Baloch of Punjab
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2014)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|• Balochi • Seraiki • Punjabi • Urdu • English|
|• Islam 100% •|
|Related ethnic groups|
|• Baloch • Baloch diaspora • Sindhi Baloch • Baloch of India|
History and origin
The Baloch claim a mixed ancestry, asserting that they are descended, on the one hand, from Amir Hamza an uncle of the Prophet Mohammed, and on the other, they consistently place their first settlement in Aleppo, Syria from which they were expelled in A. D. 580 by the Sasanian Persian King Chosroes I Anoshervan. Their migration took them first to the area of Alborz Mountains and Qazvin to Kerman, then Sistan, and finally into Makran. In time, most of the territory of Makran has come to be known as Balochistan--"Land of the Baloch." In the 16th century, some of the Baloch moved into Sindh (where they are known as the Sindhi Baloch) and also into Punjab. Many Baloch tribal warriors were hired by the sultans of Oman and other emirs in the Persian Gulf as their body guards and soldiers, carrying them as far off as east Africa. There a large number of these Baloch in the Arabian Peninsual now, where the family name "al-Balooshi" (The Balochi) is commonly the small emirates in the Persian Gulf—from Bahrain to Qatar, the UAE and Oman. There, they form a well-to-do class of people.
In the middle of the 17th century the Brahuis, with the help of Turks, took advantage of the Balochis weakness after the Rind-Lashari war which lasted for 30 years and had driven them out of the Kalat valley. Yielding to pressure they moved eastward into the Sulaimans, drove out the Pathans, and settled along the banks of the Indus. Three Baloch adventurers Ismail Khan, Fatteh Khan, and Ghazi Khan, founded the three Dehras that bear their names, and established themselves as independent rulers of the Lower Derajat and Muzaffargarh, which they and their descendants held for nearly 300 years. The three brothers founded the settlements of Dera Ghazi Khan, Dera Ismail Khan and Darya Khan. Thence the southern Balochis gradually spread into the valleys of the Indus, Chenab, and Sutlej, and in 1555 a large body of Balochis, under their great leader Mir Chakar, accompanied the Emperor Humayun into India. It is probable that many of the Baloch settlements, in the Eastern districts of the Punjab, were founded by Humayun's soldiers. Mir Chakar settled in Sahiwal and his tomb still exists at Satgarha, where he founded a military colony of Rinds.
Long before Mir Chakar's time, Mir Jalal Khan was one of the Baloch historical rulers, and from his four sons— Rind, Lashar, Hooth and Korai — spring the four main Baloch tribes. The Jatoi are the children of Jatoi, Jalal Khan's daughter. These main sections are now divided into innumerable septs. Throughout the Punjab the term Baloch denotes any Muslim camel-man. The word has come to be associated with the care of camels, because the Baloch settlers of the Western plains have taken to the grazing and breeding of camels rather than to husbandry, and every Baloch is supposed to be a camelman and every camel-man to be a Baloch.
The Baloch of the Punjab plains are now altogether separated from the Baloch tribes of Balochistan and the Derajat, although the same tribal names are still found among them; some tribes and families still are in contact with the tribes in Baluchistan . Long residence in Punjab and inter-marriage with the Jats has deprived them of many of their characteristics, and they have now forgotten the Baloch language and have abandoned the Baloch dress. Yet Baluch traditions can be seen in some parts (where Baluch families and tribes reside) of south-punjab mainly in Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffarghar and Rajanpur. They mostly speak Seraiki or Sulemani Balochi in the south of Punjab, while those in the districts of Faisalabad, Sahiwal, Jhang, Sargodha and Khushab speak Punjabi.
Distribution and main clans
The Baloch are found mainly in the districts of Multan, Lodhran Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazi Khan districts in sothern Punjab and Jhang, Sargodha, Khushab and Sahiwal bhakar rahim yar khan bahawalpore rajan pore and thonsa
The following clans are those most commonly found of the Punjab : —
Kulachi, Ahmadani, Chandio Korai, Jatoi, Mandwani,Gopang, Mashori, Rind,khosa 'sanjrani' lund' jamali' marri' lashari' dodai' meerani' Khushk, Gurmani, Dashti, Jatoi, Gishkauri, Mazari, Hot, Pitafi and Zangeza, Jalbani, Gurchani Jhar.lalwani.nutkani /Nutkani
The Rind, mandwani, Jatoi and Korai are numerous in Multan, Jhang, Sahiwal, Sargodha, Rahimyar Khan and Muzaffargarh districts. While the Gopangs and Dashtis, both are found in the Muzaffargarh district. The Hot are found in Jhang, Multan and Muzaffargarh, and the Gurmanis, Khushik, Giskhauris, Pitafis in Muzaffargarh and Rahimyar Khan. While the Mazaris in Jhang, Jaccobabad, Rajanpur, Kashmore and Rahimyar khan. The Magassi Baloch, who are found in Multan, Muzaffargarh, Mianwali and Jhang, appear to be a "peculiar people" rather than a tribe. Jalbani tribe is concentrated in D.G.Khan and Rajanpur districts in the Punjab. Both Sunnis and Shias are found among them and they have several peculiar customs not to be found among other Balochis.
- Joshua Project (2008-08-01). "Baloch, Eastern in India Ethnic People Profile". Joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 2014-01-04.
- J.M. Wikeley (September 2011) [before 1923]. Punjabi Musalmans. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 978-1-245-18342-0.[page needed]
- H.A. Rose (1 January 1997) . A Glossary Of The Tribes And Castes Of The Punjab And North-West Frontier Province 3 Vols. Set. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors (P) Limited. ISBN 978-81-85297-71-2.[page needed]