Baseball park

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Marlins Park, the newest ballpark in Major League Baseball.

A baseball park, also known as a ballpark or baseball stadium, is a venue where baseball is played. A baseball park consists of the playing field and the surrounding spectator seating. While the diamond and the areas denoted by white painted lines adhere to strict rules, guidelines for the rest of the field are flexible.

The term "ballpark" sometimes refers either to the entire structure, or sometimes to just the playing field. A home run where the player makes it around the bases, and back to home plate, without the ball leaving the playing field is typically called an "inside-the-park" home run. Sometimes a home run over the fence is called "out of the ballpark", but that phrase more often means a home run that clears the stands and lands outside the building. The playing field is most often called the "ballfield", though the term is often used interchangeable with "ballpark" when referring to a small local or little-league facility.

General characteristics[edit]

The playing field[edit]

Diagram of a baseball infield
Main article: Baseball field

A baseball field can be referred to as a diamond. The infield is a rigidly structured diamond of dirt containing the three bases, home plate, and the pitchers mound. The space between the bases and home is normally a grass surface, save for the dirt mound in the center. Some ballparks, like Toronto's Rogers Centre, have grass or artificial turf between the bases, and dirt only around the bases and pitcher's mound. Others, such as Koshien Stadium in Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan, have an entirely dirt infield.

Two white lines run out from the home plate area, aligned with first and third bases. These are the foul lines or base lines, usually differentiated by referring to them as the first base line, or the third base line. If a ball hit by the batter lands outside of the space between these two lines, or rolls out of this space before reaching first or third base, the ball is "foul" (meaning it is dead and the play is over). If it lands between or on the lines, it is "fair". At the end of the lines are two foul poles, which help the umpires judge whether a ball is fair or foul. These "foul poles" are actually in fair territory, so a ball that hits them on the fly is a home run (if hit on the bounce, it is instead a ground rule double).

On either side of home plate are the two batter's boxes (left-handed and right-handed.) This is where the batter stands when at bat. Behind home is the catcher's box, where the catcher and the home plate umpire stand.

Next to first and third base are two coaches' boxes, where the first and third base coaches guide the baserunners, generally with gestures or shouts. As the baserunner faces away from the outfield when running from second base to third, they cannot see where the ball is, and must look to the third base coach on whether to run, stop, or slide.

Farther from the infield on either side are the dugouts, where the teams and coaches sit when they're not on the field. They are named such because, at the professional levels, this seating is below the level of the playing field so as to not block the view from prime spectator seating locations. In amateur parks, the dugouts may be above-ground wooden or CMU structures with seating inside, or simply benches behind a chain link fence.

Beyond the infield and between the foul lines is a large grass outfield, generally twice the depth of the infield. The playing field is bordered by fences of varying height. The infield fences are in foul territory, and a ball hit over them isn't a home run; consequently, they are often lower than the outfield fences to provide a better view for spectators. Sometimes, the outfield fence is made higher in certain areas to compensate for a close proximity to the batter.

In professional parks, the field is surrounded by an area roughly 10 feet (3.0 m) wide made of dirt or rubberized track surface called a "warning track". Originally used in Yankee Stadium in 1923 as an actual footrace track,[citation needed] it is now present in all major league ballparks. This change in terrain warns a fielder, who is watching a ball in the air, that the wall is near, avoiding possible injury.

Beyond the outfield fence in professional parks is an area called the batter's eye. To ensure the batter can see the white ball, the batter's eye contains no seating, and is a darker color. This can be anything from a dark wall to a grassy slope.

Seating[edit]

Today, in Major League Baseball, a multi-tiered seating area, a grandstand, surrounds the infield. How far this seating extends down the baselines or around the foul poles varies from park to park. In minor league parks, the grandstands are notably smaller, proportional to expected sizes of crowds compared with the major leagues.

The seating beyond the outfield fence generally differs from the grandstand, though some multi-purpose or jewel box parks have the grandstand surround the entire field. This area could contain inexpensive bleacher seats, smaller grandstands, or simply inclined seating. In local ballparks, there are often simply a set or two of aluminum bleachers on the first-base and third-base sides.

Variations[edit]

Distinctive from "goal games" such as football and soccer, which have fixed-size playing areas, the infield is the only rigidly laid-out part of the field. Like its English relative, cricket, there is significant flexibility in the shape and size of the rest of the playing area.

Picture of old Yankee Stadium showing its left field fence, which was famous for being farther than the right.

To prevent "cheap" home runs, baseball leagues may specify a minimum distance from home plate to the outfield fences. Generally, the higher the skill level, the deeper the minimum dimensions must be, to prevent an excess of home runs. In the major leagues, a rule was passed in 1958[1] that compelled any new fields built after that point to have a minimum distance of 325 feet (99 m) from home plate to the fences in left and right field, and 400 feet (120 m) to center. (Rule 1.04, Note(a)). This rule was passed to avoid situations like the Los Angeles Coliseum, which was 251 ft (77 m). down the left field line.

However, with the opening of Baltimore's Camden Yards (1992), the "minimum distance" rule began to be ignored.[citation needed] One factor may be[citation needed] that the quaint, "retro" look of Camden Yards, with its irregular measurements, proved to be very popular, along with a traditionalist backlash against the symmetrical, multi-purpose, "cookie-cutter" stadiums. Since the opening of Camden Yards, many other "retro" stadiums have been built, each with asymmetrical fences. These distances vary from park to park, and can even change drastically in the same park. One of the most famous examples is the original Yankee Stadium, whose odd-shaped plot of land caused right field to be over 100 feet (30 m) shorter than left, although this difference lessened over time. The rectangular Polo Grounds (of the New York Baseball Giants) had extremely short distance down the lines, 258 ft (79 m). to right and 280 ft (85 m). to left. In contrast, the deepest part of center field was nearly 500 ft (150 m). from home plate.

Older ballparks, such as Fenway Park, were "grandfathered" in and allowed to keep their original dimensions. Also, new parks have sometimes received special dispensation to deviate from these rules. For instance, the second Yankee Stadium, built 2009, used the same dimensions as the original Yankee Stadium.[2]

The heights of the fences can also vary greatly, the most famous example being the 37-foot (11 m)-high Green Monster in Fenway Park's left field. Such tall fences are often used to stop easy home runs in a section of the ballpark where the distances from home are shorter, or where there is little space between the field and the street beyond. Some in-play scoreboards and high fences reached 50 to 60 feet (18 m), whereas a few outfields were even lined with hedges rather than normal fences or walls. The Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome, when set up for baseball, had a 23-foot (7.0 m) right field "fence" that was actually a relatively thin blue plastic sheet covering folded up football seats. It was often called the "Baggie" or "Hefty bag".

Some ballparks have irregularly shaped fences. Ballparks may have round swooping fences or rigidly angles fences, or possibly a significant change in direction or irregular angle. For example, the center field stands and the left field stands at Fenway Park meet at an uneven angle, creating an indentation (called “the triangle”) that angles sharply back into the stands. In Citi Field and AT&T Park, part of the right field fence juts unevenly into the outfield as if the builders were trying to create an unpredictable ricochet effect for balls hit against it.[3] Some "retro" parks, such as Globe Life Park in Arlington, throw in a sudden and small inward turn (often referred to as a jog) just to give a little quirkiness to the design.[citation needed] Milwaukee's Miller Park was designed, with the help of former player Robin Yount, to promote extra base hits.[4]

Originally (mostly in the old jewel box parks) these variations resulted from the shape of the property where the park was constructed. If there was a street beyond left field, the distance to the left field fence would be shorter, and if the distance was too short, the fence would be higher. For example, in the old Griffith Stadium in Washington DC, part of center field had to be built around a cluster of apartment houses and the result was a rather large angular indentation in the left-center field fence.[5] Now, these variations are mostly influenced by the specifications and whims of the designers. New "retro" parks, which try to recapture the feel of the jewel box parks, are often designed to have these quirks.

Etymology[edit]

Elysian Fields

Baseball was originally played in open fields or public parks. The genesis of modern baseball is conventionally connected with Elysian Fields in Hoboken, New Jersey,[citation needed] a large public park where the businessmen of New York City gathered from time to time to play organized baseball games and cricket matches, starting around the mid-1840s. The name "Field" or "Park" was typically attached to the names of the early ballparks.

With the beginnings of professional baseball, the ballfield became part of a complex including fixed spectator seating areas, and an enclosure to restrict access to paying customers, as with a fairgrounds. The name "Grounds" began to be attached to ballparks, starting with the Union Grounds in 1862.[citation needed] The suffixes "Field" and "Park" were still used, but many professional ballparks were "Grounds". The last surviving major league "Grounds" was the Polo Grounds in New York City, which was razed in 1964.

The term "stadium" had been used since ancient times, typically for a running track and its seating area. As college football gained in popularity, the smaller college playing fields and/or running tracks (which also frequently had the suffix "Field") gave way to large stadiums, many of them built during the sports "boom" of the 1920s. Major league baseball enjoyed a similar boom. One of the first major league ballparks to be called a "stadium" was actually the Polo Grounds, which was temporarily renamed Brush Stadium from its reconstruction in 1911 until the death of owner John T. Brush in the 1920s. By then, the most famous baseball "stadium" of them all had been constructed: Yankee Stadium. From that point until the retro building boom of the 1990s, the suffix "Stadium" was used for almost every new major league ballpark, and was sometimes applied to the old ones, such as Shibe Park, which was renamed Connie Mack Stadium in 1954.

The suffix "Dome" was also used for the indoor stadiums constructed from the 1960s onward. The official names of those arenas also often included the word "Stadium", such as the Houston Astrodome, whose formal name was "Harris County Domed Stadium" in 1965; the Kingdome, whose formal name was "King County Domed Stadium", and the Metrodome, for which the Minneapolis highway signs directed the driver to "Metrodome Stadium". The retro era of the 1990s and early 2000s saw a return to the original arboreal terms, even to domed structures such as Safeco Field and Miller Park.

There is little consistency in the choice between "Field" and "Park". Organizations appear to choose based on which suffix "sounds" better for a given ballpark name.[citation needed] For example, Houston's Minute Maid Park was originally named "Enron Field".

Settings[edit]

Organized baseball has been a popular spectator sport from its beginning[citation needed]. Seating area design is affected by many variables, including required capacity, audience access, and road traffic. Early ballparks like Elysian Fields were far from the city center. Each game was an event, and fans traveled by public transit to watch the game.

With the growth of professional leagues, and consequent growth in the quantity of games, each game became less of an event, and fan convenience became more important.[citation needed] Many professional ballparks were built either near the city center, or in working-class neighborhoods, based on expected economic level of the average fan. Consequently, the classic ballparks typically had little space for automobiles, as it was expected that most fans would take mass transit to the games, a situation that still prevails at Boston's Fenway Park and Chicago's Wrigley Field, for example. Some early ballparks, such as Brooklyn's Eastern Park, were abandoned because the trolley lines did not go out far enough and the team was not performing well enough for people to tolerate the inconvenience.

As fans became more affluent, and especially as they moved to the suburbs and bought cars, the lack of parking became an important issue. Some ballparks remedied this problem through the construction of parking garages in the vicinity, or building new ballparks with ample parking. Others built ballparks in the suburbs, typically with large parking areas. The ballpark/stadium thus became an "island" in an "ocean" of parking space.

The modern "retro" trend seeks to cover all the bases: an urban location, with plenty of parking and public transportation available.

Types of baseball parks[edit]

Wooden ballparks[edit]

The Huntington Avenue Grounds during the 1903 World Series.

The first professional baseball venues were large wooden ballparks with seats mounted on wood platforms. Although known for being constructed out of wood, they featured iron columns for better support. Some included one tier of inclined seating, topped with either a flat roof or, in some instances, a small upper tier. The outfield was bordered by tall walls or fences covered in advertisements, much like today's minor league parks. These advertisements were sometimes fronted with bleacher seats, or "bleaching boards". Wood, while prone to decomposition, was a relatively inexpensive material, as there was no official governing body for professional baseball at the time. However, the use of wood as the primary material presented a major problem, especially as baseball continued to thrive. Over time, the wooden stands aged and dried. Many parks caught fire, and some were leveled completely. This problem, along with the popularization of baseball and expectations for long-term use of the parks were major factors that drove the transition to the new standard materials for ballparks: steel and concrete.[citation needed] Some famous wooden parks, such as the Polo Grounds III in New York and National League Park in Philadelphia, burned and were rebuilt with fire-resistant materials (Polo Grounds IV and Baker Bowl). Others were simply abandoned in favor of new structures built elsewhere. These new fire-resistant parks often lasted for many decades, and (retrospectively) came to be known as "jewel boxes".[citation needed]

Ballpark Location Team Opened Closed Demo'd Current Status
American League Park Washington, D.C. Senators 1901 1911 1911 Destroyed by fire. Now residential.
Bennett Park Detroit, Michigan Tigers 1896 1911 1911 The Tigers continued to use this site until 1999 (see Tiger Stadium). The field and flagpole from Tiger Stadium remain on the site. [1]
Columbia Park Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Athletics 1901 1909 1913 Now residential.
Eastern Park Brooklyn, New York City Grooms 1891 1897 unknown Now site of a car junkyard.
Exposition Park Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Pirates 1890 1909 1915 Once a railroad yard, now parking for PNC Park. Interstate 279 runs over a portion of the property.
Hilltop Park Manhattan, New York City Highlanders 1903 1912 1914 Now site of New York–Presbyterian Hospital
Huntington Avenue Grounds Boston, Massachusetts Americans 1901 1911 1912 Now site of Solomon Court at Cabot Center.
Kennard Street Park Cleveland, Ohio Blues 1879 1884 unknown
League Park Cleveland, Ohio Indians
Spiders
1891 1909 1909 Now public park centered on original diamond.
Lloyd Street Grounds Milwaukee, Wisconsin Brewers 1895 1903 unknown
National League Park Cleveland, Ohio Blues
Spiders
1887 1890 unknown
National League Park Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Phillies 1887 1894 1894 Destroyed by fire. Rebuilt as Baker Bowl. Now commercial.
Oriole Park I Baltimore, Maryland Orioles 1882 1889 unknown
Oriole Park II Baltimore, Maryland Orioles 1890 1891 unknown
Oriole Park III Baltimore, Maryland Orioles 1891 1900 unknown
Oriole Park IV Baltimore, Maryland Orioles 1901 1902 unknown
Palace of the Fans Cincinnati, Ohio Reds 1902 1911 1911 Replaced on site by Crosley Field. Now parking and commercial.
Polo Grounds I Manhattan, New York City Gothams, Metropolitans 1880 1889 1889 Destroyed by street construction. Now part of West 111th Street.
Polo Grounds II Manhattan, New York City Giants 1889 1891 1919? Now public housing.
Polo Grounds III Manhattan, New York City Giants 1890 1911 1911 Destroyed by fire. Rebuilt as Polo Grounds IV. Now public housing.
Recreation Park Detroit, Michigan Wolverines 1881 1888 1894 Now site of the Detroit Medical Center
Robison Field St. Louis, Missouri Cardinals 1893 1920 1926 Now site of Beaumont High School
South End Grounds Boston, Massachusetts Beaneaters 1871 1914 1914 Now parking for Mass Transit station
South Side Park Chicago, Illinois Colts
White Sox
1893 1940 1940 Now site of the Chicago Housing Authority's Wentworth Gardens
Terrapin Park (Oriole Park V) Baltimore, Maryland Terrapins 1914 1944 1944 Destroyed by fire. Now commercial
Washington Park I Brooklyn, New York City Grays 1883 1891 unknown
Washington Park II Brooklyn, New York City Superbas 1898 1913 unknown
West Side Park I Chicago, Illinois White Stockings 1885 1891 unknown Now site of the Andrew Jackson Language Academy.
West Side Park II Chicago, Illinois Cubs 1893 1915 1915 Now site of the University of Illinois Medical Center.

Jewel box ballparks[edit]

Picture of Fenway Park. The famed Green Monster is the left-field fence. It is the oldest ballpark in Major League Baseball.

The ballparks built or rebuilt of concrete and steel (albeit with wooden seats) after the days of the wooden ballpark are now known as the jewel box ballparks or classic parks. These parks are said by many to embody the golden age of baseball. They are known for their green seats, large roofs, intimate feel, and major use of exposed steel, brick, and stone. The first of these was Shibe Park, which opened in 1909 in Philadelphia. Another Philadelphia ballpark, the Baker Bowl, which opened in 1895, used steel and brick instead of wood as the primary construction materials, and is considered the forerunner of the jewel box parks.

Two-tiered grandstands became much more prevalent in this era. These decks were typically held up by steel pillars that obstructed the view from some seats in the lower level. However, because of these supports, the upper decks could come very close to the field, giving the ballpark a more intimate feel. Two tiers was the standard for decades, until the New York Yankees built Yankee Stadium. To accommodate the large crowds Babe Ruth drew, Yankee Stadium was the largest ballpark in baseball, and was built with three tiers. This became the new standard until some recently built parks reverted to two.

Most Jewel Box Parks were built to fit the constraints of actual city blocks, resulting in asymmetrical outfield dimensions. The exceptions were Shibe Park and Comiskey Park, which were built on rectangular city blocks that were large enough to accommodate left/right field symmetry.

Other sports, such as soccer and football were often played at these sites (the Polo Grounds and Yankee Stadium were, for example, designed to accommodate football). In contrast to the later multi-purpose parks, the seats were generally angled in a configuration suitable for baseball. The "retro" ballparks built in the 1990s and beyond are an attempt to capture the feel of the jewel box parks. The only jewel box parks still used by Major League Baseball are Fenway Park and Wrigley Field.

Ballpark Location Team Opened Lights installed Closed Demo'd Current Status
Baker Bowl Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Phillies 1895 Never 1938 1950 Now commercial
Braves Field Boston, Massachusetts Braves 1915 1946 1952 1955 Reconfigured into Nickerson Field.
Comiskey Park Chicago, Illinois White Sox 1910 1939 1990 1991 Now parking for U.S. Cellular Field.
Crosley Field Cincinnati, Ohio Reds 1912 1935 1970 1972 Now parking and commercial.
Ebbets Field Brooklyn, New York City Dodgers 1913 1938 1957 1960 Now residential.
Fenway Park Boston, Massachusetts Red Sox
Braves
1912 1946 ------- ------- Active.
Forbes Field Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Pirates 1909 1940 1970 1971 Now site of University of Pittsburgh's Posvar Hall. Parts of the outfield wall survive.
Griffith Stadium Washington, D.C. Senators 1911 1941 1961 1965 Now site of the Howard University Hospital.
League Park Cleveland, Ohio Indians 1910 Never 1946 1951 Public park.
Polo Grounds IV Manhattan, New York City Giants
Yankees
Mets
1911 1940 1963 1964 Now public housing.
Shibe Park Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Athletics
Phillies
1909 1939 1970 1976 Now site of the Deliverance Evangelistic Church.
Sportsman's Park St. Louis, Missouri Browns
Cardinals
1902 (rebuilt 1909) 1940 1966 1966 Now site of the Herbert Hoover Boys and Girls Club.
Tiger Stadium Detroit, Michigan Tigers 1912 1948 1999 2009 The field and flagpole remain on the site. [2]
Wrigley Field Chicago, Illinois Cubs 1914 1988 ------- ------- Active.
Yankee Stadium Bronx, New York City Yankees 1923 1946 2008 2010 Renovated in 1973–76. Now a part of Macombs Dam Park.

Multi-purpose ballparks[edit]

Aerial view of Three Rivers Stadium, circa 2000
Main article: Multi-purpose stadium

From the 1960s until the arrival of retro parks in 1992, baseball built many multi-purpose ballparks. Also derisively known as "concrete donuts", "cookie-cutters", or "giant ashtrays", they were usually tall and circular or square structures made entirely of, usually bare, reinforced concrete. The parks were built to hold baseball as well as football, soccer, and other sports. One of the earliest baseball stadiums that incorporated this type of design was Cleveland Stadium (built 1932), which featured an oval grandstand that was more friendly to goal-centered sports like football. A park built to suit all sports well, which was co-owned by the teams or the city, seemed advantageous to all, especially because it was less expensive to maintain one stadium rather than two. Some parks that were originally built for one sport were renovated to accommodate multiple sports.

The shape of the parks generally depended on the original use. Baseball parks that were renovated to accommodate football, like Candlestick Park and Anaheim Stadium, were usually asymmetrically shaped. Football stadiums that were renovated to accommodate baseball, like Sun Life Stadium and Mile High Stadium, were usually of a rectangular shape, though Mile High actually started its life in 1948 as a Minor League Baseball park known as Bears Stadium. Parks that were built to serve both were usually circular and completely enclosed on all sides. These were the parks that gained multi-purpose parks the reputation as bland cookie-cutter structures. The first of these parks was RFK Stadium (named changed in January 1969 from the original DC Stadium) in the District of Columbia. RFK is unique in that it hosted two different baseball teams, and that it was the first to originally be intended for multiple sports. It is currently in use for only Major League Soccer's D.C. United.

A notable variant among the cookie-cutter stadia was Shea Stadium. One of the first parks designed and built for baseball and football, it did not feature an exterior of bare concrete, but was clad in steel. This steel was later painted blue, making Shea the only multi-purpose park to have an exterior that was not either gray or white. Also, the grandstand only extended just past the foul poles, and did not completely enclose the field. Plans were made to enclose the grandstand and build a dome, but engineers discovered that the structure could not handle the load of the proposed dome. Thus the stadium simply remained with the area behind the outfield fence open.

One major innovation of the multi-purpose parks was the cantilevered upper deck. In earlier ballparks, the columns used to support the upper decks obstructed the view from some seats in the lower deck. The upper decks were extended upwards and the columns removed. However, even though the extension counterbalanced some of the weight, the upper decks could no longer extend as close to the field and had to be moved back. Also, the roofs could no longer be as large, and often only covered the top 15 or so rows. This exposed fans to the elements.

Besides the drawbacks of the cantilever design, there were other issues with these parks. With few exceptions, seating was angled to face the center of the field of play, rather than home plate. Luxury boxes, which were a part of football culture, were now introduced to baseball, and were usually placed below the upper decks, pushing upper deck seating farther from the field. The furthest seats in these parks were 500 feet (150 m) or more from the plate. The capacities of these stadiums were staggeringly large, due to football's smaller schedule drawing a larger crowd per game. However, they were usually far too large for baseball, further diminishing their intimacy. Even crowds of 40,000, a fair amount for baseball, seemed sparse. Often the only times they looked full were on opening day and playoff games. Due to the rectangular shape needed for football or soccer, outfield dimensions were generally symmetrical, and even seats at field level down the lines could be far from the action.

Such stadiums weren't much better for football. The "cookie-cutters" with swiveling, field-level sections proved problematic. Because the front rows were too close to the field, the fans had difficulty seeing over the football benches. This was evident in the movable seating sections in RFK Stadium. The first ten rows of the football configuration were practically at field level, and fans in those sections often stood up on their seats to get a better view. Other stadiums overcame this simply by covering those seats, not bothering to sell them. Despite being cost-effective, these problems eventually caused the parks to become unfashionable.

The multi-purpose architecture reached a climax when Toronto's SkyDome (now Rogers Centre) opened in 1989. It had state-of-the-art amenities including a retractable roof, and a fancy restaurant where patrons could view the field behind glass.

Only one of the purely open-air multi-purpose parks is still in use by baseball today: O.co Coliseum. The Athletics plan to move out of O.co Coliseum and build a new ballpark of their own in the future.

Note: To reduce redundancy, this table does not list the indoor stadiums of the multi-purpose era in this section. However, all of the indoor ballparks of North America, which are listed in their own section, were also built as multi-purpose stadiums.

Ballpark Location Team Opened Closed Demo'd Current Status
Anaheim Stadium* Anaheim, California Angels 1966 ------- ------- Active. Renovated in 1979–80 to multipurpose and in 1996–98 back to baseball-only.
Arlington Stadium Arlington, Texas Rangers 1965 1993 1994 Now parking for Globe Life Park in Arlington.
Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium Atlanta, Georgia Braves 1966 1996 1997 Now parking for Turner Field.
Busch Memorial Stadium St. Louis, Missouri Cardinals 1966 2005 2005 Plaza area for Busch Stadium III.
Candlestick Park* San Francisco, California Giants 1960 2013 ------- Renovated in 1971–72 to multipurpose; closed for baseball in 1999. Scheduled to be demolished after the 2013 NFL season.
Cleveland Municipal Stadium Cleveland, Ohio Indians 1931 1995 1996 Now site of FirstEnergy Stadium.
Canadian National Exhibition Stadium** Toronto, Ontario Blue Jays 1959 1989 1999 Now site of BMO Field.
Memorial Stadium Baltimore, Maryland Orioles 1950 1997 2001 Now residential.
Mile High Stadium* Denver, Colorado Rockies 1948 2001 2002 Originally a minor-league baseball stadium in 1948. Now parking for Sports Authority Field at Mile High.
O.co Coliseum Oakland, California Athletics 1966 ------- ------- Active; Athletics plan to move to a new ballpark in the indefinite future.
Qualcomm Stadium San Diego, California Padres 1967 ------- ------- Active; closed for baseball in 2003.
Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium Washington, D.C. Senators
Nationals
1961 ------- ------- Active; closed for baseball in 2007.
Riverfront Stadium Cincinnati, Ohio Reds 1970 2002 2002 Now Cincinnati Reds Hall of Fame and Museum.
Rogers Centredouble-dagger Toronto, Ontario Blue Jays 1989 ------- ------- Active
Shea Stadium Queens, New York City Mets
Yankees
1964 2008 2009 Now parking for Citi Field and the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center.
Sun Life Stadium** Miami Gardens, Florida Marlins 1987 ------- ------- Active; built as a football-only stadium in 1987, renovated in 1991-92 to multipurpose, closed for baseball in 2012.
Three Rivers Stadium Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Pirates 1970 2000 2001 Now largely parking for Heinz Field and PNC Park. Stage AE and the Root Sports Pittsburgh studios occupy parts of the site.
Veterans Stadium Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Phillies 1971 2003 2004 Now parking for Citizens Bank Park, Wells Fargo Center and Lincoln Financial Field.

*A baseball-only ballpark converted to a multi-purpose stadium.

**A football-only stadium converted to a multi-purpose stadium.

double-dagger denotes stadium is also a retractable-roof ballpark

Modern ballparks[edit]

Dodger Stadium's varicolored seats

While most teams turned to multi-purpose parks, some chose to build baseball-only parks. While these modern ballparks shirked some of the conventions of multi-purpose parks, they did include some of the new features. The most notable influences were the cantilevered upper decks, the use of seating colors other than green, and fairly plain concrete exteriors. The most important things, though, were that they had a more intimate feel to them, and they were built for baseball. While the multi-purpose parks have become all but extinct, some modern parks, such as Dodger Stadium and Kauffman Stadium, have been hailed for aging beautifully. Rather than build new parks, the teams have decided instead to renovate the current structures, adding a few newer conveniences. Several of the modern parks built as such have remained in use, with no indication of being demolished.

While Cleveland Stadium is the ancestor to the multi-purpose ballpark, the ancestor of the modern ballpark is Milwaukee County Stadium. It was the first to feature a symmetrical, round outfield fence. It also featured the rounded V-shaped grandstand and colorful seats that are common among all modern parks. Coincidentally, it also would have been one of the earlier examples of a converted park as well. It was supposed to replace a minor league facility, and serve as home of the minor league team until a major league franchise could be lured to the city. However, the Braves came to Milwaukee earlier than expected, and the minor league team never played in the stadium.

The first two truly modern ballparks were built by the two New York teams who moved to California, the Giants and the Dodgers. Candlestick Park was created first, but was converted to a multi-purpose park to accommodate the 49ers. Dodger Stadium has been upgraded a number of times, but remains baseball-only and its original design is still largely intact.

Anaheim Stadium, which was initially modeled closely on Dodger Stadium, was expanded for football as was Candlestick, but once the Rams departed, most of the extra outfield seating was peeled back, returning the structure to more like its original design.

The original Yankee Stadium is an exceptional case. Yankee Stadium was a jewel box park, albeit a very large one. It was showing its age in the 70's, and the stadium was extensively renovated during 1973-75, converting it into more of a modern style ballpark. Many of the characteristics that defined it as a classical jewel box were also retained, so the remodeled Stadium straddled both categories.

New Comiskey Park (now U.S. Cellular Field) was the last modern ballpark to be built in North America. A series of renovations have been made to make it appear more like a retro-classic ballpark.

Ballpark Location Team Opened Closed Demo'd Current Status
Anaheim Stadium Anaheim, California Angels 1966 ------- ------- Active. Renovated in 1979-80 for football and in 1996-98 back to baseball-only.
Candlestick Park San Francisco, California Giants 1960 2013 ------- Renovated in 1971–72 for football. Scheduled to be demolished after the 2013 NFL season.
Dodger Stadium Los Angeles, California Dodgers
Angels
1962 ------- ------- Active.
Kauffman Stadium Kansas City, Missouri Royals 1973 ------- ------- Active. Renovated heavily from 2007 to 2009.
Metropolitan Stadium Bloomington, Minnesota Twins 1956 1981 1985 Now site of the Mall of America.
Milwaukee County Stadium Milwaukee, Wisconsin Braves
Brewers
1953 2000 2001 Now site of Helfaer Field along with parking for Miller Park.
U.S. Cellular Field Chicago, Illinois White Sox 1991 ------- ------- Active. Renovated heavily from 2001 to 2011.
Yankee Stadium I Bronx, New York City Yankees 1923 2008 2010 Renovated heavily from 1973–76. Now a part of Macombs Dam Park.

Temporary and converted ballparks[edit]

Built originally for college football and the Olympics, the oval-shaped Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum became the temporary home of the relocated Dodgers in 1958.

With the 1960s came the first expansion teams. While some teams expanded in cities where there were established teams with facilities that could be shared, not all were as fortunate. This led to the emergence of two distinct subsets of parks in the major leagues: temporary ballparks and converted ballparks.

In some cases, there are plans to build a new ballpark for the expansion team, but it will not be completed until a few years after the team is established. This may be for a few reasons, such as delays or a desire to hold off until the deal is settled. In this case, an established building is used as a temporary home, often a minor league park. The first temporary ballparks were not actually used by expansion teams but by established franchises. When the Dodgers and Giants moved to California from New York, they played in Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum and Seals Stadium respectively while Dodger Stadium and Candlestick Park were being built.

The other case is when, rather than building a new park, the city renovates an existing minor league or college facility, expanding it to fit a major league team. These converted ballparks are different from football stadia that were converted to facilitate baseball in that converted ballparks were originally built to be baseball only, albeit for a non-major league level. Early converted ballparks were Memorial Stadium in Baltimore, Municipal Stadium in Kansas City, and Metropolitan Stadium in Bloomington, Minnesota. All three were expanded minor league facilities, although Baltimore and the Met were constructed with the idea of expanding to major league level in mind. Kansas City was a true established minor league park that was substantially expanded to accommodate major league size crowds.

These two types of ballpark are distinct because of their use, not their design. Because of this, a temporary or converted ballpark can also be any of the other types: jewel box, modern, multi-purpose, etc.

Ballpark Location Team Opened Closed Demo'd Current Status
Arlington Stadium Arlington, Texas Rangers 1965 1993 1994 Now parking for Globe Life Park in Arlington.
Colt Stadium Houston, Texas Colt .45's 1962 1964 1970 Dismantled and rebuilt in Mexico as Mexican League park.
Jarry Park Stadium Montreal, Quebec Expos 1969 1976 1993 Converted to Stade Uniprix, a tennis venue.
Kansas City Municipal Stadium Kansas City, Missouri Athletics
Royals
1923 1972 1976 Now a municipal garden.
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Los Angeles, California Dodgers 1923 ------- ------- Active; closed for baseball in 1961. Holds the baseball world record attendance when 115,300 attended a pre-season exhibition game between the Dodgers and Boston Red Sox on March 29, 2008.
Memorial Stadium Baltimore, Maryland Orioles 1950 1997 2001 Now residential.
Metropolitan Stadium Bloomington, Minnesota Twins 1956 1981 1985 Now site of the Mall of America.
Mile High Stadium Denver, Colorado Rockies 1948 2001 2002 Originally a minor-league baseball stadium in 1948. Now parking for Sports Authority Field at Mile High.
Seals Stadium San Francisco, California Giants 1931 1959 1959 Now a shopping center.
Sick's Stadium Seattle, Washington Pilots 1938 1976 1979 Now a Lowe's store.
Wrigley Field Los Angeles, California Angels 1925 1965 1966 Now Gilbert Lindsay Park.

Indoor ballparks[edit]

Tropicana Field, currently the only active indoor-only MLB baseball park

An important type of ballpark is the indoor park. These parks were covered with a fixed roof, usually a hard concrete dome. Reasons to build indoor parks were varied. The Astrodome, the first indoor sports stadium ever built, was built to escape the hot and very humid climate of Houston; the Kingdome was built to escape Seattle's constant rains, and the Sapporo Dome in Japan (which also hosts a soccer team) was built to escape Sapporo's extreme snowfall. There is little to no natural light in these parks, necessitating the use of one of the most distinguishing aspects of an indoor park: artificial turf. Since there was not enough light to grow grass, artificial turf was installed, and this affected the game. Artificial turf was harder, and thus a ball hit on the ground moved faster and bounced high. This, coupled with the usually dull white or gray roofs that could camouflage a fly ball, caused what Twins fans called a "dome-field advantage".

A park of note is Olympic Stadium in Montreal. The park was designed with a large tower that loomed over top. Cables came down from the top of the tower to connect to the large oval center of the roof. This oval center was supposed to be lifted by the cables, opening the park up if the weather was pleasant. However, the mechanism never worked correctly, and what was supposed to be a retractable roof was initially never used and then later became permanently fixed, making the stadium a strictly indoor facility.

Indoor parks faced many of the same problems of the multi-purpose parks, which was compounded with the added problem of playing an outdoors sport indoors. Tropicana Field is the only indoor-only or fixed-dome park left hosting a Major League Baseball team, and may be replaced in the near future.

Ballpark Location Team Opened Closed Demo'd Current Status
NRG Astrodome Houston, Texas Astros 1965 2004 ------- Structure still standing but has not seen regular use since its closure. Most recently served as a shelter for people displaced by Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita.
Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome Minneapolis, Minnesota Twins 1982 2013 2014 Now future site of Vikings Stadium.
Kingdome Seattle, Washington Mariners 1976 2000 2000 Now site of CenturyLink Field, which opened in 2002.
Olympic Stadium Montreal, Quebec Expos 1976 ------- ------- Active. Closed for baseball in 2004 when Expos moved to Washington, D.C., and became the Washington Nationals.
Tropicana Field St. Petersburg, Florida Rays 1990 ------- ------- Active, although Rays are seeking a new stadium.

Retractable-roof ballparks[edit]

Rogers Centre was the first functional retractable-roof stadium, shown with the roof both opened and closed.

As mentioned above, the indoor parks were built for several different reasons, chief among those weather. However, as multi-purpose parks became unfashionable, so did the drab indoor parks. This led to the creation of retractable-roof parks. These allowed shelter from the elements, but still could be opened on a nice day. To be able to support the roof, most were closed in on all sides like multi-purpose and indoor parks, but as all retractable-roof parks except Rogers Centre are baseball only, every square foot does not need to be filled with seating, and there is plenty of room for open spaces or windows that look outside. Because the roof needs to go somewhere when not covering the field, a distinguishing characteristic of the retractable roof park is a large extension of the interior spaces to either one side of the field or both sides that the roof sits on when retracted. The only exception to this is Miller Park whose fan-shaped roof folds in upon itself and hangs behind the stands down the foul lines. Often, when retracted, the roof still hangs over the field, casting large shadows. This is countered at Miller Park by large panes of glass under the roof. While most seal up when the roof is closed, other are at least partially open, with large gaps that do not let in harsh weather, but don't give the feel of being inside. Except for Rogers Centre, all of these parks feature natural grass.

Pittsburgh's Civic Arena was the first sports building in the world with a retractable roof, however the building was originally constructed for the Pittsburgh Civic Light Opera, which moved out in 1969 due to dissatisfaction with the acoustics in the arena. The arena's long-term tenants, the NHL's Pittsburgh Penguins, never played with the roof open, and the arena itself was never used for baseball. While Montreal's Olympic Stadium was the first baseball park to have a retractable roof, the roof was plagued by numerous problems, and was never fully used. As a result, it is not generally considered to be a retractable-roof facility. This made Rogers Centre the first fully functional retractable-roof park. It managed to succeed where Olympic Stadium failed, building a multi-section roof that folded upon itself, retracting over the hotel in center field.

Retractable-roof parks can vary greatly in style, from the utilitarian (Rogers Centre), to those infused with retro elements (such as Minute Maid Park), to the contemporary (Marlins Park). The style of each park reflects the popular architecture of the era in which it was built. (This differs from indoor ballparks — all of which were built during the time of multi-purpose parks, and thus reflected the same "flying-saucer" style.) When Rogers Centre opened in 1989, baseball was near the end of the modern and multi-purpose era. Chase Field, Safeco Field, Minute Maid Park, and Miller Park all opened in the middle of the retro era. When Marlins Park opened in 2012, it introduced a new and different style, and perhaps the beginning of a new era.[6]

Therefore, the term "retractable-roof ballpark/stadium" is not a description of the overall architectural style of the building, but of the functional aspect of it. For this reason, retractable-roof parks are also dual-listed in style-based types of ballparks. For example, the 4 retractable-roof parks built during the retro era are also considered to be retro-modern ballparks.

Ballpark Location Team Opened Closed Demo'd Current status
Chase Field Phoenix, Arizona Diamondbacks 1998 ------- ------- Active
Marlins Park Miami, Florida Marlins 2012 ------- ------- Active
Miller Park Milwaukee, Wisconsin Brewers 2001 ------- ------- Active
Minute Maid Park Houston, Texas Astros 2000 ------- ------- Active
Rogers Centre Toronto, Ontario Blue Jays 1989 ------- ------- Active
Safeco Field Seattle, Washington Mariners 1999 ------- ------- Active

Retro-classic ballparks[edit]

Camden Yards started the nostalgic craze with a smaller, redbrick and forest-green stadium.

In 1992, Oriole Park at Camden Yards opened in Baltimore. Going in a different direction from the multi-purpose and modern ballparks, Camden Yards harkened back to the old jewel box parks. This began the building of a series of parks known as the retro-classic ballparks, or, simply, retro ballparks.

The retro parks were built with all the luxuries of the newer parks, such as luxury boxes and more restrooms and concession areas, along with new additions, such as indoor concourses that are open to the field, allowing fans to always have a view of the game. However (except for a few exceptions harkening back to the wooden ballpark era), the aesthetics shifted back to jewel box conventions, which included the use of green seats, bricks, stone, and green-painted exposed steel.

A major divergence from jewel boxes was the layout of the grandstand. The focus was now on everyone in the park having a good view. Columns were missing as with the modern parks, but the upper deck was drawn back and shrunk, while the middle tiers grew in size, causing a stepped effect. The cantilevered upper deck was no longer a large necessity. However, since these new upper decks were drawn back, the shape of the inclined seating was clearly expressed on the exterior, a feature that is a hallmark of modern parks.

Like the jewel box parks, the outfield fences were angled rather than the gradual curve of the newer parks, and often had quirky dimensions. The requirements for minimum distance to the outfield fences were rarely enforced during this time.

Teams with multi-purpose and indoor parks longed for this beautiful and classic look, and began systematically demolishing them and moving to either retro-classic or retro-modern parks. Since Camden Yards opened, two-thirds of all major league teams have opened new ballparks, each of which contain unique features. The most important feature was that they were built primarily for baseball, although these venues have also hosted football, soccer and ice hockey games. Turner Field was originally constructed as Centennial Olympic Stadium for the 1996 Summer Olympics and was retrofitted to baseball the following year.

U.S. Cellular Field has an unusual place in ballpark history. It was the last modern park built, built a year before Camden Yards. Just missing the retro movement, it was viewed as obsolete only a year into its life. The White Sox responded with a series of renovations to give the park more retro charm. This included the changing from a cantilever upper deck to a flat roof with columns, and the change from a symmetrical fence to a more unique-shaped asymmetrical fence.

The most recent retro-classic ballparks were built in New York City. Queens' Citi Field is modeled after Ebbets Field, and the Bronx's Yankee Stadium is modeled after the pre-renovation "House that Ruth Built". Both parks opened in 2009.

Teams are now trending away from the retro-classic look and are instead building retro-modern and contemporary ballparks. Turner Field is the first retro-classic park scheduled to be replaced, as the Atlanta Braves plan to move to SunTrust Park after the 2016 season.

Ballpark Location Team Opened Closed Demo'd Current status
AT&T Park San Francisco, California Giants 2000 ------- ------- Active
Busch Stadium III St. Louis, Missouri Cardinals 2006 ------- ------- Active
Citi Field Queens, New York Mets 2009 ------- ------- Active
Citizens Bank Park Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Phillies 2004 ------- ------- Active
Comerica Park Detroit, Michigan Tigers 2000 ------- ------- Active
Coors Field Denver, Colorado Rockies 1995 ------- ------- Active
Globe Life Park in Arlington Arlington, Texas Rangers 1994 ------- ------- Active
Oriole Park at Camden Yards Baltimore, Maryland Orioles 1992 ------- ------- Active
PNC Park Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Pirates 2001 ------- ------- Active
Turner Field Atlanta, Georgia Braves 1996 ------- ------- Active. Renovated in 1996-97 for baseball; Braves intend to move to SunTrust Park in 2017, at which time Turner Field will be demolished.[7]
U.S. Cellular Field Chicago, Illinois White Sox 1991 ------- ------- Active. Renovated heavily from 2001-2011. Originally a Modern ballpark.
Yankee Stadium II Bronx, New York Yankees 2009 ------- ------- Active

Retro-modern ballparks[edit]

Progressive Field was the first retro park with a modern exterior

While Camden Yards influenced nearly every ballpark built after it, not all fully adhere to its design. Those that deviate to incorporate more modern-looking elements are called retro-modern ballparks.

Progressive Field was built two years after Camden Yards, and featured the angular, asymmetrical fences of varying heights, a smaller upper deck, stepped tiers, and an unobtrusive singular color scheme. While the interior has all the hallmarks of a retro park, the exterior did not feature the look of the jewel box parks. It could not truly be called a retro-classic park.

Many of today's parks have followed in this second school of retro. Rather than brick, the exteriors heavily feature white- or gray-painted steel. If there is any masonry, it is sandstone or limestone. Some feature progressive elements such as curtain walls, or retractable roofs.[8]

Angel Stadium has seen many changes throughout the years. It was originally a modern park, similar to the Angels' previous home, Dodger Stadium. When the NFL's Rams left the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum and set up shop in what was then Anaheim Stadium, the first round of renovations began. The grandstand was expanded to completely enclose the stadium, turning it into a multi-purpose park. The Rams left in 1994, leaving the Angels alone in the large, 65,000 seat stadium. After a two-year renovation, the steel was painted green, and what concrete remained was painted sandstone, including the sweeping curve of the entrance plaza. The seating configuration was significantly altered, most notably by tearing out most of the outfield seating except for parts of the lower decks in left and right fields, to more closely resemble the original design from the park's first 15 years. The finished product in 1998 was a retro-modern ballpark.

The same year, when Chase Field opened for the expansion Arizona Diamondbacks, it incorporated a retractable roof and a swimming pool — elements that did not exist in jewel-box ballparks. Despite the absence of MLB history in the Phoenix area and an overwhelming roof design, much of the interior was still built with all of the hallmarks of retro, similar to Progressive Field. Although Chase Field was not the first retractable-roof ballpark in history, it was the first in a wave of four retractable-roof ballparks (opening within just four years) to follow the retro-modern pattern.

During the second decade of retro, PETCO Park and Kauffman Stadium followed the construction and renovation concepts of Progressive Field and Angel Stadium, respectively. Meanwhile, the period saw another subset of three new retro-modern stadiums that pushed away from classic parks even more.

When Great American Ball Park opened in 2003, it featured a contemporary-looking, glass-wrapped facade. Such prominent use of elements that were unfamiliar even to pre-1992 modern stadiums signaled that some stadium planners were more willing to incorporate designs that looked into the 21st century as much as they did the 20th. Five years later, Nationals Park built off Cincinnati's design, making yet more liberal use of glass along with white concrete that would not clash with architecture in the District. Nationals Park became the first stadium to go green while still offering all of the amenities — another concept that looked ahead instead of behind.[9] The retro-modern style climaxed in 2010 with the sculptured, contemporary exterior and canopy of Target Field, rendering it almost unrecognizable from the outside. Its cantilevered glass on top of a limestone base was designed partly to functionally fit the tiny 8-acre plot in the middle of a bustling transportation interchange. But the principal architect of Target Field, Earl Santee of Populous, said that the exterior was also an artistic interpretation of the culture of Minnesotans: a dichotomy of cosmopolitan and natural.[10] Designing the building as a metaphor for people was a different way of thinking about ballpark architecture.

The exterior of the later retro-contemporary trio of ballparks progressively evolved farther and farther from jewel-box or even modern-style parks. Yet, in the stands and on the field they still have the familiar classic feel while implementing the marks of retro (i.e., unique-shaped fences, forest green or other singular color scheme, etc.).[8]

Ballpark Location Team Opened Closed Demo'd Current status
Angel Stadium of Anaheim Anaheim, California Angels 1966 ------- ------- Active. Renovated in 1979-80 and again in 1996-98
Chase Field double-dagger Phoenix, Arizona Diamondbacks 1998 ------- ------- Active
Great American Ball Park Cincinnati, Ohio Reds 2003 ------- ------- Active
Kauffman Stadium Kansas City, Missouri Royals 1973 ------- ------- Active. Renovated heavily from 2007 to 2009.
Miller Park double-dagger Milwaukee, Wisconsin Brewers 2001 ------- ------- Active
Minute Maid Park double-dagger Houston, Texas Astros 2000 ------- ------- Active
Nationals Park Washington, D.C. Nationals 2008 ------- ------- Active
PETCO Park San Diego, California Padres 2004 ------- ------- Active
Progressive Field Cleveland, Ohio Indians 1994 ------- ------- Active. Renovated in 2014-2015
Safeco Field double-dagger Seattle, Washington Mariners 1999 ------- ------- Active
SunTrust Park Cobb County, Georgia Braves 2017 ------- ------- Broke ground
Target Field Minneapolis, Minnesota Twins 2010 ------- ------- Active

double-dagger denotes stadium is also a retractable-roof ballpark

Contemporary ballparks[edit]

Marlins Park has a contemporary, Miami-centric design with a sculptural glass & curves depiction of "water merging with land", Miami-Deco tiles, and a bright multi-color scheme.

Prior to the start of the 2012 baseball season, USA Today noted that new Marlins Park "likely is the last major league ballpark to be built for another five to 10 years", and speculated that it would "perhaps provide a coda to the postmodern Camden Yards era". [11] After 2 decades of the retro style dominating ballpark architecture, something radical occurred. A new type of design emerged in 2012 with the opening of Marlins Park, snapping the consecutive streak of 20 new (plus 3 renovated) MLB retro stadiums. This latest style's purpose is to make the fan experience the present-day culture of the stadium's surrounding city or area, and rejects the basic notion of retro. Stadium planners are calling the style contemporary.

Unlike retro ballparks, neither the interior nor the exterior of a contemporary park feels nostalgic for historic stadiums of the early 20th century. Contemporary parks do not feature classic elements (redbrick, forest green, etc.) -- for that matter, they might not all follow a common material or color of any kind. However, contemporary design does retain the close-proximity seating to the field favored by ticket patrons, and retains some uniqueness to the outfield walls of the retro style—although the idiosyncrasies of the latter are not as contrived. Plus, a contemporary stadium is still specifically purposed for baseball with pageantry for the sport. Therefore, although the style could be considered neomodern, contemporary is also not included within the modern or multipurpose era of symmetrical, non-glass, or utilitarian stadiums built from the 1950s through 1991.

Instead of copying building materials and color schemes from other ballparks—past and present—a contemporary ballpark's design is primarily inspired by the unique features and forward trends of its own city. It immerses visitors in the city that the park represents by making bold use of contemporary materials (such as glass), a sculptural exterior, dazzling bright colors, and artwork that create the look and feel of the particular city's contemporary décor—or an abstraction of it. It embraces new technologies. As part of its forward-looking design, a contemporary park is also a green building while still offering all of the amenities.[12]

Miami's new stadium is a contemporary ballpark "that is quintessentially Miami" both inside and out. Jeffrey Loria, the team owner who spearheaded the new Marlins Park project, mandated that the building look like it was built in the 21st century and specifically for South Florida. He explained, "I really didn't want it to be just another ballpark. I wasn't interested in a 1970's or '80s doughnut. I wanted it to be a statement of what Miami is all about -- a contemporary city..."[13]

"When it all started, the architects came to me and asked what I had envisioned. Was I looking to have a retro stadium? Did we have that in mind? I said, 'No retro, no art-deco, no looking back. Miami is a spectacular city, looking ahead. We need to be looking forward. I'd like to see us build a great, contemporary building," Loria said.[14]

The Marlins hired Populous to design to their new vision—the same architectural firm that designed many of the retro stadiums, including Camden Yards. "We were waiting for a client willing to break the mold," said Greg Sherlock, a Populous project designer for Marlins Park. "We wanted a Miami feel. We wanted to be immersed in that. That was No. 1. I think it conveys that a ballpark doesn't necessarily have to be bricks and steel to translate a message about its location. It can be interpreted in a fresh way.

"If you're looking for a label, I'd say contemporary," Sherlock continued. "In this particular case, we didn't adopt anything stylistically. It's sculpture quality, and with sculpture, there are no rules. We wanted an experience that connects the fan experience to the city of Miami and its people and its climate and culture." [15]

When asked if the style was a one-off design to fit Miami, Sherlock replied, "I think there will be more contemporary ballparks in the future. I don't think the next one is going to be like … [this one], because Marlins Park is all about Miami. It's consistent with the essence of the buildings that are down here -- white plaster and graceful forms, which are somewhat of an abstraction of the look and feel of Miami Deco." [16]

Populous has already designed a contemporary stadium for Tampa Bay, but the project was cancelled. The New Yorker wrote regarding the new MLB architecture: "The retro mold has finally been broken, but this might be the last chance a new style gets for some time." [17]

Ballpark Location Team Opened Closed Demo'd Current status
Marlins Park double-dagger Miami, Florida Marlins 2012 ------- ------- Active

double-dagger denotes stadium is also a retractable-roof ballpark

Current Major League ballparks[edit]

The cardinal outfield dimensions, along with the backstop.

The numbers mean the number of feet from home plate to the wall of that part of the field. Left and Right Field normally refer to the distances along the foul lines. Left Center and Right Center are the approximate power alley figures. Center Field could mean straightaway center field or it could mean to the deepest part of the center field area. Backstop refers to the distance behind home plate to the backstop screen. These numbers [18] are one researcher's opinion of the true values and may differ from the numbers marked on the wall/fence by as much as 30 feet (9.1 m). Capacity[19] figures may also vary.

Stadium Team City Cap. LF LC CF RC RF BS
Angel Stadium of Anaheim Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim Anaheim, California 45,483 330′ 382′ 400′ 365′ 330′ 59′
AT&T Park San Francisco Giants San Francisco, California 41,915 339′ 368′ 399′ 421′ 309′ 48′
Busch Stadium St. Louis Cardinals St. Louis, Missouri 43,975 335′ 375′ 400′ 375′ 335′ 55′
Chase Field Arizona Diamondbacks Phoenix, Arizona 48,633 330′ 376′ 407′ 376′ 335′ 58′
Citi Field New York Mets Queens, New York City 41,922 335′ 379′ 408′ 383′ 330′ 45′
Citizens Bank Park Philadelphia Phillies Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 43,651 329′ 355′ 401′ 357′ 330′ 60′
Comerica Park Detroit Tigers Detroit, Michigan 41,255 345′ 370′ 420′ 388′ 330′ 62′
Coors Field Colorado Rockies Denver, Colorado 50,480 347′ 390′ 415′ 382′ 350′ 54′
Dodger Stadium Los Angeles Dodgers Los Angeles, California 56,000 330′ 368′ 400′† 368′ 330′ 53′
Fenway Park Boston Red Sox Boston, Massachusetts 37,499*** 310′ 335′ 390′†† 380′ 302′ 54′
Globe Life Park in Arlington Texas Rangers Arlington, Texas 48,114 330′ 380′ 400′ 380′ 330′ 60′
Great American Ball Park Cincinnati Reds Cincinnati, Ohio 42,319 328′ 365′ 404′ 365′ 325′ 52′
Kauffman Stadium Kansas City Royals Kansas City, Missouri 37,903 330′ 387′ 410′ 387′ 330′ 50′
Marlins Park Miami Marlins Miami, Florida 36,742 340′ 384′ 416′ 392′ 335′ 47′
Miller Park Milwaukee Brewers Milwaukee, Wisconsin 41,900 344′ 370′ 400′ 374′ 337′ 54′
Minute Maid Park Houston Astros Houston, Texas 42,060 315′ 404' 436′ 373' 326′ 56′
Nationals Park Washington Nationals Washington, D.C. 41,418 336′ 377′ 402′ 370′ 335′ 53'2″
O.co Coliseum Oakland Athletics Oakland, California 35,067* 330′ 362′ 400′ 362′ 330′ 66′
Oriole Park at Camden Yards Baltimore Orioles Baltimore, Maryland 45,971 333′ 364′ 410′ 373′ 318′ 58′
PETCO Park San Diego Padres San Diego, California 42,524 334′ 378′ 396′ 387′ 322′ 45′
PNC Park Pittsburgh Pirates Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 38,362 325′ 389′ 399′ 364′ 320′ 55′
Progressive Field Cleveland Indians Cleveland, Ohio 42,241 325′ 370′ 405′††† 375′ 325′ 60′
Rogers Centre Toronto Blue Jays Toronto, Ontario 49,282 328′ 375′ 400′ 375′ 328′ 60′
Safeco Field Seattle Mariners Seattle, Washington 47,476 331′ 375′ 405′ 365′ 326′ 62′
Target Field Minnesota Twins Minneapolis, Minnesota 39,021 339′ 377′ 404′ 367′ 328′ 46'
Tropicana Field Tampa Bay Rays St. Petersburg, Florida 34,078** 315′ 370′ 404′ 370′ 322′ 50′
Turner Field Atlanta Braves Atlanta, Georgia 49,586 335′ 380′ 400′ 390′ 330′ 43′
U.S. Cellular Field Chicago White Sox Chicago, Illinois 40,615 335′ 375′ 400′ 375′ 330′ 60′
Wrigley Field Chicago Cubs Chicago, Illinois 41,019 355′ 368′ 400′ 368′ 353′ 60′
Yankee Stadium New York Yankees Bronx, New York City 50,291 318′ 399′ 408′ 385′ 314′ 52′4″

*O.co Coliseum is expandable to 55,945. **Tropicana Field is expandable to 42,735. ***Fenway Park is 37,071 during day games.

†Actual distance to center field is 400 feet (120 m); the 395 feet (120 m) markings are to the left and right of dead center.[20]

††At Fenway Park, straightaway center is 390 feet (120 m), but there is a corner in the fence just right of center that juts out to 420 feet (130 m).

†††Distance to straightaway center field. Distance to deep center field is 410 feet (120 m)

Unique features and quirks of current major league parks[edit]

Wrigley's ivy, bleachers, rooftop seats, and scoreboard
Angel Stadium of Anaheim's rock outcropping in the outfield
O.co Coliseum's Mount Davis, the unused seats covered by tarps
Kauffman Stadium's video board is the largest in Major League Baseball
U.S. Cellular Field with its iconic "exploding scoreboard" in center field
Progressive Field with its Little Green Monster in left field
Chase Field, one of the few parks to have air conditioning while the roof is open
AT&T's open view of the Bay and McCovey Cove
Comerica Park, the brick wall and monument park in center field and Ford Field beyond the grandstand in left
Minute Maid Park, with Tal's Hill in deep center
One side of Miller Park's fan-shaped roof and its large panes of glass
PNC Park's Roberto Clemente Bridge
"The Gap" at Great American Ballpark

Parks are ordered by date of construction.

  • Fenway Park (Boston Red Sox) - Fenway is quite possibly the most notoriously quirky ballpark. The aforementioned 37-foot (11 m) Green Monster in left field, which includes a field-level manually operated scoreboard and a ladder, leads to unpredictable ricochets. So do the oddly angled fences in center and right field. While the Monster in left dominates the park, Fenway's right field is also notable. Known as "the belly", right field is 380 at its deepest point, a large divergence from the short left field. The curve of the fence comes in as it nears "Pesky's Pole", named for former Red Sox player Johnny Pesky, and the distance from home plate to the foul pole is only 302 feet (92 m). Strangely enough, despite this being the shortest foul line in baseball, home runs in this area are relatively rare.
  • Wrigley Field (Chicago Cubs) - Wrigley is the only ballpark left in use that has a brick outfield fence. This fence is covered in Wrigley's trademark ivy. From time to time, a batted ball becomes lodged in the vines, which is ruled a ground rule double. Because there are streets close beyond the outfield fences, there is little room for seating or other structures, making the park very open in the outfield. This, coupled with the park's proximity to Lake Michigan, which affects the wind currents from day to day or even hour to hour, can change the dynamic of the park. When the wind is blowing in, the park becomes a pitcher's park, despite the cozy power alleys. When the wind is blowing out, however, it becomes a hitters park. The openness of the ballpark also allows residents of the buildings across the street to get an unobstructed view of the field. Some owners even have installed small sections of inclined seating on top of the buildings. Wrigley was the last major league park to install field lights, with the first night home game being played in 1988.
  • Dodger Stadium (Los Angeles Dodgers) - The view beyond the outfield is dominated by hills and the San Gabriel Mountains, and on one of the hills, large block letters have been erected that spell out "THINK BLUE", reminiscent of the Hollywood Sign (which can be seen from the top deck of the stadium facing away from the field). The setting sun often reflects off the hills and can give the pitchers a distinct advantage, which the Dodgers have capitalized upon frequently. The Dodger Stadium grandstand is sculpted into the side of a man-made hill, in the fashion of the ancient Roman amphitheaters. This enabled the construction of multileveled terraced parking lots, which allow patrons to park their cars on the same level as their seats, thus minimizing vertical climbing and the need for elevators, escalators and ramps. One perceived drawback of this design is that it does not allow spectators to easily move from one seating level to another. The top of a ten-story elevator shaft bearing the Dodger logo rises behind home plate atop the upper seating level. The massive tiers consist of varicolored seats (yellow, light orange, turquoise, and sky blue), and the right and left field seats consist of little-league-style bleachers topped by a wavy roof. Dodger Stadium has become famous for the no-gimmick, nostalgic baseball atmosphere created by the aesthetic simplicity of the ballpark's design. The slogan for the stadium is "Blue Heaven on Earth".
  • Angel Stadium of Anaheim (Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim) - Beyond the left field fence is a rock outcropping with water running down the center of it. At the top is three rocks forming an "A". The roof over the dugouts continues, connecting the two to form a dugout-level seating. The parking lot contains a large "A" with a halo, which once held the stadium's scoreboard. There are also two giant red caps at the front gate.
  • O.co Coliseum (Oakland Athletics) - The Coliseum is dominated by a section of seating derisively known as "Mount Davis". To lure the Raiders football team from Los Angeles back to Oakland, seats needed to be added to satisfy owner Al Davis. Thus, the 6-floor seating area was added, blocking the view of the hills beyond. The Coliseum is also known for its immense foul territory, which results in many popped-up foul balls that would go well into the seats in other stadiums being easily caught for outs.
  • Kauffman Stadium (Kansas City Royals) - Kauffman is best known for having a 322-foot (98 m) fountain and waterfall display, known as the Water Spectacular, the largest privately funded fountain in the world. The fountains are on display before and after the game and in-between innings, while the waterfalls are constantly flowing. The 12-story iconic crown-shaped scoreboard holds the largest video board in MLB. The stadium is also noted for having the best hitter's background in the American League.[citation needed]
  • Rogers Centre (Toronto Blue Jays)- The first fully functional retractable roof over a baseball stadium rests here, and is a unique system, with the larger section folding into a smaller semicircle that looms over the field. Under this sits glassed-in seating and one of the world's largest Jumbotron screens. The 348-room Renaissance Toronto Hotel is also located within stadium, with 70 rooms overlooking the field. The CN Tower next door stands tall over the park. This stadium is the last of the "squared-circle" designs that were similar to Qualcomm Stadium and the now-demolished Veterans Stadium.
  • U.S. Cellular Field (Chicago White Sox) - The old Comiskey Park was well known for what was called the "Exploding Scoreboard". This scoreboard was reincarnated in the new park. Holding a huge video screen, the scoreboard features sound effects and fireworks that go off after wins and home runs and is topped by iconic spinning pinwheels.
  • Oriole Park at Camden Yards (Baltimore Orioles) - Camden Yards is the park that began the retro ballpark craze (although the minor-league Coca-Cola Field in Buffalo, designed by the same firm, predates Camden Yards by four years). Its green seats, its brick and steel finish, and its irregular grandstand configuration all hearken back to the good ol' days. Beyond the bleachers in right and right center is a wall of brick columns with black iron gates. Beyond that looms the large B&O Warehouse, a very prominent feature of the park.
  • Progressive Field (Cleveland Indians) - This is the first retro-modern ballpark of the era. Cleveland has a 19-foot (5.8 m) left field wall, known as "The Little Green Monster", complete with a digital scoreboard embedded in the wall, installed in 2004.
  • Globe Life Park in Arlington (Texas Rangers) - The exterior is a solid one of brick and features stone longhorn steer heads. The stadium is completely closed in, with offices walling in the space beyond the outfield. This can create a swirling wind effect that gives some hits a bit of aerodynamic lift. Right-center field fence has an inward "jog", a feature of artificial quirkiness that several recent ballparks include.
  • Coors Field (Colorado Rockies) - Most of the seats in Coors Field are dark green, however, the seats in the 20th row of the upper deck are purple. This marks the city's one mile (5,280 feet) elevation point. While most stadiums' batter's eyes are dark colored walls or patches of grass, Coors Field takes the opportunity to feature a scene of Colorado nature. The area, which sits in front of a tall green wall, is a large rock outcropping with a few ponds and waterfalls, and a number of evergreen trees. Atop this "rockpile" is a standalone and very distant bleacher section. The higher altitude and lower air density of Denver also figure into the uniqueness of the ballpark.
  • Turner Field (Atlanta Braves) - It started out as the stadium for the 1996 Olympics, and soon afterward was turned (as planned) into the new stadium for the Braves. The outline of the stands that once extended far beyond the outfield fences is expressed by a line of columns, the extra area forming the Grand Entry Plaza that welcomes many Braves fans.
  • Tropicana Field (Tampa Bay Rays) - Tropicana Field is a field that has had its share of criticisms, the biggest having to do with its catwalks. Four catwalks encircle the dome's interior, with the two towards the infield being in play. A ball hit off of them can be caught for an out. The two towards the outfield are out of play and, when hit, are either a home run or a foul ball, depending on where it hits in relation to the foul poles. Unlike most former MLB facilities with artificial turf, the park has a full dirt infield, rather than limiting dirt to "sliding pits" around each base.
  • Chase Field (Arizona Diamondbacks) - Due to the hot Phoenix weather, Chase is fully air conditioned. It also has a pool in the outfield, which can be rented by spectators. The field itself is graced by a distinctive dirt strip between home plate and the pitching mound. Once uniformly common in early baseball parks, this strip is present in only two modern parks (Comerica Park being the other).
  • Safeco Field (Seattle Mariners) - Safeco has a retractable roof. While most retractable roofs form a complete enclosure, Safeco's forms more of an umbrella. The roof is supported by large steel structures that run on tracks, and these structures are very open, barely obscuring the view to the outside. The stadium is shielded from the rain but is still very open.
  • AT&T Park (San Francisco Giants) - An arm of San Francisco Bay is just outside of the right field fence. The area is called McCovey Cove (named for former Giants slugger Willie McCovey), and is often filled with boaters hoping to catch baseballs hit out of the park (a baseball initially floats in water), just as fans used to leave the right field bleachers at Candlestick Park and gather on the flat ground when McCovey came to bat. The right field line is rather close, and although the wall angles away sharply, a "jog" in right-center neutralizes that angle somewhat. Underneath this 24-foot (7.3 m) high brick wall is an area where fans can watch (a maximum of three innings) the ballgame for free. There is a special scoreboard near the right field wall that counts how many fair balls have been hit into the bay during game play by the San Francisco Giants (called "Splash Hits"). Many of those have been hit by Barry Bonds, the left-handed slugger whose presence strongly influenced the design of the ballpark, as legend says Yankee Stadium's short porch was for Babe Ruth. The grass field is one of a few ballparks to not have patterns mowed into it creating what the Giants called "an authentic old-time feel" to the ballpark. Beyond the center-field wall and below the batters-eye the groundskeepers have planted an avocado tree. It is also the only current Major League ballpark with a female public-address announcer (Renel Brooks-Moon).
  • Comerica Park (Detroit Tigers) - Two brick walls flank the batter's eye, the names of those important to the organization and the Tigers' retired numbers painted in white on them. Above the left field wall, Comerica has its own monument park filled with large statues of Tiger greats. Over the left field upper-deck, one can see Ford Field looming, which was built in the same project as the park. The scoreboard is topped by two large tigers, and, whenever a run is scored, their eyes light up and the sound of a tiger growl is played over the speakers. Beyond the outfield is a great view of downtown Detroit, including the Wyland Whale mural, although this has been periodically covered with a Verizon ad since the 2006 postseason. Since downtown is located south of the stadium, this orientation unfortunately gives the majority of spectators in left field an eyeful of sunlight as the sun sets. The park started its life with an extremely deep left-center field, but the fence has since been moved in with the bullpen now occupying the previously in-play area. It is interesting to note that the left-center field flag pole was originally in-play before this fence was brought in prior to the 2003 season. The field itself is graced by a distinctive dirt strip between home plate and the pitching mound. Once uniformly common in early baseball parks, this strip is present in only two modern parks (Chase Field being the other).
  • Minute Maid Park (Houston Astros) - A train filled with giant oranges runs forward and back along the left outfield when home runs are hit. The train was placed at Minute Maid in honor of the stadium being built in what was once the rail terminal for Houston. The old Union Station stands beyond the train on the wall and serves as team offices. Center field features an uphill incline known as "Tal's Hill", much like old Crosley Field in Cincinnati and the former Duffy's Cliff at Fenway Park in Boston, although it was created as a decoration, as opposed to being required due to the grade of the land. It is the only park in major league baseball with a flagpole in play, another purely decorative feature borrowed from the old Tiger Stadium in Detroit. First baseman Richie Sexson, then of the Milwaukee Brewers, is the only player to have hit the flagpole during a game. Its cozy dimensions, especially in left field, have led to its being called the "Juice Box". The Astros have been competitive in the early years of the ballpark, and the stadium fans can be very noisy when the roof is closed.
  • Miller Park (Milwaukee Brewers) - Like Safeco Field, Miller Park has a retractable roof. In the left field corner houses "Bernie's Dugout", the home of the Brewers mascot, Bernie Brewer. At the beginning of the game, after every Brewers home run, and if the Brewers win, fireworks go off and Bernie slides down his slide. He also hangs "K"s to signify strikeouts. In 2006, a picnic area was added in right field. The retractable roof is unique in that it folds and unfolds like a fan, from a single pivot point, rather than sliding in parallel sections as most do. The arc-shaped trusses needed to support this roof make the ballpark nearly twice as high as it would be without a roof, dominating its surroundings.
  • PNC Park (Pittsburgh Pirates) - The park was built on the Allegheny River, and its low walls behind the outfield seats allow for a stunning view of the river and skyline of downtown Pittsburgh that rests on the other side. Located directly outside the park is the Roberto Clemente Bridge, named in honor of the Pirates' legend, which is closed to traffic during games and serves as a pedestrian bridge.
  • Great American Ball Park (Cincinnati Reds) - Sitting on the Ohio River, the park has the same relationship to the water that AT&T and PNC have. Beyond the right-center fence sits two large steamboat smokestacks that belch smoke, flash lights, and shoot fireworks when the Reds hit a home run and win games. The most prominent feature is a large gap in the grandstand. As the outfield is towards the river, and away from downtown Cincinnati, there is a large gap in the grandstands that allow a view out to the city from the park and vice-versa. To one side of the gap, there are three seating levels, and on the other, there are two. Inside the park, there are Italian-marble mosaics, "toothbrush" light towers and the nostalgic Sun/Moon Deck. The contemporary-looking, glass-wrapped facade around the exterior is the first of the retro era.
  • Citizens Bank Park (Philadelphia Phillies) - Citizens Bank Park has a giant Liberty Bell that lights up and rings as it moves from side to side. Outfield fence has a "jog" similar to the Globe Life Park in Arlington, except it's in left-center.
  • PETCO Park (San Diego Padres) - A challenging factor in the design of this stadium was the presence of a historic structure, the Western Metal Supply Company Building, on the proposed ballpark site. Instead of being demolished, the building was integrated into the stadium, with the team store on the first floor and the other floors converted to suites. In fact, its southeast corner serves as the left field foul pole.
  • Busch Stadium (St. Louis Cardinals) - The stadium is very open, allowing a great view of St. Louis, including the iconic Gateway Arch. The old manual scoreboards that showed the scores around the league, were installed up on the walls of the inside concourse, still in the same configuration they were in the day the Cardinals played their last game in the old stadium.
  • Citi Field (New York Mets) - Citi Field is the only ballpark in the majors that does not have yellow foul poles, as its poles are instead painted orange, a trait it shares with its predecessor, Shea Stadium. The exterior facade is reminiscent of Ebbets Field, and leads into the Jackie Robinson Rotunda, which honors the Brooklyn Dodgers' legend. The most famous quirk of Citi Field, a Mets tradition that has been present since 1982, is the home-run apple. Now in straightaway center in the middle of the batter's eye, there is a concrete housing. When the Mets hit a home run, the giant apple, which has a Mets logo on the front that lights up, rises from its housing.
  • Yankee Stadium (New York Yankees) - The batter's eye in center field is a sports bar with tinted windows. Under this bar is Monument Park, an outdoor museum dedicated to the history of the team, which includes plaques, the retired numbers, and the six eponymous monuments, plaques placed on slabs of marble. The exterior is designed to resemble the old Yankee Stadium, but is actually a shell, with an open "Great Hall" between the exterior and the structure of the actual stadium. An iconic feature of the old stadium is the arched frieze, which is now placed back to its original position as the fascia of the roof.
  • Target Field (Minnesota Twins) - The stadium itself is sculpture design with a local limestone foundation under cantilevered glass. This contemporary exterior is meant as a metaphor for the cultural dichotomy of Minnesotans who are both natural and cosmopolitan. A canopy lines the top edges over the upper deck. The ballpark has heated viewing areas and a heated field. In center field, a modernized version of the original "Minnie and Paul Shaking Hands" logo has mechanical features when a Twins player hits a home run. The sign lights up with strobe lights surrounding the Minnesota state outline and Minne and Paul.
  • Marlins Park (Miami Marlins) - The contemporary-style ballpark is the first non-retro stadium built in the 20 years since Camden Yards opened, breaking a streak of 20 consecutive new (plus 3 renovated) retro ballparks. Marlins Park is designed to be all about 21st-century Miami with its people, culture and climate. The building is an air-conditioned, retractable-roof ballpark with separate, retractable glass walls beyond the fences. This engineering provides fans with uninterrupted views of downtown Miami while comforting them from Miami's intense heat, humidity, and frequent rain during the Summer. It is also designed to withstand strong hurricanes. The glass exterior meets with sculpted, upward curving white stucco and steel. This reflects contemporary Miami architecture but is also an artistic depiction of the water-meets-land topography of the city. Four bright colors taken from the palette of Spanish artist Joan Miró mark zones around park, and the fences are a flashy lime green. Beyond left field, Marlins Park features a South-Beach-themed night club with a bar, loud music, and swimming pool. A 75-foot home run sculpture behind center field lights up and animates when the hometeam hits one out. Dual tropical aquariums are housed within either side of the backstop with special glass to protect from impacts. There's a Bobblehead Museum, and plenty of local cuisine, including Cuban tastes of the park's Little Havana neighborhood. The park goes green in a several ways: extensive glass to allow in natural light (even when the roof and walls are closed), bamboo paneling in suites instead of hardwood, and waterless urinals.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://mlb.mlb.com/NASApp/mlb/mlb/official_info/official_rules/foreword.jsp
  2. ^ http://newyork.yankees.mlb.com/nyy/ballpark/new_stadium_comparison.jsp
  3. ^ Baseball Explained, by Phillip Mahony. McFarland Books, 2014. See www.baseballexplained.com
  4. ^ http://milwaukee.brewers.mlb.com/mil/ballpark/information/index.jsp?content=groundrules
  5. ^ Baseball Explained, by Phillip Mahony. McFarland Books, 2014. See www.baseballexplained.com
  6. ^ http://deadspin.com/5898747/marlins-park-camden-yards-and-the-end-of-the-retro-ballpark
  7. ^ Bluestein, Greg; Leslie, Katie (November 12, 2013). "Atlanta's Reed promises enormous middle-class development at Turner Field". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved November 12, 2013. 
  8. ^ a b http://www.theatlanticcities.com/arts-and-lifestyle/2012/03/retro-ballpark-movement-officially-over/1597/
  9. ^ http://washington.nationals.mlb.com/was/ballpark/information/index.jsp?content=facts_figures
  10. ^ http://blogs.citypages.com/blotter/2010/04/target_field_is.php
  11. ^ Dodd, Mike (April 2, 2012). "Marlins see future in modern, artistic park". USA Today. Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  12. ^ http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-contemporary-architecture.htm
  13. ^ Bodley, Hal (April 3, 2012). "Marlins Park is Loria's masterpiece in Miami". MLB.com. Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  14. ^ Frisaro, Joe (March 31, 2012). "Homer feature emblematic of artistic Miami park". MLB.com. Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  15. ^ Justice, Richard (April 3, 2012). "Marlins Park a work of art in every facet". MLB.com. Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  16. ^ http://www.architectmagazine.com/architecture/interview-greg-sherlock.aspx?rssLink=Q%26A%3a+Greg+Sherlock
  17. ^ The End of the Retro Ballpark
  18. ^ Clem's Baseball ~ Stadium dimensions
  19. ^ The Baseball Guru - Major League Ballparks since 1900, sorted chronologically by franchise by Joe Mock
  20. ^ Lowry, Phillip (2005). Green Cathedrals. New York City: Walker & Company. ISBN 0-8027-1562-1. 

External links[edit]