|- City -|
Location of Moscow Oblast in Russia
|Administrative status (as of January 2013)|
|Federal subject||Moscow Oblast|
|Administratively subordinated to||Balashikha City Under Oblast Jurisdiction|
|Administrative center of||Balashikha City Under Oblast Jurisdiction|
|Municipal status (as of October 2011)|
|Urban okrug||Balashikha Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Balashikha Urban Okrug|
|Head||Vladimir Samodelov|
|Representative body||Council of Deputies|
|Area (urban okrug) (July 2012)||218.61 km2 (84.41 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)||215,494 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||86th|
|Density||986 /km2 (2,550 /sq mi)|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|City status since||1939|
|Postal code(s)||143xxx|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 495|
Balashikha (Russian: Балашиха; IPA: [bəlɐˈʂɨxə]) is a city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located on the Pekhorka River 1 kilometer (0.62 mi) east of Moscow. Population: 215,494 (2010 Census); 147,909 (2002 Census); 135,841 (1989 Census); 92,400 (1970).
Balashikha is an unusual name in Russian and several legends exist as to why it was chosen as the name of this conurbation. The word balash is Turkic and can be translated as an inn, i.e., a place of temporary respite for travelers. Another account tells of a wealthy Tatar, named Balash, a descendant of Genghis Khan of the Golden Horde who had his residence on this site. Most usual explanation is that it derived from word balakh, which means caltha palustris plant. Another version: in finno-ugric languages Bala-shika means land of celebrations, land of laughter and fun. Before Slavs in this area lived Finno-Ugric peoples.
The city stands on the famous Vladimir Highway, which led out of Moscow to the east. This was the route along which convicted criminals were marched to forced labor camps in Siberia. The road was renamed Gorky Highway in the Soviet era. The failure of the Decembrist Revolt against Tsar Nicholas I led to the execution of its ringleaders and the exile of many nobles to Siberia. Soviet-era schoolchildren were told that the prisoners were marched in chains along this road followed by their wives. In truth, the Decembrist prisoners were sent from St. Petersburg, then the capital of Russia, through Yaroslavl, and not through Moscow and Balashikha, and the story was invented as part of celebrations of the 100th anniversary of the event in 1925.
Between 1830 and 1870, a cotton factory was in operation in the area, with its fabric called Balashikha. A railway station was built at the end of the 19th century, again called Balashikha Station.
As it grew, Balashikha absorbed other villages, including Gorenki, a suburban estate of Count Andreas Razumovsky, and Pekhra-Yakovlevskoye, an estate of Prince Galitzine, the latter being in use for 250 years from 1591 to 1828. This is the site of a stone church, built from 1777 to 1782.
Saltykovka, a part of Balashikha, has long been known for its attractions to the artistic community. Isaak Levitan, the famous landscape painter, lived there in 1879. Lev Tolstoy was another frequent visitor.
Several institutions were founded in Balashikha after the October Revolution, including one dedicated to the production of fur.
During the Soviet era, Balashikha became a major industrial center with industries in metallurgy, aviation industry, cryogenic technology, machinery, and other fields.
Balashikha sent many of its sons to the front to fight the Germans during World War II. Among those who fought and died was Ivan Fleorov who commanded a Katyusha rocket division and is remembered by several monuments and museums in the area.
Along with many other Russian Orthodox Churches, the Cathedral of Saint Alexander Nevsky was demolished by the government. The Cathedral was blown up in the 1960s but was rebuilt, on its original site, in 2002 after the collapse of communism.
Balashikha is the site of a large Russian Army base and was closed to foreigners during the Soviet era, a ban which, in theory, remains to the present day. It was the headquarters of the 1st Corps of the Soviet Air Defense Forces and is now to become the headquarters of the Operational-Strategic Command for Missile-Space Defense.
It is also home to several music schools, including the Sviridov School of Arts.
The Balashikha Maternity House was designated on July 1, 2003, to be the Moscow Oblast Perinatal Center. This facility will now function as a regional perinatal care facility for high-risk mothers and infants and a perinatal health education center for Moscow Oblast.
Although not part of the extensive Moscow subway system, Balashikha is home to many office workers who commute to Moscow each day. It has several thriving markets and retail centers and is quickly modernizing. It is surrounded by attractive woodland and countryside.
Source: "Balashikha in stories" (Балашиха в очерках и зарисовках) - А. Галанин и др.
The city is known for its unique river and waterway system. The Pekhorka River system covers an area of 40 kilometers (25 mi) from north to south and 20 kilometers (12 mi) from east to west, and many small lakes and ponds were created by damming to provide water power for the cotton mills in the 19th century.
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with twelve rural localities, incorporated as Balashikha City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Balashikha City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Balashikha Urban Okrug.
Twin towns and sister cities
Balashikha is twinned with:
- Law #11/2013-OZ
- Law #99/2006-OZ
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 35. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Топонимия Балашихи.
- | Balashikha. Official page. History.
- Московская областная Дума. Закон №11/2013-ОЗ от 31 января 2013 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области». Вступил в силу на следующий день после официального опубликования (13 января 2013 г.). Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №24, 12 февраля 2013 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #11/2013-OZ of January 31, 2013 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Moscow Oblast. Effective as of the day following the day of the official publication (January 13, 2013).).
- Московская областная Дума. Закон №99/2006-ОЗ от 7 июля 2006 г. «О городском округе Балашиха и его границе», в ред. Закона №101/2012-ОЗ от 6 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "О городском округе Балашиха и его границе"». Вступил в силу на следующий день после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №123, 11 июля 2006 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #99/2006-OZ of July 7, 2006 On Balashikha Urban Okrug and Its Border, as amended by the Law #101/2012-OZ of July 6, 2012 On Amending the Law of Moscow Oblast "On Balashikha Urban Okrug and Its Border". Effective as of the day following the day of the official publication.).