his life will become successful in all respects." - A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
- "The splendor of Lord Balarama's transcendental form eclipses many millions of glistening rising moons, and the slightest scent of His boundless strength is sufficient to destroy many armies of demons." - From Appreciating Sri Vrindavana Dhama, pg. 111
- Bhag-P 1.3.23 "In the nineteenth and twentieth incarnations, the Lord advented Himself as Lord Balarama and Lord Krishna"
- Chandra, Suresh (Aug 15, 2012). Encyclopaedia of Hindu Gods and Goddesses. Kindle Edition.
- "Bhagavata Purana 10.8.12".
- Pargiter, F.E. (1922, reprint 1972). Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p.98
- Varkey, C.P. (2001). A Pilgrimage Through The Mahabharata. Mumbai: St. Paul Society. pp. 148–149. ISBN 81-7109-497-X.
- Bhag-P 11.30.26
- A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (1987). Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, ed. Srimad-Bhagavatam: Bhagavata Purana. ISBN 0892132507.
- Rangarajan, L.N. (1992) (edited, rearranged and translated), Kautilya — The Arthashastra, New Delhi: Penguin, ISBN 0-14-044603-6, p.518
- Joshi, Nilakanth Purushottam (1979). Iconography of Balarāma. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-107-5., p. 5
- A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami (1970). Krsna the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Los Angeles: ISKCON Books. p. 67. ISBN 0-912776-30-7.
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