Balikpapan-class landing craft heavy
HMAS Balikpapan in 2011
|Builders:||Walkers Limited at Maryborough, Queensland|
|Operators:|| Royal Australian Navy
Papua New Guinea Defence Force
Philippine Navy (planned 2015)
|Preceded by:||LSM-1 class landing ship medium (RAN)|
|Type:||Landing Craft Heavy|
|Displacement:||364 tons standard
517 tons full load
|Length:||44.5 m (146 ft)|
|Beam:||10.1 m (33 ft)|
|Draught:||2 m (6 ft 7 in)|
|Propulsion:||2 × General Motors Detroit 6–71 diesel motors (original)
2 × Caterpillar 3406E diesel engines (RAN since 2005)
|Speed:||10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph)|
|Range:||3,000 nautical miles (5,600 km; 3,500 mi) unladen
1,300 nautical miles (2,400 km; 1,500 mi) with 175 tons of cargo
|Capacity:||180 tons of cargo|
|Racal Decca Bridgemaster I-band navigational radar|
|Armament:||two 7.62 mm (0.300 in) machine guns|
The Balikpapan class is a ship class of eight heavy landing craft (officially Landing Craft, Heavy or LCH). All eight were originally laid down by Walkers Limited for the Australian Army in the early 1970s. A reorganisation of watercraft responsibilities in the Australian military meant the landing craft were to be operated by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), with seven commissioned directly into RAN service during 1973 and 1974, and lead ship Balikpapan transferred from the army to the navy. Following the independence of Papua New Guinea in 1975, two of the vessels (Salamaua and Buna) were transferred to the new Papua New Guinea Defence Force (PNGDF).
During their careers, the Australian vessels have operated in support of Operation Navy Help Darwin in 1974–75, Operation Bel Isi from 1997 to 2003, INTERFET operations in 1999 and 2000, and RAMSI operations from 2003.
The six remaining RAN vessels were paid off in the 2010s: Balikpapan, Betano, and Wewak in 2012; Brunei, HMAS Labuan, and Tarakan in 2014. They are yet to be replaced in RAN service. As of 2013, the two PNGDF vessels were active, and in 2014, the former Labuan was transferred to Papua New Guinea as the training ship Lakekamu. Brunei and Tarakan are to be fitted with new safety and navigation equipment, with plans to donate them to the Philippine Navy in 2015.
Design and capabilities
Eight new heavy landing craft were ordered in 1969 as a locally-manufactured replacement for the Australian Army's four LSM-1 class landing ship medium and two ALC 50 landing craft after the Landing Ship Medium Mk II project was cancelled. They are 44.5 metres (146 ft) long, with a beam of 10.1 metres (33 ft), and a draught of 2 metres (6 ft 7 in). The landing craft have a standard displacement of 320 tons, with a full load displacement of 517 tons. They were originally built with two General Motors Detroit 6–71 diesel motors. These were replaced by Caterpillar 3406E diesel engines between 2005 and 2007 for those still in Australian service. The standard ship's company is 16-strong, including two officers. The sensor suite is limited to a Racel Decca Bridgemaster I-band navigational radar. They are fitted with two 7.62-millimetre (0.300 in) machine guns for self-defence.
The LCHs have a maximum payload of 180 tons; equivalent to three Leopard 1 or two M1A1 Abrams tanks, 13 M113 armored personnel carriers, 23 quarter-tonne trucks, or four LARC-V amphibious cargo vehicles. As a troop transport, a Balikpapan class vessel can transport up to 400 soldiers between a larger amphibious ship and the shore, or embark 60 soldiers in six-berth caravans for longer voyages. The vessel's payload affects the range: at 175 tons of cargo, each vessel has a range of 1,300 nautical miles (2,400 km; 1,500 mi), which increases to 2,280 nautical miles (4,220 km; 2,620 mi) with a 150-ton payload, and 3,000 nautical miles (5,600 km; 3,500 mi) when unladen. The flat, box-like keel causes the ships to roll considerably in other-than-calm conditions, limiting their ability to make long voyages. The LCHs can mate their bow ramp to the stern loading dock of the RAN's large amphibious warfare ships when operating in the ship-to-shore role.
All eight Balikpapan class vessels were constructed by Walkers Limited at their shipyard in Maryborough, Queensland. All were laid down during 1971 and 1972, with lead ship Balikpapan entering service with the Australian Army Water Transport Squadron at the end of 1971. After this, responsibility for seagoing Army craft was transferred to the RAN, with the other seven craft directly entering naval service during 1973 and 1974, and Balikpapan transferring over in late 1974.
|This section requires expansion. (January 2015)|
In January 1973, the Balikpapans in RAN service were formed together as the First Australian Landing Craft Squadron, based at HMAS Moreton in Brisbane. In November 1974, Salamaua and Buna were transferred to the fledgling Papua New Guinea Defence Force, along with five Attack class patrol boats. Five of the remaining Australian LCHs were deployed in December 1974 following Cyclone Tracy as part of Operation Navy Help Darwin; HMAS Labuan was undergoing refits at the time.
HMAS Labuan was assigned to the Royal Australian Navy Reserve in June 1979, and attached to the Brisbane Port Division. Three LCHs, Tarakan, Balikpapan, and Wewak were placed in reserve at NQEA in Cairns during August and September 1985. They were reactivated in 1988, 1990, and 2000, respectively. On entering service, Brunei and Betano initially supplemented the inshore hydrographic survey capabilities of the RAN until late 1988, when they were reassigned to the naval base HMAS Waterhen for use in diver training. During May and June 1984, Balikpapan completed a 5,400-nautical-mile (10,000 km; 6,200 mi) transit from Brisbane to Penang, transporting vehicles, equipment, and personnel to RAAF Butterworth; the longest ocean voyage undertaken by a vessel of this class. During 1985 and 1986, Salamaua and Buna underwent refits.
Between 1997 and 2003, the LCHs were used to support the Peace Monitoring Group (PMG) in Bougainville, under Operation Bel Isi. Ships deployed on this operation were involved in resupplying the PMG base in Loloho, transport of PMG personnel and humanitarian aid, and coastal patrols. From 1999 onwards, the Balikpapans were also tasked with supporting INTERFET operations in East Timor, particularly those relating to the Oecussi enclave. The increase in operational tempo was a major factor in the reactivation of Wewak in 2000. In 2003, the landing craft began supporting RAMSI operations in the Solomon Islands.
The two PNG vessels were listed in Jane's Fighting Ships as non-operational since 2011, and awaiting refits. By 2013, they had been returned to service. Labuan and Tarakan delivered humanitarian supplies to remote coastal settlements in the Solomon Islands in September 2014 as part of Australian support efforts in the region.
Decommissioning and fates
On 11 December 2012, Wewak was decommissioned. Balikpapan and Betano were both decommissioned a day later, on 12 December. The other three Australian vessels were decommissioned on 20 November 2014.
Labuan was transferred to the PNGDF for use as a training vessel, and was commissioned as HMPNGS Lakekamu on 4 December 2014. Brunei and Tarakan are to be refurbished and fitted with new safety and navigation equipment. On completion (planned by May 2015), the two vessels will be donated to the Philippine Navy. According to the Australian Department of Defence, the Philippines has also expressed interest in the remaining three Australian vessels.
There are plans to replace the Balikpapans in Australian service with an as-yet-unidentified class of six heavy landing craft. The original replacement project was not due to decide on the design until between 2016 and 2018, with the new class to enter service from 2022. The Department of Defence issued a request for information in early 2011, which may lead to the project being brought forward.
- Gillett, Australian and New Zealand Warships since 1946, pgs 79, 125
- Saunders (ed.), IHS Jane's Fighting Ships 2012–2013, p. 32
- Wertheim (ed.), The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World, p. 26
- Gillett, Australian and New Zealand Warships since 1946, p. 79
- Wertheim (ed.), The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World, p. 25
- Gillett, Australian and New Zealand Warships since 1946, p. 80
- Frame, No Pleasure Cruise, p. 261
- Swinden, Heavy Lifting for Four Decades, p. 22
- Wertheim (ed.), The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World, p. 536
- Swinden, Heavy Lifting for Four Decades, p. 23
- Saunders (ed.), IHS Jane's Fighting Ships 2012–2013, p. 602
- Swinden, Heavy Lifting for Four Decades, p. 21
- "Australian Navy Delivers Supplies to Solomon Islands". Naval Today. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- "HMAS Wewak decommissioned". Department of Defence. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- "HMA Ships Balikpapan and Betano decommissioned". Royal Australian Navy. 13 December 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- "HMAS Balikpapan". Royal Australian Navy. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- "HMAS Betano". Royal Australian Navy. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- Rahmat, Ridzwan (23 July 2014). "RAN to decommission three Balikpapan-class LCHs". IHS Jane's Navy International. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- Staples, Natalie (20 November 2014). "Final farewell for landing craft". Navy Daily (Royal Australian Navy). Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Defence Minister welcomes the commissioning of HMPNGS Lakekamu". Media release. Senator David Johnston. 4 December 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
- Fonbuena, Carmela (29 January 2015). "Australia's gift to PH Navy: 2 supply ships". Rapller. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Berry, Paul (6 December 2012). "End of the line". Navy News (Directorate of Defence News). p. 4.
- Frame, Tom (2004). No Pleasure Cruise: the story of the Royal Australian Navy. Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-233-4.
- Gillett, Ross (1988). Australian and New Zealand Warships since 1946. Brookvale, NSW: Child & Associates. ISBN 0-86777-219-0. OCLC 23470364.
- Gillett, Ross (2012). Australia's Navy: Today and Tomorrow. Part 2. Topmill.
- Saunders, Stephen, ed. (2012). IHS Jane's Fighting Ships 2012–2013. Jane's Fighting Ships. Coulsdon: IHS Jane's. ISBN 9780710630087. OCLC 793688752.
- Wertheim, Eric, ed. (2007). The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World: Their Ships, Aircraft, and Systems (15th ed.). Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-59114-955-2. OCLC 140283156.
- Journal articles
- Swinden, Greg (April 2013). "Heavy Lifting for Four Decades: The Navy's Landing Craft Heavy". The Navy (Navy League of Australia) 75 (2): 20–24. ISSN 1322-6231.
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