Balikpapan

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Coordinates: 1°15′48.74″S 116°49′40.38″E / 1.2635389°S 116.8278833°E / -1.2635389; 116.8278833

Balikpapan
City
Night view of a fountain in Bekapai Park
Night view of a fountain in Bekapai Park
Official seal of Balikpapan
Seal
Location of the city in East Kalimantan province
Location of the city in East Kalimantan province
Balikpapan is located in Indonesia
Balikpapan
Balikpapan
Location of the city in East Kalimantan province
Coordinates: 1°15′S 116°50′E / 1.250°S 116.833°E / -1.250; 116.833
Country Indonesia
Subdivision East Borneo
Founded 1897
Government
 • Mayor Rizal Effendi
Area
 • Total 503.3 km2 (194.33 sq mi)
Elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 639,031
 • Density 1,300/km2 (3,300/sq mi)
Time zone WITA (UTC+8)
Area code(s) (+62) 542
License plate KT
Website Pemerintah Kota Balikpapan

Balikpapan is a seaport city on the east coast of the island of Borneo, in the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan. Two harbors, Semayang and Kariangau (a ferry harbour), and Sultan Aji Muhamad Sulaiman airport are the main transportation ports to the city. The city has a population of 639,031,[1] making it the second-largest city in East Kalimantan, after Samarinda.

History[edit]

Before the oil boom of the early 1900s, Balikpapan was an isolated Bugis fishing village. Balikpapan's toponym (balik = "behind" and papan = "plank") is from a folk story in which a local king threw his newborn daughter into the sea to protect her from his enemies. The baby was tied beneath some planks that were discovered by a fisherman.[citation needed]

Oil development[edit]

In 1897 a small refinery company began the first oil drilling.[2] Building of roads, wharves, warehouses, offices, barracks, and bungalows started when a Dutch oil company bpm arrived in the area.[when?]

Second World War[edit]

On 24 January 1942 a Japanese invasion convoy arrived at Balikpapan and was attacked by four United States Navy destroyers that sank three Japanese transports.[3] The Japanese army landed and after a sharp but short fight defeated the Dutch garrison.[4] The defenders had partially destroyed the oil refinery and other facilities.[4] After this the Japanese massacred many of the Europeans they had captured.[5] Several campaigns followed until the 1945 Battle of Balikpapan, which concluded the Borneo campaign by which Allied Forces took control of Borneo island. Extensive wartime damage curtailed almost all oil production in the area until Royal Dutch Shell completed major repairs in 1950.

CIA air raid[edit]

In 1958 the CIA attacked Balikpapan and stopped oil exports. The USA was running a CIA covert mission to undermine President Sukarno's government by supporting right-wing rebels in Indonesia. The CIA, Taiwan and the Philippines had provided the Permesta rebels in North Sulawesi with an insurgent air force, the Angkatan Udara Revolusioner (AUREV). On 19 April 1958 a CIA pilot, William H Beale, Jr, flying a B-26 Invader bomber aircraft that was painted black and showing no markings,[6] dropped four 500 lb (230 kg) bombs on Balikpapan. The first damaged the runway at Balikpapan airport, the second set the British oil tanker SS San Flaviano on fire and sank her[7][8][9] and the third bounced off the British tanker MV Daronia without exploding.[10] Beale's fourth bomb set on fire and sank the Indonesian Navy Bathurst class corvette KRI Hang Tuah, killing 18 crew and wounding 28.[10] Before attacking Hang Tuah, Beale also machine-gunned the oil pipes to Shell's wharf.[10]

The CIA had orders to attack unarmed foreign merchant ships in order to drive foreign trade away from Indonesia and weaken its economy, with the intention of undermining Sukarno's government.[10] The day before attacking Balikpapan, Beale had also damaged a Shell complex at Ambon, Maluku.[11] His Balikpapan raid succeeded in persuading Shell to suspend tanker services from Balikpapan and withdraw shore-based wives and families to Singapore.[8] However, on 18 May Indonesian naval and air forces off Ambon Island shot down an AUREV B-26 and captured its CIA pilot, Allen Pope.[12][13] The USA immediately withdrew support for Permesta, whose rebellion rapidly diminished thereafter.

Subsequent history[edit]

Shell continued operating in the area until Indonesian state-owned Pertamina took it over in 1965.[2] Lacking technology, skilled manpower, and capital to explore the petroleum region, Pertamina sublet petroleum concession contracts to multinational companies in the 1970s.

With the only oil refinery site in the region, Balikpapan emerged as a revitalized centre of petroleum production. Pertamina opened its East Borneo headquarters in the city, followed by branch offices established by other international oil companies. Hundreds of labourers from Indonesia, along with skilled expatriates who served as managers and engineers, flocked into the city.

Administration[edit]

Balikpapan is bordered by Kutai Kartanegara Regency to the North, by the Makassar Strait to the South and East, and by North Penajam Paser Regency to the West.

The city is divided into five districts (kecamatan), tabulated below with their 2010 Census population:[14]

Name Population
Census 2010
Balikpapan Selatan
(South Balikpapan)
191,737
Balikpapan Timur
(East Balikpapan)
60,664
Balikpapan Utara
(North Balilpapan)
123,214
Balikpapan Tengah
(Central Balikpapan)
98,552
Balikpapan Barat
(West Balikpapan)
83,412

Demographics[edit]

During the Suharto dictatorship Balikpapan achieved unprecedented economic growth by attracting foreign investments, particularly in the exploitation of natural and mineral resources. The policy was heavily criticized for uncontrolled environmental damage and corrupt bureaucrats and politicians, but it significantly boosted urban development in resource-rich cities. In the 1970s Balikpapan experienced 7% population growth annually, while exports of timber and petroleum increased dramatically.[2]

Economy[edit]

Balikpapan oil refinery

Some multinational corporations operate in East Borneo. Companies including Baker Hughes (US), ChevronTexaco (US), Halliburton (US), Pertamina (Indonesia), Schlumberger (France), Thiess (Australia), Total S.A. (France) and Weatherford International (US) use Balikpapan as their base of operations in the region. Governmental public services including Bank Indonesia, the Finance Department, Angkasa Pura 1,[15] the Port of Semayang, and several others also attract many people to work in this area.

Balikpapan has been chosen as the site of some important governmental agencies such as Komando Daerah Militer VI Tanjungpura and Kepolisian Daerah Kaltim.[16]

Balikpapan oil refinery is on the shore of Balikpapan Bay and covers an area of 2.5 square kilometres (1 sq mi). Founded in 1922, it is the oldest refinery in the area. The Allies destroyed it in the Second World War and Shell re-built it in 1950. The refinery has two subunits, Balikpapan I and Balikpapan II.

Balikpapan I has two raw oil refinery units that produce naphtha, kerosene, gasoline, diesel fuel, and residue and one high-vacuum unit that produces 100 tonnes (110 tons) of paraffin oil distillate (POD), used as raw material for wax factories. The wax itself has various grades and is sold domestically and internationally.

Opened on 1 November 1983, Balikpapan II has a hydro-skimming and hydro-cracking refinery and produces petrol, LPG, naphtha, kerosene, and diesel fuel.

Geography[edit]

The municipality of Balikpapan's topography is generally hilly (85%), with only small areas of flat land (15%), mostly along the coast and surrounding the hilly areas. The hills are less than 100 metres (330 ft) higher than the adjacent valleys. The altitude of Balikpapan ranges from 0 to 80 metres (260 ft) above sea level.

Most of the soil in Balikpapan contains yellow-reddish podsolic soil and alluvial and quartz sand, making it extremely prone to erosion.

Climate[edit]

Balikpapan features a tropical rainforest climate. The city on average sees on average almost 2,800 millimetres (110 in) of rain per year. Balikpapan generally shows little variation in weather throughout the course of the year. The city does not have significantly wetter and drier periods of the year and average temperatures are nearly identical throughout the course of the year, averaging roughly 27 degrees Celsius throughout the year.

Climate data for Balikpapan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29
(85)
29
(85)
30
(86)
30
(86)
29
(85)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(85)
29
(85)
30
(86)
29
(85)
29.3
(85)
Average low °C (°F) 25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
26
(78)
26
(78)
26
(78)
25
(77)
26
(78)
26
(78)
26
(78)
26
(78)
25
(77)
25.6
(77.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 240
(9.45)
220
(8.66)
240
(9.45)
220
(8.66)
250
(9.84)
250
(9.84)
250
(9.84)
250
(9.84)
200
(7.87)
180
(7.09)
170
(6.69)
240
(9.45)
2,780
(109.45)
Source: Weatherbase [17]

Transport[edit]

Sultan Aji Muhamad Sulaiman Airport New Terminal under construction

In 2012, Sultan Aji Muhamad Sulaiman Airport served approximately 6.62 million passengers according to Angkasa Pura Report.[citation needed] It is currently undergoing a major upgrade to improve its capacity (to 10 million passengers per year) as well as hospitality (immigration, passenger convenience, company reps offices, restaurants, shopping, lodging, and many others). The airport is going to be equipped with 11 aerobridges, a boutique mall, a transit hotel, and four-level parking garages.[18] The entire construction is expected to be completed by February 2014.[19] According to Minister of Badan Usaha Milik Negara - Dahlan Iskan, currently[when?] Sultan Aji Muhamad Sulaiman Airport can be considered as the top two[citation needed] Airport in the country in terms of beauty, functionality, and advancement.[20] Ngurah Rai International Airport is the only[citation needed] other airport in Indonesia that shares similar modern and complete facitilies like Sultan Aji Muhamad Sulaiman airport. Airlines that use this airport to serve domestic routes are Kartika Airlines, Lion Air, Sriwijaya Air, Susi Air, and Trigana Air. International flights can be accessed thru the following airlines: Air Asia, Garuda Indonesia, and Silk Air.

The airport is one of the nine principal locations near Indonesia used by Muslims on their Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca.[citation needed] In 1996–97 the airport served over 4,500 East Borneo pilgrims and in 1997–98 it served pilgrims from East Borneo, South Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi, and North Sulawesi.[citation needed]

In addition to its airport Balikpapan also has Semayang seaport. It serves commercial boats to many destinations to Indonesia including Jakarta, Makassar, Manado, Pare Pare and Surabaya. In the 1990s maritime transport was very popular. Today, due to more affordable and efficient airplane travel, more people choose to fly. Taking the ferry is amain choice for traveling to Penajam.

Kariangau Seaport was built to serve containers and all other industrial needs. It is located in KM.13, as part of Kariangau Industrial Estate.[21]

Tourism[edit]

Tugu Adipura (Verse Monument)
Manggar Beach

As a coastal city it has many beaches including Manggar Beach, Segara Beach, Monument Beach, and Melawai Beach.

Balikpapan is a departure point for nature tourism. There are wildlife exhibitions nearby such as the Samboja Lestari orangutan conservancy, Sun Bear sanctuary and crocodile breeding park.

Shopping[edit]

As one of the fastest developing cities in the nation, Balikpapan has been supported by the rise of shopping centers. There five majors shopping malls in town such as Plaza Balikpapan, Balikpapan Superblock, Balcony City, Mall Fantasy in Balikpapan Baru, and Plaza Kebun Sayur.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dinas Kependudukan Daan Katatan Cipil". Pemerintah Kota Balikpapan. 
  2. ^ a b c Wood, William B (April 1986). "Intermediate Cities on a Resource Frontier". Geographical Review (American Geographical Society) 76 (2): 149–159. doi:10.2307/214621. JSTOR 214621. 
  3. ^ Muir, Dan (1999–2000). "The Balikpapan Raid". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942. 
  4. ^ a b L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The capture of Balikpapan, January 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942. 
  5. ^ L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The Balikpapan Massacre, February 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942. 
  6. ^ Conboy & Morrison 1999, p. 88.
  7. ^ Lettens, Jan (6 January 2011). "SS San Flaviano [+1958]". The Wreck Site. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  8. ^ a b "11 June 1958". David Ormsby-Gore, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs. Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) (United Kingdom: Commons). col. 202–203. Retrieved 2011-11-21. 
  9. ^ "INDONESIA: The Mystery Pilots". Time. 12 May 1958. Retrieved 2011-11-21. 
  10. ^ a b c d Conboy & Morrison 1999, p. 116.
  11. ^ Conboy & Morrison 1999, p. 115.
  12. ^ Conboy & Morrison 1999, pp. 138, 139, 141.
  13. ^ Kahin & Kahin 1997, p. 179.
  14. ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  15. ^ http://www.sepinggan-airport.com/
  16. ^ http://kaltim.polri.go.id/
  17. ^ "Weatherbase: Balikpapan Indonesia Records and Averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved 22 November 2011. 
  18. ^ http://www.angkasapura1.co.id/detail/berita/toppingoff-bandara-internasional-sepinggan
  19. ^ http://www.balikpapanpos.co.id/index.php?mib=berita.detail&id=102203
  20. ^ http://www.balikpapanpos.co.id/index.php?mib=berita.detail&id=99274
  21. ^ http://www.kadinkaltim.com/?p=661

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]