Balloon flange girder
This type of girder was rarely used, its only common user being Isambard Kingdom Brunel in the 1840s and 1850s.
Brunel was working at a period of increased theoretical and mathematical analysis of bridge and mechanical structures. Together with the work of Charles Fairbairn, particularly in relation to Stephenson's tubular bridges such as Conwy, there was an increased understanding of how beams in compression would fail by buckling.
Brunel was known for his distrust of cast iron as a material, at least for large beams. This distrust of cast iron was vindicated when his friend Stephenson's adventurous cast-iron Dee Bridge (1846) collapsed in 1847. Brunel gave evidence in his support at the following inquiry, but this was on the basis of Stephenson being a competent engineer within the bounds of current knowledge, rather than in support of large cast-iron beams. Stephenson's Dee Bridge had used a truss girder, where an inverted T-shaped cast iron girder was trussed by applied wrought iron tension bars. This faulty design was instrumental in the bridge failure, where tension in the truss rods increased compression in the upper part of the girder such that it underwent columnar failure. Despite this, although with the advantage of hindsight, Brunel would use similar applied tension chains for his truss design.
Around the 1840s, developments in the puddling furnace reduced the cost of wrought iron and improvements to rolling mills allowed the production of large flat sections. This iron was now economic for the construction of girders, assembled by riveting of flat sections.
Brunel had already experiment with simple bulb-headed girders in cast iron, for the relatively short 35 foot span of Bishop's Bridge canal bridge at Paddington. These had a T-section lower flange in tension and a larger circular bulb at the upper edge,[note 1] in compression. As was his habit, Brunel hydraulically tested samples of these girders for strength in 1838 and recorded the results in one of his books of 'Facts'.
To develop a reliable truss girder for long-span bridges, Brunel carried out a remarkable experiment with a full size girder. This used a single wrought iron plate girder, 70 ft in length, which was loaded up to the point of collapse, first with 165 tons load then, after repair, to 188 tons.[note 2] Brunel was aware that the likely failure mechanism of this girder was by buckling collapse in the upper flange, which would be under compression forces. To resist this, the flange was supported by triangulated plates and the flange was also slight curved.[note 3] The experiment was a great success, the bridge eventually failing at a considerable load, representing an efficient use of construction materials for a bridge of this capacity, compared to previous designs.
South Wales Railway
Improvements in plate rolling allowed a change in the shape of the girder. Rather than merely a slightly-curved top plate with triangular gussets, it was now possible to roll a semi-circular plate. This allowed the fully developed 'balloon' shape to be used, as in the second cross-section illustrated. The top web of the girder was semi-circular and riveted to the centre plate by an L-strip. The side gussets, also curved, were riveted parallel to the edges of this top plate, rather than through another L-strip, as used originally. Brunel (probably correctly) considered the smooth balloon profile to be a more efficient design, influenced by his geometric approaches to design rather than Eaton's mathematical analysis. More practically, the parallel lap joint halved the amount of riveting needed, compared to the L-strip.
None of these bridges are known to survive in their balloon form, although a girder from one was later re-used for bridge widening work (1861) across the Coity road near Bridgend and survived there. The Coity Road bridge had been built before this date, but was widened to accommodate the new Llynvi Valley Railway. One side of the bridge was moved outwards to accommodate a new siding and a balloon girder installed on that side. This girder (especially as it was installed after Brunel's death) is thought to have previously been used elsewhere on the SWR, although its original date and location is unknown.
Eastern Bengal Railway
The next development retained the semicircular top flange, but the side gussets were now abandoned altogether as it was considered that the depth of the flange, even if not supported by another plate, would be stiff enough. This also allowed better access to the inside, for painting. Intermittent cross diaphrams were placed across the flange, to maintain its position relative to the main web and avoid distortion by rocking sideways.
Cumberland Basin bridges
When Brunel rebuilt the entrance locks of the Cumberland Basin in Bristol Harbour, between 1848–1849, he also constructed a number of swinging bridges – Brunel's first moving bridges. These were of centre-pivot construction, but were highly asymmetrical, the outboard side being nearly three times longer than the landward, balanced by large cast iron counterweights.
As the bridges were for light roadways and did not have to carry the weight of a railway or train, their girders were of a lightweight construction that simplified maunfacture. A full balloon upper flange was used, similar in shape to the South Wales Railway bridges, but the flange sat above the main web of the girder and the web did not span the flange and reach to the top. This simplified construction as it avoid the T-joint, the necessary L-strips and thus several rows of riveting.
The lower flange was of an entirely novel form, being triangular in section, although with concave sides. Again, the main web did not span the flange. All three joints were now simple lap joints with single-row riveting.
Windsor Railway Bridge
Windsor Railway Bridge (1849) is a tied-arch or bowstring girder bridge. The span is composed of two girders that form a truss. The upper girder is an arch and carries the weight of the bridge. The lower girder is suspended from this by vertical rods and is not required to support its own weight. The main function of the lower girder is to act as a tie; this counteracts the side-forces of the arch, avoiding the arch's usual side-forces on its foundations. As this is a railway bridge, where suspended deck bridges are a problem owing to swaying of their deck, this girder also has a stiffening function.
Brunel used a form of his balloon flange girder for both girders. The upper arch girder uses the triangulated form of the early experiment, with a flat top plate and without any vertical web below the flange box at all. The lower girder uses the 'open' form of the flange, slightly curved and with no gusset plates. As the lower girder is not carrying its weight, it is not subject to the usual buckling forces.
Chepstow Railway Bridge
Chepstow Railway Bridge (1852) was a complicated bridge that made the first use of Brunel's truss design to produce a suspension bridge with a wide uninterrupted span at high level above an shipping channel. The west bank of the gorge was shallow and muddy though, so half of the bridge's total span was provided by three 100 foot spans of a girder bridge, carried on cast iron cylindrical piers. These girders (illus) were of a form and size very similar to the original experimental girder.
The landward girders were replaced in 1948 and the main truss, with its girders beneath, in 1962. Portions of the girders survive today.
Crathie Bridge (1854–1857) is a 125 foot single span across the River Dee to the royal Balmoral estate. The bridge had first been drawn with a form of the Brunel truss echoing his Royal Albert Bridge at Saltash. The bridge as constructed though used the C-shaped open form of the upper flange, as used for the Eastern Bengal Railway. As the bridge was only for light road traffic, it was also possible to replace the solid web of the girder above the roadway level with an openwork lattice, making the view from the bridge visually more appealing for its illustrious resident. Despite this, Her Majesty was 'not amused' by the bridge.
- Over Junction Bridge, the railway bridge across the Severn at Over. (1848)
- Cumberland Basin, Bristol Harbour (1849) These have been recently restored for use as footbridges.
- Windsor Railway Bridge (1849)
- Chepstow railway bridge (1852) Sections of the girders survive at Brunel University, Uxbridge.
- Crathie Bridge (1854–1857) to the royal Balmoral estate.
- Coity Road Bridge, Bridgend (1861)
- Brindle describes these as 40% larger in cross-section, although this is slightly narrower in linear dimension
- Note that pagination varies between the 1870 edition of The Life of Isambard Kingdom Brunel, as reproduced at Google Books and the Cambridge facsimile edition, and the 2006 STEAM bicentenary edition. P. 193 in the original is now p. 146 in the 2006 STEAM edition. Page numbers are given here for the more affordable 2006 edition.
- The section of this first girder resembles the section from Chepstow, now preserved at Brunel University. illus.
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- Life of IKB, pp. 144–1452
- Beckett 1984, pp. 120–130
- Brindle 2005, pp. 166–167
- Brindle, Steven. "Brunel's Paddington Bridge". Paddington Waterways and Maida Vale Society.
- Brindle 2005, p. 166
- "In Pictures: Brunel's hidden bridge". BBC News Channel. 3 March 2004.
- Clark, Edwin (1850). "Experiments on the Transverse Strength of a Wrought Iron Girder". Britannia and Conway Tubular Bridges. Vol. I. London: Day & son. pp. 437–441.
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- Isambard Brunel (2011) . The Life of Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Civil Engineer. Cambridge University Press. pp. 193–194. ISBN 978-1-108-02630-7.
- Clark 1850, p. 441, The resistance of the triangular cell with the curved top to buckling was most satisfactory when compared with cells of other form.
- Jones & 2009 II, pp. 133–134
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- Life of IKB, p. 151–155
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- "Royal Deeside : Brunel's Bridge at Crathie". Royal Deeside.
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- "Brunel's Balmoral bridge sketches go on display". 30 March 2006.
- Malpass, Peter; King, Andy (2009). Bristol's Floating Harbour. Bristol: Redcliffe Press. pp. 52, 54–55. ISBN 978-1-906593-28-5.
- "Brunel Swing Bridge". Engineering Timelines.
- Jones & 2009 II, p. figure 12, 128–129