|Nickname(s): Granary of Odisha|
Location in Odisha, India
|• Total||3,634 km2 (1,403 sq mi)|
|Elevation||90.08 m (295.54 ft)|
|• Density||609/km2 (1,580/sq mi)|
|• Official||Oriya, Hindi, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Coastline||81 kilometres (50 mi)|
|Sex ratio||957 ♂/♀|
|Precipitation||1,583 millimetres (62.3 in)|
|Avg. summer temperature||43.1 °C (109.6 °F)|
|Avg. winter temperature||10.6 °C (51.1 °F)|
|Coast line:||81 km|
Balasore District, also known as Baleswar District or Baleshwar District, is an administrative district of Odisha state in eastern India. Balasore is one of the coastal Districts of Odisha. It lies on the northernmost part of the state. It was a part of the ancient Kalinga which later became a territory of Toshal or Utkal, till the death of Mukunda Dev. Balasore as a separate District was created in October 1828. originally it was in Bengal presidency.
Balasore District covers an area of 3634 km2 having total population of 23,17,419 as per 2011 census. The District is surrounded by Medinipur District of West Bengal in its northern side, Bay of Bengal in its east, Bhadrak District in its south and Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar Districts lies on its western side. The District is located at 20.48 to 21.59 North Latitude and 86.16 to 87.29 east Longitude.
It is now a launch station for sounding rockets on the east coast of India in Odisha state at 21°18' N and 86°36' E. Balasore has been in use since 1989, but unlike Sriharikota, it is not used for launching satellites. The rocket launching site at Balasore is situated in a place called Chandipur located on the Bay of Bengal. The Interim Test Range in Chandipur is responsible for carrying out tests for various missiles such as Agni, Prithvi, Trishul etc.
Balasore Railway Station falls en route on the main line connecting Chennai to Kolkata. Road connectivity wise, National Highway-5 runs through Balasore. It is 212 km north-east of Bhubaneswar by road. Chandipur-on-sea is a sea resort famous for its mile long shallow beaches. Chandipur on sea is one of the shallowest sea beaches in the world. It is a unique beach, the tide comes to the shore only four times a day, at determined intervals. Among other tourist attractions is the 18th century kshirochora-gopinath temple, famous for its mythological story, how the temple was built there.
Birthplace of linguist and novelist Fakir Mohan Senapati, considered to be the saviour of modern Oriya language and an eminent freedom fighter. Also birthplace of famous Oriya poet Kabibar Radhanath Roy.
Balasore district was a part of the ancient Kalinga and later became a territory of Toshala or Utkal, till the death of Mukunda Dev. It was annexed by Mughals in 1568 and remained as a part of their suzerainty up to 1750-51. Subsequently, the Marathas of Nagpur occupied this part of Odisha and it came under the dominion of the Maratha Rajas. In 1803, this part was ceded to The British East India Company through the Treaty of Deogaon and it became a part of Bengal Presidency until 1912. But the first English Settlement came into existence in Balasore region in 1634 while Shah Jahan was the emperor at Delhi. The region was an early trading port for British, French and Dutch ships in the early age of Enlightenment and became a colonial part of first Danish India and later British India. The first of English factories was established in this region in 1640. During this period Dutch and Danish settlements were also found in this region.
Balasore as a separate district was created in October 1828 while it was in the Bengal Presidency. With the creation of Bihar province, Odisha was diverted along with Balasore district from Bengal to Bihar. With the creation of Orissa as a separate State on 1 April 1936, Balasore became an integral part of the new state. The national movement of independence surged ahead with the visit of Mahatma Gandhi in 1921. Inchudi Salt Revolution (Lavana Satyagrah) and Srijang Satyagrah for non-payment of Revenue Tax are famous as part of the struggle for freedom movement. Praja Andolan was initiated against the ruler of Nilagiri State. In January 1948, the state of Nilagiri was merged with the state of Orissa and became a part of Balasore district. On 3 April 1993, Bhadrak Sub-division became a separate district.
In the early 17th century, Balasore was an important trading destination in the eastern coastline of India. Inhabitants of the place sailed to distant ports in south-east Asia, especially to Lacadive and Maldives islands for trade and culture. Copper coins excavated from Bhograi and statues of Lord Buddha unearthed from places like Avana, Kupari, Basta & Ajodhya signify the existence of Buddhism in Balasore which was popular during the rule of Bhoumakar dynasty. The statues of Lord Mahavira found at Jaleswar, Balasore & Avana date back to the 10-11th century and show the existence of Jainism in the region.
Balasore district is located in the northeast of the state of Odisha and lies between 21° 3' to 21° 59' north latitude and 86° 20' to 87° 29' east longitude. The average altitude of the district is 19.08 metre. The district has a total area of 3634 km2. It is bounded by Midnapore district of West Bengal in its North, the Bay of Bengal in the east, Bhadrak district in the South and Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar districts on its western side.
Balasore is also known " The city of Land on Sea Shore" or " City of Sand"
Broadly the district can be divided into three geographical regions, namely, the Coastal belt, the inner alluvial plain and the North-Western hills. The coastal belt is about 81 km wide and shaped like a strip. In this region, sand dunes are noticed along the coast with some ridges. This region is mostly flooded with brackish water of estuarine rivers which is unsuitable for cultivation. Presently this area is utilized for coconut and betel cultivation. Shrimp culture and salt manufacturing units are also developing in this area recently. The second contiguous geographical region is deltaic alluvial plain. It is a wide stretch of highly fertile and irrigated land. This area is highly populous and devoid of any jungle. The third region, north-western hilly region covers most of Nilagiri Sub-division. It is mostly hilly terrain and vegetated with tropical semi-ever green forests. The Hills of Nilagiri has the highest peak of 543 metre above the sea level. The scheduled tribes of the district are mostly seen in this region of valuable forest resources and stone quarries.
Balasore, the coastal district of Odisha is crisscrossed with perennial and estuarine rivers because of its proximity to the sea. Two important rivers of Odisha, namely :- Budhabalanga and Subarnarekha pass through this district from west to east before surging into the Bay of Bengal. The irrigation system in Balasore district is very much widespread.
The soil of Balasore district is mostly alluvial laterite. The soil of Central region is mostly clay, clay loam and sandy loam which is very fertile for paddy and other farm produces. Nilagiri Sub-division is mostly gravelly and lateritic soil, which is less fertile. A small strip of saline soil is also seen along the extreme coastal part of the district.
Balasore District is one of the economically strong District in Odisha, which is privileged in both agriculture and industry. In spite of being an agrarian economy, agriculture is the main stay of the people of Balasore. The District lies in the coastal part of Odisha and is blessed with hot and humid climate with alluvium soil and intersected by the perennial rivers, which collectively provides conducive infrastructure for the growth of agriculture in this region. In the recent years, the utilization of the wasteland for ensuring the economic development of Balasore District has been taken into consideration and it is being used for the production of coconut and betel. The local economy of Balasore District largely depends on the cultivation of paddy and wheat.
Though a major section of Odisha’s population depends on agriculture, industry is the nucleus of the economic development of Balasore District. With the establishment of D.I.C, functioning from the year 1978, the District has witnessed prominent success in the field of industrial development. It is the nodal agency for promotion and establishment of small, medium and large industries and as well as for the cottage and handicraft industries in the District.Ori Plast Limited, Jagannath Biscuits Private Limited, Odisha Rubber Industries and Odisha Plastic Processing are some of the award winning small scale units of the District. Birla Tyres, Ispat Alloys Limited, Emami Paper Mills Limited and Polar Pharma India Limited are some of the large scale industries which are contributing in a big way towards the growth of the economy of the District.
Apart from the Government undertakings and the public sectors, a group of private entrepreneurs have come up, which accentuated the industrial development prominent in the economic scenario of the Balasore District. These industries in the recent times not only provide employment to the local people but at the same time accounts for a quantum of exports, which supports the economy of the District greatly.
- Public schools: Modern Public School, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Maharishi Vidya Mandir, S.t Thomas Convent School.
- Public colleges: Fakir Mohan College, Kuntala Kumari Sabat Women's College.
- University: F M University.
Balasore is the district headquarters. The district is further divided into 2 subdivisions, 12 blocks for undertaking developmental works in the rural areas, 7 tehsils for revenue and administrative purposes and 289 (257 old + 32 new) Gram Panchayats . Besides there are 4 towns consisting of 1 municipality and 3 NACs(Notified Area Councils). These local bodies look into civic aspects of urban areas. Also, there are 2971 villages, out of which 2602 are inhabited.
The names of the various blocks are given below:
- Balasore subdivision - Bahanaga, Balesore, Baliapal, Basta, Bhograi, Jaleswar, KHAIRA, Remuna, Simulia, Soro.
- Nilagiri subdivision - Nilagiri, Oupada.
Tehsils - Balasore, Bhograi, Baliapal, Basta, Jaleswar, Nilagiri, Simulia, Soro, Remuna & khaira.
Balasore Railway Station falls en route on the main line connecting Chennai to Kolkata. National Highway-5 runs through Balasore, and National Highway-60, which connects Balasore to Kolkata, is a four lane express way.
Nearest Airport from Balasore is Bhubneswar and Kolkata a ride of approximately 3 and half hours.
Balasore runs State Buses (OTDC) which provide Point to Point Service from Kolkata to Bhubneswar (Via Balasore).
According to the 2011 census Balasore district has a population of 2,317,419, roughly equal to the nation of Latvia or the US state of New Mexico. This gives it a ranking of 195th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 609 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,580/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 14.47%. Baleshwar has a sex ratio of 957 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 80.66%.
Art and Culture
Balasore District is very much famous for its glorious history, art and culture, culture and tradition. There are many beautiful temples and spots to be seen here at Balasore District. The people of the various religious beliefs residing here, viz. Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians etc., amply display the cultural genesis of Balasore District. The copper coins collected from Bhograi and the collection of statues of Lord Buddha from places like Avana, Kupari, Basta and Ayodhya magnifies the existence of Buddhism here. Buddhism is also popular during “Bhoumakar”. The statue of Lord Jaina at Jaleswar, Balasore and Avana hints about Jainism that is practiced in this District, which was also popular during 10th and 11th centuries.
Balasore District is highly famous for its Saibapitha”s and many a temples of Lord Shiva are seen at places throughout the district. The temples of Lord Shiva at Chandaneshwar, Baneshwar, Jhadeshwar, Panchalingeshwar, Bhusandeshwar and Maninageshwar are highly popular.
The District has also attained fame for its Saktipitha’s, found at “Bhudhar Chandi” of Sajanagarh, “Danda Kali” of Khantapara and “Chandi Mandir” at Kharjureshwar. The Sun temples of Ayodhya, Seragarh, Nilagiri and Bardhanpur makes one to reminiscence about the images of the “Sun Devotee”. Vaishnab Dharma is popular here from the time of Gupta dynasty. Vishnu temples at different places of the District and the Khirochora temple (built during the period of second Narasingha Dev) highlight the religious and cultural inclinations of the District”s people.The shunyamandap and Ambika Matha are main attraction at Kupari.
The two Jagannath temples at the heart of Balasore and other Jagannath temples at Gandibeda,Nilagiri, Mangalpur, Gud, Jaleswar, Kamarda, Deuligan and Baliapal unfolds the culture of this region. Many a Masjid, Church, Gurudwara (at Remuna) etc. identifies the different religions and places of worship in this District.
Famous festivals like Makara Sankranti, Raja Sankranti, Ganga Mela, Durga Puja, Kali Puja, Ganesh Chaturthi, Saraswati Puja, Laxmi Puja, Bishwakarma Puja, Chandan festival, Car festival, Maha Shivaratri, Dola Purnima, Id, Moharrum, Christmas Day etc. are performed with much pump and fanfare by the people of this region. Balasore is famous for the most attractive and enjoyable game of “Akhada”, played during Durga Puja by Hindus & during Moharrum by Muslims. People of this District had played a dominant role in the language revolution, during the making of the separate Odisha province. The important newspapers “Bodhadayeenee” and “Balasore Sambad Bahika”, by the efforts of Vysa Kabi Fakir Mohan Senapati had sown the seeds of Oriya language revolution and for the development of Oriya literature.
Odisha’s cultural history will ever remember the contributions of Raja Baikuntha Nath Dev, Vysa Kabi Fakir Mohan and Rai Bahadur Radha Charan Das, for their efforts in making Odisha a separate province and in glorifying Oriya language and literature.
There are many traditional and authentic cuisines of Baleswar district. Gaja from Baleswar is one of the many famous Pithas of Odisha. Being a coastal district salty water and normal water fish cultivation adds many Oriya fish dishes like Machha ghanta, Machha besara, Chuna machha khata, Macha bhaja, etc. There are many dessert preparations which are available in the sweet shops around the district.
A Coastal district on the North Eastern Sea board Balasore has destination of having been called the "scenarios of Odisha"[by whom?] with heritages of green paddy fields, a network of rivers, blue hills, extensive meadows and beaches in Chandipur, Talasari, Chaumukha and Dagara, Kashapal and Kharasahapur.
There is an ancient fort complex called Raibania fort in Laxmannath which was built by the Ganga Dynasty ruler Langula Narasinha Deba to protect intrusion of Mughal into Odisha through the border. There are several ancient temples like Khirachora Gopinatha Temple in Remuna, Chandaneswar, Panchalingeshwar, Bhudhara Chandi temple, Sajanagarh, Marichi temple, Ayodha, Brahmani Temple in Abhana, Jagannath temple at Nilagiri, Maninageswar Temple at Bardhanpur. and Talsari are some of the most peaceful beaches which provide quite a distinct experience from the spoils of civilization. The Similapal Forest reserve and Nilagiri reserves provide nature lovers a natural abode for vacations. Deshuan pokhari is a place of historical importance.
Vidhan sabha constituencies
|No.||Constituency||Reservation||Extent of the Assembly Constituency (Blocks)||Member of 14th Assembly||Party|
|35||Jaleswar||None||Jaleswar (NAC), Jaleswar, Basta (part)||Debiprasanna Chand||INC|
|37||Basta||None||Baliapal, Basta (part)||Raghunath Mohanty||BJD|
|38||Balasore||None||Balasore (M), Balasore (part)||Jiban Pradip Dash||BJD|
|39||Remuna||SC||Remuna, Balasore (part)||Sudarshan Jena||BJD|
|40||Nilagiri||None||Nilagiri (NAC), Nilagiri, Oupada, Bahanaga (part)||Pratap Chandra Sarangi||Independent|
|41||Soro||SC||Soro (NAC), Soro, Bahanaga (part)||Surendra Prasad Pramanik||INC|
|42||Simulia||None||Simulia, Khaira||Parsuram Panigrahi||BJD|
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01.
Latvia 2,204,708 July 2011 est.
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
New Mexico - 2,059,179
- M. Paul Lewis, ed. (2009). "Bhunjia: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th edition ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- Stirling's Orissa p. 77
- "The boldnes and enterprise of the Oriya monarchs in those days, may surprise us when we consider the situation of Kola in the heart of Central India beyond Kalberga and Bedar".
- THE FORT OF BARABATI. Dr H.C. Das. pp.3
- Assembly Constituencies and their EXtent
- Seats of Odisha
- "List of Member in Fourteenth Assembly". ws.ori.nic.in. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Balasore.|
- Official website of Balasore District
- Chandipur travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Balasore at Encyclopedia Astronautica
||Mayurbhanj district||West Midnapore district, West Bengal||East Midnapore district, West Bengal|
|Kendujhar district||Bhadrak district||Bay of Bengal|