Baldenheim

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Baldenheim
Bàldene
A House in Baldenheim
A House in Baldenheim
Coat of arms of Baldenheim
Coat of arms
Baldenheim is located in France
Baldenheim
Baldenheim
Coordinates: 48°14′19″N 7°32′21″E / 48.2386°N 7.5392°E / 48.2386; 7.5392Coordinates: 48°14′19″N 7°32′21″E / 48.2386°N 7.5392°E / 48.2386; 7.5392
Country France
Region Alsace
Department Bas-Rhin
Arrondissement Sélestat-Erstein
Canton Marckolsheim
Intercommunality Sélestat
Government
 • Mayor (2001–2020) Willy Schwander
Area1 9.44 km2 (3.64 sq mi)
Population (2010)2 1,150
 • Density 120/km2 (320/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 67019 / 67600
Elevation 165–172 m (541–564 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Baldenheim is a French commune in the Bas-Rhin department in the Alsace region of north-eastern France.

The inhabitants of the commune are known as Baldenheimois or Baldenheimoises.[1]

The commune has been awarded two flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom.[2]

Geography[edit]

Middle of the village and its half-timbered houses.
An old half-timbered farmhouse from the 18th century
The village and some half-timbered houses

Baldenheim is located in the Canton of Marckolsheim and the Arrondissement of Sélestat-Erstein in the centre of the Alsace region on the alluvial plain of the Rhine, 45 km south of Strasbourg, 26 km north by north-east of Colmar and 8 km east of Sélestat. Access to the commune is by the D605 from Hessenheim in the south which passes through the village and continues north to Muttersholtz. The D209 comes from Schwobsheim in the east and passes through the village continuing west to join the D21 near the commune border. The D208 goes south-west from the village to Mussig.[3]

Natural environment[edit]

The commune is at the centre of a flat alluvial plain and is part of the Ried Natural Region. The water table is only 1.50 metres below the surface on average. Water pierces the clay layer and gives rise to waterways. The Ill river flows relatively calmly across the plain. Like all the rivers in Vosges it is subject to an oceanic regime which is characterized by high winter waters and low summer waters, contrary to the Rhine. The last catastrophic flood occurred in May 1983. The climate is of semi-continental type with about 600 mm of rain per year. Temperature differences are particularly marked: summers can be very hot and the winters harsh.

Landscape[edit]

The commune outside the urban area has five distinct types of landscape:

  • Suburban Village: orchards and gardens,
  • Rural Open Spaces: fields and woods,
  • Wetland: the Black Ried,
  • Banks of the Ill: the Grey Ried,
  • Forested areas.

About 80% of the utilized agricultural area is cultivated.

The Ill, the Blind and numerous streams flow north though the commune all eventually merging with the Ill which joins the Rhine at Plobsheim.

Neighbouring communes and villages[edit]

Toponymy[edit]

Bandenheim, 1182

History[edit]

There is a Merovingian and Carolingian Cemetery with a hundred graves which attest to the ancient occupation of the commune. Most of the tombs are shallow (between 0.50 and 0.60 metres below the topsoil) and contained no ornaments with disturbed skeletons indicating plundering long ago. Another group of burials are deeper (between 1.20 and 1.50 metres) and contained relatively rich ornaments (brooches in bronze and silver partitioned with garnet, glass beads, glass paste necklaces, amber necklaces, and other objects from the second half of the 6th century and the second third of the 7th century. The ornaments collected from Baldenheim are from a time period between 550 and 650.

Baldenheim appeared in a document from the second half of the 7th century in the form of Baldenheim Villa. The name of this village, according to legend, is that the Devil one day lost his hat. He refused to retrieve it saying B'haltene (keep it). The village did not have a name at that time and adopted this onomatopoeia. But the name Baldenheim does appear in the 9th century.

The Protestant Reformation was introduced in 1576. A castle was built in 1740 and destroyed in 1821. The Simultaneau in 1843 provoked a violent conflict between the two religious communities (Protestant and Catholic). In the 19th century there was significant growth in weaving and there were 150 weavers in the commune. In the last third of the 19th century, the cooperative movement developed in the commune. A savings bank was founded in 1890 and a dairy cooperative operated until 1981.

In 1324 the village belonged to the Duchy of Württemberg. It had then given in fief to the Rathsamhausen zum Stein family. Upon the extinction of this noble family, Louis XIV gave it to the engineer of Chamlay, leaving it for him to pay tribute to the Duke of Württemberg who, at the death of the commander of Chamlay passed the fief to the family of Sandersleben-Coligny. Before the French Revolution it was owned by the Waldner Freundstein family whose castle was demolished in 1820. From the 19th century home weaving occupied a very important place in the local economy.

Baldenheim is known for its festival of "Pfingstpflitteri" which was held for the tenth time in 1999.

The Merovingian helmet[edit]

The Baldenheim Helmet in the Strasbourg Archaeological Museum

In July 1902 Oscar Pfiffer discovered some objects in his field at Lange Gasse. A more thorough search uncovered a ceremonial helmet and other Merovingian objects. A study published in 1907 by R. Henning made Baldenheim the eponymous site for this type of helmet with thirty examples identified at this time.

The Baldenheim Helmet is now on display at the Museum of Archaeology in Strasbourg.

Heraldry[edit]

Arms of Baldenheim
Blazon:

Gules, a coutre knife Argent in pale point to base, blade to dexter.



Administration[edit]

The Town Hall from the 17th century

List of Successive Mayors[4]

From To Name Party Position
2001 2020 Willy Schwander

(Not all data is known)

Demography[edit]

In 2010 the commune had 1,150 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]

Evolution of the Population (See database)
1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851
826 758 872 1,019 1,004 1,040 1,071 1,079 1,040
1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896
1,032 1,045 1,083 1,074 1,042 1,062 1,049 1,075 1,079
1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954
1,078 1,105 1,134 989 943 910 846 841 863
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2010 -
789 800 863 915 875 924 - 1,150 -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)

The Entrance to the town
Population of Baldenheim

Economy[edit]

The ratio of active population to total population of the commune has grown above the cantonal average. There is also evidence that unemployment has decreased.

Fruit and vegetables, flowers and plants are cultivated in the commune and there are a dozen pig farmers.

The number of farms has decreased but orchards are still important and Baldenheim is known for its "white apples of Baldenheim".

The village enjoys a relatively high level of economic activity and expansion. There are 440 jobs available in the commune to over 1000 inhabitants.

Culture and heritage[edit]

House at 4 Rue Principale

Civil heritage[edit]

The commune has many buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments:

  • Farmhouses (16th-19th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[5]
Other sites of interest
  • The Town Hall is on the former location of the communal school which existed from 1600 which for a long time provided separate courses for Catholic and Protestant children. The building has no date of construction. It consists of a hard ground floor and a half-timbered second floor. The hipped roof recalls the style of the presbyteries of the region or of some mansions. Only the traditional steeple signals the administrative function of the building. The Town Hall contains a High-relief: Head of a Woman (Middle Ages)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg which is registered as an historical object.[6]
  • A Gate at 27 Rue Principale (1728)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg is registered as an historical object.[7]
  • An Empress Bench on D209 (19th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg is registered as an historical object.[8]
  • A Commemorative Plaque at 1 Rue Principale (1557)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg is registered as an historical object.[9]

Religious heritage[edit]

The commune has several religious buildings and sites that are registered as historical monuments:

  • The Cemetery (19th century).Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[10] The Cemetery has three items that are registered as historical objects:
    • A Funeral Monument for G. F. Ericgson and J. F. S. Blinder (19th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[11]
    • A Funeral Monument for P. F. Kreig (1807)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[12]
    • The Ornaments in the CemeteryLogo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[13]
  • The Lutheran Church (12th century).Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[14] In the 7th century Baldenheim had a chapel or a church which was part of the property of Ebersmunster Abbey. The parish church is attested from 1371. The nave was enlarged during the Romanesque period or the beginning of the Gothic period. The Choir is from the 15th century. The bell tower was only accessible from within the choir. The slots for light were really Arrowslits and the presence of humpback stones in the corner stones, usually reserved for the military architecture, suggest a fortified building with a surveillance function. The Protestant Reformation was introduced in 1576 and resulted in changes to the building including the nave. Simultaneum or simultaneous worship was established in the middle of the 18th century. In 1749 the Catholics regained possession of the choir until the construction of a new Catholic church in 1938. The Lords of Baldenheim, who owned the village, attended the church since their lodgings hung like a balcony inside the choir. The access door of their lodging is still visible today. The Funeral plaques inside the church, made between the 15th and 18th century, show Alsatian noble history. Inside the church there are two tombstones for the Rathsamhausen family. In 1939 the return of exclusive Protestant worship lead to new works in the nave which were suspended because of World War II. The murals were updated during restoration work in 1992-1993 and date from the 14th and 15th centuries. Those in the choir were done using drawings by Martin Schongauer, the famous writer and Alsatian painter. This medieval painted decoration is of unique importance in Alsace. The church has many items that are registered as historical objects:
    • Monumental Paintings (14th-17th century).Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[15] These paintings were probably made from the drawings of the famous Alsatian writer Martin Schongauer and were discovered during the restoration of the church in 1904. Other frescoes were found when working in the nave in 1939. Observations were then made and the paintings were covered with protective whitewash.
    • A Tombstone (16th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[16]
    • The Furniture in the Lutheran ChurchLogo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[17]
    • A Protestant Communion water box (19th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[18]
    • A Baptismal Ewer (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[19]
    • A Baptismal Basin (1829)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[20]
    • A Communion Ewer (19th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[21]
    • Funeral Plaques (17th-18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[22]
    • A Tombstone for A. von Truchsess von RheinfeldenLogo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[23]
    • An Altar (15th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[24]
  • The Catholic Church of Saint-Louis (1937).Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[25] In 1576 the Parish Church of Saint Blaise became Protestant. Around 1758 a simultaneum (simultaneous worship) was established with the patron saint Louis in honour of Louis XIV. In the 19th century the simultaneous pursuit of both faiths encountered difficulties. Both religions practiced simultaneously and alternately in the churches, conducted by the people in place. To prevent access to the choir by the Lutherans it was closed off by a grill. Similarly a large green curtain hid the tabernacle from their sight and, so as not to obstruct the view of the Catholic altar, the Lutherans equipped the curtain with wheels. The simultaneum lasted until 1938 when the new Catholic church was inaugurated. Violent clashes took place in 1843. The construction of a church dedicated to Catholic worship was then considered. The laying of the first stone was done only in 1937. It was Monseigneur Ruch, Bishop of Strasbourg, who came personally to consecrate Saint Louis church when it was completed in 1939, just before the start of World War II. The church has four items that are registered as historical objects:
  • A Protestant Presbytery (18th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[30]

Church Picture Gallery[edit]

Notable people linked to the commune[edit]

  • Viktor Nessler (1841-1890), composer, born in Baldenheim. In 1968 the commune put a plaque on his birthplace in his honour.

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Prostestant and Civil Parish Registers of Baldenheim - Marriages from 1684 to 1935, P. HIRTZ, 2013

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Inhabitants of Bas-Rhin (French)
  2. ^ Baldenheim in the Competition for Towns and Villages in Bloom (French)
  3. ^ Google Maps
  4. ^ List of Mayors of France (French)
  5. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA67010729 1 Rue de Hessenheim IA67010730 Auberge au Soleil, 1 Impasse de l'Ill IA67010731 1 Rue de Mussig IA67010732 5 Rue de Mussig IA67010735 10 Rue Principale IA67010736 11 Rue Principale IA67010737 12 Rue Principale IA67010738 19 Rue Principale IA67010733 2 Rue Principale IA67010739 21 Rue Principale PA00084596 Boegler House at 4 Rue Principale IA67010734 Au Cerf at 4 Rue Principale IA67010744 2 Rue de Schwobsheim IA67010743 6 Rue de Schwobsheim IA67010742 7 Rue de Schwobsheim IA67010741 13 Rue de Sélestat IA67010745 28 Rue de Sélestat IA67010740 3 Rue de Sélestat IA67010724 Houses and FarmsCamera aabb.svg (French)
  6. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014659 High-relief: Head of a Woman (French)
  7. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014673 Gate at 27 Rue Pricipale (French)Camera aabb.svg
  8. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014654 Empress Bench on D209 (French)Camera aabb.svg
  9. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014650 Commemorative Plaque (French)Camera aabb.svg
  10. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA67010728 Cemetery (French)Camera aabb.svg
  11. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014649 Funeral Monument for G. F. Ericgson and J. F. S. Blinder (French)Camera aabb.svg
  12. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014648 Funeral Monument for P. F. Kreig (French)Camera aabb.svg
  13. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014647 Ornaments in the Cemetery (French)Camera aabb.svg
  14. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA67010725 Lutheran Church PA00084595 Sepulchral Monument (French)Camera aabb.svg
  15. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014672 Monumental Paintings IM67014640 Monumental Paintings (1) IM67014641 Monumental Paintings (2) (French)Camera aabb.svg
  16. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014671 Tombstone (French)Camera aabb.svg
  17. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014646 Furniture in the Lutheran Church (French)Camera aabb.svg
  18. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014645 Protestant Communion water box (French)Camera aabb.svg
  19. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014644 Baptismal Ewer (French)Camera aabb.svg
  20. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014643 Baptismal Basin (French)Camera aabb.svg
  21. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014642 Communion Ewer (French)Camera aabb.svg
  22. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014638 Funeral Plaque (1) IM67014639 Funeral Plaque (2) IM67014637 Funeral Plaque for J. F. von Rathsamhausem zum Stein IM67014636 Funeral Plaque for F. B. von Sandersleben-Coligny IM67014635 Funeral Plaque for F. E. von Sandersleben-Coligny IM67014634 Funeral Plaque for W. A. E. S. von Waldner von Freundstein (French)Camera aabb.svg
  23. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014633 Tombstone for A. von Truchsess von Rheinfelden (French)Camera aabb.svg
  24. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014632 Altar (French)Camera aabb.svg
  25. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA67010726 Catholic Church of Saint-Louis (French)Camera aabb.svg
  26. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014658 Sunburst Monstrance (French)Camera aabb.svg
  27. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014657 Baptismal font (French)Camera aabb.svg
  28. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014656 Altar Lectern (French)Camera aabb.svg
  29. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM67014655 Furniture in the Church (French)Camera aabb.svg
  30. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA67010727 Protestant Presbytery (French)Camera aabb.svg

External links[edit]