A house on Baldwin Street
|Length||350 m (1,150 ft)|
|Location||North East Valley, Dunedin, New Zealand|
|North end||North Road|
|South end||Buchanan Street|
Baldwin Street, in Dunedin, New Zealand, is considered the world's steepest residential street. It is located in the residential suburb of North East Valley, 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) northeast of Dunedin's city centre.
A short straight street a little under 350 metres (1,150 ft) long, Baldwin Street runs east from the valley of the Lindsay Creek up the side of Signal Hill towards Opoho, rising from 30 m (98 ft) above sea level at its junction with North Road to 100 m (330 ft) above sea level at the top, an average slope of slightly more than 1:5. Its lower reaches are only moderately steep, and the surface is asphalt, but the upper reaches of this cul-de-sac are far steeper, and surfaced in concrete (200 m or 660 ft long), for ease of maintenance (bitumen—in either chip seal or asphalt—would flow down the slope on a warm day) and for safety in Dunedin's frosty winters.
The 161.2 metres (529 ft) long top section climbs 47.2 metres (155 ft) vertically, an average gradient of 1:3.41. At its maximum, about 70 metres (230 ft) below the top, the slope of Baldwin Street is about 1:2.86 (19° or 35%). That is, for every 2.86 metres travelled horizontally, the elevation changes by 1 metre.
Origin of the street
The street's steepness was unintentional. As with many other parts of early Dunedin, and indeed New Zealand, streets were laid out in a grid pattern with no consideration for the terrain, usually by planners in London. In the case of Baldwin Street (and much of the Dunedin street plan), the layout was surveyed by Charles Kettle in the mid-19th century. The street is named after William Baldwin, an Otago Provincial Councillor and newspaper founder, who subdivided the area.
For cars it is a cul-de-sac, but Baldwin Street is linked across the top by Buchanan Street, a footpath following an otherwise unformed (i.e. unpaved) road linking it with Calder Avenue and Arnold Street, which are unformed in their upper reaches where Baldwin is steepest. The streets running parallel to Baldwin are all quite steep: Arnold Street (1:3.6), Dalmeny Street (1:3.7), and Calder Avenue (1:5.4).
The street is the venue for an annual event in Dunedin, the Baldwin Street Gutbuster. Every summer since 1988 this exercise in fitness and balance involves athletes running from the base of the street to the top and back down again. The event attracts several hundred competitors annually and the race record is 1:56.
Since 2002, a further charity event has been held annually in July, which involves the rolling of over 30,000 Jaffas (spherical confectionery-coated chocolate confectionery). Each Jaffa is sponsored by one person, with prizes to the winner and funds raised going to charity. This event follows a tradition started in 1998, when 2,000 tennis balls were released in a sponsored event raising money for Habitat for Humanity.
In March 2001 a 19-year-old University of Otago student was killed when she and another student attempted to travel down the street inside a wheelie bin. The bin collided with a parked trailer, killing her instantly, and causing serious head injuries for the other student.
In November 2009, three men were charged with disorderly behaviour and dangerous driving after taking rides in a cool box (known as a "chilly bin" in New Zealand) being towed behind a car down Baldwin St.
Controversy of claim
Baldwin Street's claim to fame has caused some controversy after it emerged that the original entry in the Guinness Book of Records was based on a typographical error, claiming a maximum gradient of 1:1.266 (38° or 79%). This appears to be an error for 1:2.66, which itself is slightly steeper than the currently accepted figure of 1:2.86. Alternatively, the mistake may have been caused by confusion between grade in degrees and percentage grade, mixing up 38% with 38°. Nevertheless, Guinness officially recognises Baldwin Street as the world's steepest street at a 35% grade.
Other steep streets include:
- The Côte St-Ange in Chicoutimi, Canada with a 33% gradient (about 18°).
- Canton Avenue, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States; it is officially measured to be a 37% grade. However, that angle of 37% only extends about 6.5 metres, whereas Baldwin Street's steepest part stretches considerably farther.
- Eldred Street in Los Angeles, United States; one of three streets in Los Angeles between 32% and 33.3%,.
- Filbert and 22nd Streets in San Francisco, California, United States each have 31 to 31.5% (17°) for 60–70 metres. Several short pieces of San Francisco streets are steeper, including a 9 metre section of Bradford street paved in 2010 that averages 39–40% grade.
- Waipio Valley Road (citation needed] This is a paved public road but it is not a residential street and is open only to 4 wheel drive vehicles. ) on the island of Hawai'i, 25% for 1 kilometre with peak gradients much higher; some claim 45%.[
- Cynthia Wilson Drive in Goonellabah, Australia ( ) The steepest section with a 24% grade and about 250 metrs long.
Many streets in the west of England and in Wales have reported slopes of 33% and higher. The street Ffordd Pen Llech in Harlech, Wales has a reported slope of 40%. Vale Street in Bristol is often also reported as the steepest street in Britain and hence may have a slope even steeper than 40%. However these roads are mostly shorter roads than those listed above, with far more frequent turns as opposed to the straight path of Baldwin.
- Charles Rawlings New Zealand's South Island Lonely Planet, 2009
- Hamel, A. (2008) Dunedin tracks and trails. Dunedin: Silver Peaks Press. pp. 2.08–09
- Information panel at bottom of Baldwin Street
- "Pupil wins gutbuster for third year in a row". Otago Daily Times. 17 February 1993. p. 3.
- McNeilly, Hamish (13 March 2008). "Steep task no trouble for Gutbuster winner". Otago Daily Times. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
- Owen, Pamela (19 September 2011). "The Gutbuster: Runners battle it out to race to the top of the world's steepest hill". Daily Mail. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
- "Students used wheelie bin as sledge in tragic accident". The New Zealand Herald. 1 March 2001. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- Dustbin death – The Guardian, Friday 2 March 2001
- "'Chilly bin riders' have no regrets". 3 News. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- "Stuntman conquers Baldwin St". Otago Daily Times. 2 January 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- Bob Batz, Jr. (30 January 2005). "Here: In Beechview". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 11 August 2007.
- "Pittsburgh Hills". Western Pennsylvania Wheelmen. Archived from the original on 16 May 2007. Retrieved 11 August 2007.
- Getting the Slant on L.A.'s Steepest Street – Los Angeles Times, Thursday 21 August 2003
- Baldwin St steeped in controversy (pdf) – Otago Experience (Dunedin City Council newsletter), Issue 3, March 2003, page 5
- "A New Steepest Street is Born". The steep part of Bradford St is at . The rest of the street is around 25% grade, but the short piece is legit: 11.48 vertical feet in 30.9 ft of pavement, or 28.7 horizontal feet. That's measured in a straight line along the pavement; if you measure along the sort-of-centerline the grade is 39.6%.
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