Baloch people

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Total population
10 to 15 million[citation needed]
Regions with significant populations
 Pakistan approx 6,900,000 (2013)[1]
 Iran 1,557,000[2]
 Oman 434,000 (2009)[3][4][5]
 Afghanistan 300,000 (2009)[6]
 United Arab Emirates 100,000 [7]
 India 60,000 [8]
 Turkmenistan 30,000 [9][10]
Brahui, Persian, Pashto and Arabic are also spoken depending on area of residence.
Predominantly Sunni Islam[11] but also Mahdavi(Zikri),Sufism, Shia with minorities of Christianity and Zoroastrianism
Related ethnic groups
Other Iranian peoples

The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi: بلوچ) live mainly in the Balochistan region of the Iranian plateau in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

They are an Iranian people and mainly speak Balochi language which itself is a branch of the Iranian languages, and more specifically of the Northwestern Iranian languages. The Baloch population worldwide is estimated to be in the range of 10 to 15 million. They make nearly 4% of the Pakistani population and live in the Pakistani provinces of Balochistan, Sindh and Punjab. They make up 2% of Iran's population (1.5 million). There are many Baloch living in other parts of the world, with the bulk living in Arab states of the Persian Gulf (Eastern Arabia). However, the exact number of Baloch and GCC citizens of Baloch ancestry is difficult to determine.

About 50% of the total Baloch population live in East Balochistan, a western province of Pakistan.[12] 40% Baloch are settled in Sindh and also a significant number of Baloch people in South Punjab of Pakistan. Many of the rest live in Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait, India and in some parts of Africa, namely Kenya (Mombasa, Malindi, Nairobi and Lamu), Tanzania (Rujewa and Tabora have a large community, Zanzibar, Pemba and Mafia Island), Uganda (Kabramaido, Kalaki). Small communities of Baloch people also live in Europe particularly Sweden, Norway, Denmark, England and in Perth, Australia, where they arrived in the 19th century.[citation needed]


Iranian Baloch khans in Qajar era, c. 1884
Baloch of Nimruz Province, Afghanistan

The first settlement of the Baloch people is Aleppo from where they migrated to Iraq where they remained until, siding the sons of Hazrat Ali and taking part in the Battle of Karbala against Yazid I, they were expelled by Yazid, the second of the Umayyad Caliphs, in 680 AD. Thence they first went to Kerman, and eventually to Sistan where they were hospitably received by Shams-ud-Din, ruler of that region. According to Dames there was a Shams-ud-Din, independent Malik of Sistan, who claimed descent from the Saffarids of Persia who died in 1164 AD (559 AH) or nearly 500 years after the Baloch migration from Aleppo. Badr-ud-Din appears to be unknown to history. His successor, Badr-ud-Din, demanded, according to eastern usage, a girl from each of the 44 tribes of the Baloch. But the Balochs had never paid tribute in this form to any ruler, and they sent therefore 44 boys dressed in girls' clothes and fled before the deception could be discovered. Badr-ud-Din sent the boys back but pursued the Baloch, who had fled south-eastwards, into Kech-Makran where he was defeated at their hands. At this period Mir Jalal Khan, son of Mir Jiand Khan the first, was the ruler of all the Baloch. He left four sons, Rind, Lashar, Hooth, and Korai, and a daughter Jato, who married his nephew Murad MirJat. These five are the eponymous founders of the five great divisions of the tribe, the Rinds, Lasharis, Hooths, Korais,Kubras and Jatois.[13]


Baloch and Alexander's empire
The Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent, including the satrap of ancient Maka
Baloch and Alexander's empire
Baloch tribes and the paths that Alexander the Great took.
Gwadar in Makran
View of a beach in Makran region.

Maka is mentioned by Greek historian Herodotus as one of the early satraps of Cyrus the Great, who successfully united several ancient Iranian tribes to create an empire.[14][15] In the Behistun Inscription, Darius the Great mentions Maka as one of his eastern territories.[16] Darius is recorded to have personally led his elite Immortal forces, whose ranks were restricted to those with Persian, Mede or Elamite ancestry, to fight the invading Scythians of Asia[17] and then led the conquests in South Asia,[18][19][20] where he conquered Sindh in 519 BC, constituted it as his 20th Satrapy, and made use of the oceans there.[21][22] Darius wanted to know more about Asia, according to Herodotus; he also wished to know where the "Indus (which is the only river save one that produces crocodiles) emptied itself into the sea".[23]

The present region of Makran, which is inhabited by Baloch people, derived its name from the word "Maka". The Babylonians made voyages using Maka to communicate with India.[24] Maka communicated with Euphrates, Tigris and Indus valley; objects from the Harappan culture have been found in modern-day Oman, other archaeology suggest that Maka was exporting copper. Herodotus mentions the inhabitants of Maka as "Mykians" who were previously involved in several conquests with Cyrus the Great. After the conquest of Egypt with Cambyses,[25] they went to Sindh in command of Darius I and took in army of Xerxes the great at the battle of Thermopylae, where they were equipped the same as Pactyans, Utians and Paricanians, the tribes adjacent to the Mykians. The word Maka later became Makran as it is common in closely related ancient Avestan and Old Persian languages to use "an" and "ran" at the end of plurals,[26] which then translates as "the land of Mykians". They are mentioned as "the men from Maka" in daeva inscriptions. The "daeva inscription" is one of the most important of all Achaemenid inscriptions; in the Baloch language, dêw translates as "giant devil or monster".

Mykians were responsible for many inventions, such as qanats and underground drainage galleries that brought water from aquifers on the piedmont to gardens or palm groves on the plains. These inventions were important reasons behind the success of the Achaemenid Empire and survival of Mykians in their largely harsh natural environment. Other inscriptions record that gold, silver, lapis lazuli, turquise, cornalin, cedar wood, wood and the decoration for the relief at Susa were from Maka.[27] The Mykians of the other side of ancient Maka, the present-day region of Balochistan and Sindh, had later taken independence because they are not mentioned in the book written by Arrian of Nicomedia about campaigns of Alexander the Great. He only mentions the Oman side of Maka which he calls "Maketa". The reasons for this may have been the arguably unjust rule of Xerxes.[28][28][29] Historical evidence suggests that Baloch people were the ancient inhabitants of the Maka satrapy in the Achaemenid empire and Baloch were part of the army of Cyrus the Great and Darius I.

Baloch in Persian means rooster's comb or crest and since the Baloch troops who fought for Astyages of Kai Khosrow in 585-550 BC were wearing helmets with a rooster's crest, this is how they got the nickname of the Baloch. While listing the warriors of Kai Khosrow of Achaemenid empire, Firdowsi mentioned the Baloch in Shahnameh ("The Book of Kings") under the command of general Ashkash As follows:

Next after gustaham came shrewd askash
Endowed with prudent heart and ready brain,
his troop was from the wanderers of the koch and
Baloch wearing exalted roosters comb crests very rams
To fight,no one had seen their backs in the battle or
One of their fingers bare of armour,their banner was a
Pard with claws projecting,akash felicitated Kai
Khusrau at large upon the happy turn of fortune

Firdowsi, Shahnameh

Ferdowsi described the Baloch as part of the army of Cambyses (Siahwash), son of Kai Khosrow of the Achaemenid Dynasty

Mir Chakar Rind (1468–1565) was a Baloch chieftain in the 15th century. He is considered a folk hero of the Baloch people and an important figure in the Baloch epic Hani and Sheh Mureed.In the 15th century, Mir Chakar Khan Rind became the King of Balochistan and established the first Kingdom of Balochistan.It stretched from Kerman in the west to Sindh on the east and from north southern Khorasan, and from Afghanistan and the Punjab to Karachi. Mir Chakar Rind lived in the hills of Sibi and became the head of Rind tribe at the age of 18 after the death of his father Mir Shahak Khan. Mir Chakar's fiefdom was short-lived because of a civil war between the Lashari and Rind tribes of Balochistan.Mir Gwahram Khan Lashari, head of the Lashari tribe, went to war that resulted in thousands dead, including Mir Chakar's brother. The war and the gallantry of the two tribe leaders continues to be a part of the Baloch peoples' history. After the "Thirty Years' War" against the Lashari Tribe,After defeating Lashari tribe, Mir Chakar Rind went to war against Afghan King Sher Shah Suri. Mir Chakar Rind defeated the Lasharis and then left Balochistan and settled in the Punjab region in 1518.Mir Chakar settled in Satghara in Okara District and gained power and respect in the area. Afghan King Sher Shah Suri approached Mir Chakar to unite with him to consolidate his gains. Mir Chakar appreciated the offer but refused to help Sher Shah Suri and beaten the Afghan armies in Punjab.Under the command of his son, Mir Shahzad or Shahdad Khan, his 40,000 Baloch forces instead joined the Mughal army of Emperor Humayun in 1555,after a long exile in Persia. Emperor Humayun came back, recaptured Delhi, and ousted the Suri dynasty in 1556. As a reward, Emperor Humayun conferred a vast Jagir, including horses and slaves, to Mir Chakar. Mir Chakar Rind died in 1565. Mir Chakar Rind Also Helped Humayuns Father Babur against Ibrahim Lodi in 1526 . People who accompanied Mir Chakar to Satghara after leaving Balochistan constructed a tomb for his body.

Many members of Mir Chakar's tribe still live in Satghara, Okara District. The Chief of the tribe is Sardar Yar Muhammad Rind. They live in southern Punjab to this day and speak Sulemani Balochi or the Seraiki language; they still exert considerable influence in the daily affairs of the district.

The Rind tribe is one of oldest and largest Baloch tribes. Its members are spread all over Balochistan, including the western (Iranian) Balochistan. With the passage of time, Rind clans have been formed. Dombki tribe in Sibi, Bakhtiarabad, Bakhshapur, distt: Kashmore Sindh,Gurmani, Khosa, Leghari, Qaisrani, Lund, Buzdar, Dasti (Dashti) and Mastoi tribes in Dera Ghazi Khan, Bugti, Mandwani, Notkani and Marri tribes in eastern Balochistan and Askanis along the coastline.

Khan of Kalat Mir Samandar Khan Ahmedzai Baloch (1697–1713 ) also known as Amir al-Umara means commander of commanders, Amir of Amirs the title which was given to him by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb and also got the title of Sakhi means generous, was the ruler of Balochistan during the seventeenth Century. Mir Samander Khan Baloch was confronted with a major threat from 1698 a Safavid force from sistan Iran under the command of General Tahmasp,entered the Khanate territory,pillaged Chagai District,and advanced toward was under the orders of Gurgin Khan,grand commander of the Safavid forces in Kandahar Afghanistan and he was tasked to take control of the turan region(Balochistan).Mir Samandar Khan Baloch was in Multan at that time.on hearing the news of Safavid advance, he returned in haste, gathered a force of thirty thousand Baloch fighters,and confronted the Iranian force near kad koocha in the ensuing battle, the iranain forces were crushed defeated, and Mir Samander Khan killed their commander in a one-to-one fight in 1698.the remaining force fled in disarray,and a major threat for the survival of the khanate was thwarted.after beating the Persians and the victory in the struggle against his brother, the khan's position strengthened,and he was able to pursue the goal of expanding the khanate territory and authority that was stopped with the death of Mir Ahmed Khan Baloch.In 1701 Mir Samandar Khan Attacked the Safavid garrison at Kandahar and defeated Abdullah Khan's Army and killed his son and also led an expeditionary force into Loralai(Bori)and Zhob.He remained in the area for a month and collected a large booty from the pashtun tribes(Tate,1973).The Khan resumed incursions in the east,and in an expedition during the same year, the Khanate forces snatched the control of Dhaddar and Ghandava from the Kalhoras.during the period of Mir Samander Khan Mughal emperor Aurangzeb not only recognized the Khan's suzerainty over Balochistan but also extended financial assistance to Khan of Kalat according to Naseer(1979).Emperor Aurangzeb ordered prince Mu'azzam to fix an annual grant of 20,000 rupees for the Khan of Kalat after Mir Samandar Khan successfully repulsed an attack by the Safavid forces under the command of general Tahmasp near Mastung in 1698 and Mir Samandar Khan Baloch also got the title of Amir al-umara means commander of commanders emir of emirs from Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb for handing over the rebellious noor Mohammad Kalhora and dad Mohammad Kalhora to him .the coastal town of karachi was taken from the kalhoras and given to the authority of Khanate by Emperor Aurangzeb that became the main source of revenue generation for the Khan.An annual grant of 40,000 rupees was also fixed for Khan of Kalat from Kalhoras by the order of prince Mu'azzam

Khan of Kalat Mir Abdullah Khan Ahmedzai Baloch (1715 -1730) also known as the Eagle of the Mountain and The Conqueror was the ruler of Balochistan during the eighteenth century.Mir Abdullah Khan Baloch was a very ambitious brave and adventurous person.During his reign,the borders of the Khanate expanded,and he made inroads into Kerman (Iran),Derajat,and Kandahar.Makran was annexed in his time,and he made battles with a kalhora forces.with five thousand strong highly mobile forces,he undertook plundering raids in Kerman,Loralai and of the important development during the reign of Mir Abdullah Khan Baloch was the incorporation of Kachi into the Khanate.The Kalhora in Sindh were in control of the region that was previously a protectorate of Multan province of the Mughals.In 1718,Mir Abdullah Khan entered Kachi and reduced Gajjan,Sanni,Shoran,Dhadar,and Gandava(Ahmedzai 1995). The Khan remained camped in Kachi for months and collected taxes while the Kalhora officials fled from the areas.Advanced in Derajat was another event of that period.In 1719, Mir Abdullah Khan gathered a huge force and attacked Dera Ghazi Khan that was being ruled by a Baloch Confederacy led by Dodai Baloch tribes since early sixteenth century(Ahmadzai, 1995). The Baloch forces from both sides fought bravely,but at the end the Khanate forces prevailed upon the Baloch of Derajat.from Makran the Khan led an expeditionary to reduce Bander Abbas (Iran) to plunder the port not to occupy it but returned to Makran after reducing the surrounding areas of the port and Southern Kerman due to resistance from Europeans guarding their factories in the of the important events during the reign of Mir Abdullah Khan was his confrontation with Ghilzai rulers of Afghanistan after the Makran campaigns in 1724 The Khanate forces under the command of Mir Feroz Raisani Baloch occupied pishin, and the Ghilzai governor of the area fled back to Kandahar.Another force under the command of Mir Sultan Shawani Baloch occupied Shorawak and made it part of Khanate,Emboldened by these success, the Khan assembled a force under the command of Mir Mullah Issa Raisani Baloch to gain further territory north of pishin.Khan of Kalat under the instigation of Nadir Shah sent this expeditionary force toward Kandahar.the ruler of Afghanistan Hussain Hotaki assembled a huge army and confronted the Baloch forces near Chaman.The more experienced forces of Afghanistan outnumbered the Baloch forces.and the commander of the Baloch forces Mullah Issa Raisani was killed in the fight.The defeat of the Baloch forces by the Afghan forces was shocking,and the whole nation begin preparation for a revenge attack.Next Year,in 1725, Khan of Kalat Mir Abdullah Khan Baloch assembled a huge army to attack Kandahar in order to revenge the earlier defeat(Naseer,1979). some fifty miles from Kandahar,the two forces met in a fierce bloody battle. The Afghan Army was defeated, and the Afghan ruler Hussain Hotaki fled from the scene along with his remaining forces to the safety of Kandahar fort.The Baloch legends had mentioned the tales of extraordinary personnel courage shown by Mir Abdullah Khan Baloch during the battle,which forced the Afghan ruler to flee, Mir Abdullah Khan Baloch was also a great Baloch Poet

Baloch were also part of the army of Humayun under the command of Mir Chakar Rind against Suri Afghans in Delhi in 1556. Khan of Kalat Mir Muhabbat Khan Baloch provided fighting contingent on the demand of Nadir Shah on many occasions during the reign of Mir Muhabbat Khan Ahmedzai Baloch as the Khan,the Baloch forces accompanied the army of Nadir Shah on his campaigns in Afghanistan,Sindh,Punjab,and Delhi. Baloch were also part of the army of Ahmed Shah Durrani against Persians in Nishapur and Mashhad in 1751 and 1770 against the Marathas in Battle of Panipat (1761) and against Sikh in Punjab in 1765 under the command of Khan of Kalat Mir Noori Naseer Khan Baloch who also defeated Ahmed Shah Durrani during the 40 days siege of Kalat in 1758.

Baloch inhabiting Sistan and Baluchestan Province , Nimroz south of Helmand lower areas of Kandahar and coastal areas in the region of Makran, Chabahar, Gwadar, Gulf of Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain) and Karachi, and other parts of Sindh as Talpur Baloch Conquered and ruled Sindh from from 1783 to 1843.The Sindhi Baloch tribes including the Jatoi, Mirani, Rind, Bizenjo, Brahui and Gabol are highly skilled in designing boats, fishing and other skills required to survive in their environment. Herodotus mentions that Darius had made use of the ocean in this region of Sindh. The Sulemani Baloch who inhabit the Balochistan region including Makran for example, tribes including the Domki, Marri, Dashti, Bugti, Buzdar, Lund, Ranjhani, Ahmedani, Mazari, Mengal, Denari, Jiskani, Laghari, Chandio, Muhammad Hassani, Nausherwani, MirJat, Rind, Mandwani, Bizenjo, Zehri, Dehwar, Changwani, Raisani and others—carry different skills to survive in their mostly mountainous environment and have a history of aggressive behavior towards invasions. These tribes are not confined to one specific location as they also contain sub-tribes and can be found all over the region.

Balochi culture[edit]

A traditional Balochi dress worn by a teenage girl.

Balochi customs and traditions are conducted according to codes imposed by tribal laws. These strong traditions and cultural values are important to Baloch people and have enabled them to keep their distinctive ancient cultural identity and way of life with little change to this day. The culture and traditions of the Baloch have historically been passed down from mother to daughter, and from father to son.

Balochi culture is mentioned in the Pir M. Zehi's account of his travel to the province of Sakestan, or the present-day Sistan province of Iran, which holds strong significance to the culture of Baloch people. Baloch people have preserved their traditional dress with little change over the centuries. The Baloch men wear long shirts with long sleeves and loose pants. The dress is occasionally accompanied by a pagh (turban) or a hat on their heads.

The Balochi costume varies from Iran to Pakistan. Iran Baloch dress code is more conservative in sense of length and material. Some Baloch women in Iran also cover their faces with thick red color wools (Burqah) and wear a (Sareeg) which is the head scarf and (Chadar) which is a long veil.

The dress worn by Baloch women is one of the most interesting aspects of Balochi culture. They are of strong significance to the culture of Iran and hold a special place in the society. The women put on loose dress and pants with sophisticated and colourful needlework, including a large pocket at the front of the dress to hold their accessories. The upper part of the dress and sleeves are also decorated with needlework, a form of artistry that is specific to the clothing of the Baloch women. Often the dress also contains round or square pieces of glass to further enhance the presentation. They cover their hair with a scarf, called a sarig in the local dialect.[30]

These customs are unique to the people of Iran and the art of this needlework on women's clothing may provide one with a picture of the freedom and high status of Baloch women in Achaemenid era.[31]

Gold ornaments such as necklaces and bracelets are an important aspect of Baloch women's traditions and among their most favoured items of jewellery are dorr, heavy earrings that are fastened to the head with gold chains so that the heavy weight will not cause harm to the ears. They usually wear a gold brooch (tasni) that is made by local jewellers in different shapes and sizes and is used to fasten the two parts of the dress together over the chest. In ancient times, especially during the pre-Islamic era, it was common for Baloch women to perform dances and sing folk songs at different events. The tradition of a Baloch mother singing lullabies to her children has played an important role in the transfer of knowledge from generation to generation since ancient times. Apart from the dressing style of the Baloch, indigenous and local traditions and customs are also of great importance to the Baloch.[32]

Truthfulness , Honesty , Loyalty , Generosity , Justice , Hospitality , Intolerance to any kind of Supremacy , giving Refuge to the guest Fulfilling the Promise and Revenge are the basic ingredients of Baloch Social Conduct .

Balochi music[edit]

Main article: Balochi music

Folk music has always played a great role in Balochi traditions. Balochi music belong to the same branch of Iranian music performed by many other Iranian peoples including Persians, Kurds, Lurs, Tajiks and others. Traditions like the transfer of knowledge from generation to generation by singing lullabies to children and praising warriors also have a significant role in Balochi music traditions. The fact that both men and women participate in folk music reflects on the pre-Islamic significance of folk music in Balochi culture. Many years of invasions, wars and later adopted religious values have prevented Balouchi music from prevailing further in the 21st century. However, a Swedish folk band, Golbang and Padik with the lead singer Rostam Mirlashari originally from Zahedan & Lashar in Balochistan, has made progress in introducing Balouchi folk music to the Western world. The most commonly used instruments in Balouchi folk music are tanbur, long-necked lutes. Lutes have been present in Mesopotamia since the Akkadian era, or the 3rd millennium BC. The dohol, a large cylindrical drum with two skin heads, is the principal accompaniment for the surna, an ancient Iranian woodwind instrument that dates back to the Achaemenid Dynasty (550-330 BC). The ney is also commonly played, using single or double flutes. The Suroz, a Balochi folk violin, which is considered as the official instrument of the Baloch. Other Baloch musical instruments include the tar and the saz.

Cuisine of Balochistan[edit]

Main article: Baloch cuisine

Geographic distribution[edit]

See also: Baloch diaspora

The total population of ethnic Baloch people is estimated to be around 15 million worldwide. However, the exact number of those who are Baloch or claim to be of Baloch ancestry is difficult to determine. As of 2012, the Baloch are 7.11% of Pakistan's 177 million people

Major ethnic groups in Pakistan, Afghanistan and the surrounding areas, 1980. The Baluch are shown in pink.

Baloch ancestry is also claimed in the neighboring areas that adjoin Baloch majority lands. Those who speak Brahui are known as Brahuis.[33] Many Baloch outside of Balochistan are also bilingual or of mixed ancestry due to their proximity to other ethnic groups, including the Sindhis, Saraikis and Pashtuns. A large number of Baloch have been migrating to or living in provinces adjacent to Balochistan for centuries. In addition, there are many Baloch living in other parts of the world, with the bulk living in the GCC countries of the Persian Gulf. The Baloch are an important community in Oman, where they make up a sizable minority.

Many Baloch over the years have migrated to Punjab for its lush green fertility and they can be found in large numbers in South Punjab, Central Punjab and in Lahore but most of them identify themselves now as Punjabis. There is a small population of Baloch in several Western countries such as Sweden and Australia. Some Baloch settled in Australia in the 19th century; some fourth-generation Baloch still live there, mainly in the western city of Perth.

Baloch in Oman[edit]

The Baloch in Oman have maintained their ethnic and linguistic distinctions. The Southern Baloch comprise approximately 25% of the country's population. The traditional economy of Baloch in Oman is based on a combination of trade, farming and semi-nomadic shepherding.[34]

Iranian language tree
Iranian languages family tree
language family tree
Indo-European language family tree

Balochi language[edit]

The Balochi language is spoken in Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, the Persian Gulf Arab states, Turkmenistan, and as far as East Africa and some Western countries. It is classified as a member of the Iranian group of the Indo-European language family, which includes Kurdish, Persian, Pashto, Dari, Tajik and Ossetian. The Balochi language has the closest similarities to Kurdish, Avestan, old Persian and other Iranian languages.

Two main dialects are spoken in Sistan va Balochestan and Balochestan: Eastern and Western. The exact number of Baloch speakers is difficult to know, but the estimated number could be around 15 million. The majority speak Western Balochi, which is also the dialect that has been most widely used in Balochi literature. Within the Western dialect are two further dialects, Rakhshani and Nousherwani (spoken mainly in the northern areas) and Makurani (in the south).[35]

The Baloch have several tribes and sub-tribes. Some of these tribes speak Brahui, while most speak Balochi. Multilingualism is common, with many Baloch speaking both Brahui and Balochi. The Rind Marri, Magsi, Domki, Umrani and Bugti tribe speak Balochi. The Mengal tribe, who live in the Chagai, Khuzdar, Kharan districts of Balochistan. the sarpara tribe, who live in kardigap, Meskan Qalat/Kharan, Larkana, and they speak both Brahui and balochi, The Meskanzai (sarpara) tribe who live in the Meskan Qalat kharna, and Quetta, and they speak Balochi and Brahui. and in southern parts of Afghanistan, speak Brahui. The Muhammad Hasni tribe speak Brahui, Balochi and some other languages according to the area they are living. The Lango tribe, who live in central Balochistan in the Mangochar area, speak Brahui as their first language and Balochi as their second. The Bizenjo tribe speak both languages. The Bangulzai tribe mostly speaks Brahui, but has a Balochi-speaking minority known as Garani.

The Mazari tribe, Talpur, Mastoi, Jatoi, Wahocha, Gabol, Chandio, Mirani, Nutkani, Ahmedani, Jagirani, Marri, Khushk, Magsi, Domki, Khosa, Bozdar, Jiskani, Bijarani, Hesbani, Leghari, Lashari, Muhammad Hasni, Kalpar, Korai, Zardari, Rind, Mandwani or Bhurgari, MirJat, Jakhrani, and other Baloch tribes that are settled in Sindh speak Sindhi, Balochi and Seraiki. The Gadi and Qaisrani Baloch living near Taunsa Sharif in the Punjab province of Pakistan speak Seraiki and Balochi, while their clansmen living in Dera Ghazi Khan tribal areas speak Balochi. The Lund Baloch living in Shadan Lund speak Sindhi, Seraiki and Balochi.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ethnic Groups (Pakistan), CIA World Factbook
  2. ^ Iran, Library of Congress, Country Profile . Retrieved December 5, 2009.
  3. ^ Joshua Project (2006-10-28). "Baloch, Southern of Oman Ethnic People Profile". Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  4. ^ Languages of Oman, . Retrieved December 5, 2009.
  5. ^ Oman, CIA World Factbook . Retrieved December 5, 2009.
  6. ^ Afghanistan, CIA World Factbook . Retrieved December 5, 2009.
  7. ^ Languages of United Arab Emirates, (retrieved 5 December 2009)
  8. ^ Baloch, Eastern of India Ethnic People Profile. (2008-08-01). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  9. ^ KOKAISLOVÁ, Pavla, KOKAISL Petr. Ethnic Identity of The Baloch People. Central Asia and The Caucasus. Journal of Social and Political Studies. Volume 13, Issue 3, 2012, p. 45-55., ISSN 1404-6091
  10. ^ Baloch people in Turkmenistan (1926–1989),
  11. ^ {{cite web|url= of Religion in the Gulf|work=Mehrdad Izady|year=2013}}
  12. ^ Blood, Peter, ed. "Baloch". Pakistan: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1995.
  13. ^ [Encyclopaedia Of Untouchables Ancient, Medieval And Modern By Raj Kumar, page no. 337]
  14. ^ "Iranica Articles". R. Schmitt. December 15, 1983. Retrieved 2010-09-08. 
  15. ^ "5th century BC 499-400". Archived from the original on 6 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-08. 
  16. ^ "The Behistun Inscription, translation". Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  17. ^ "Iranian Provinces: Sistan and Balochistan". Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  18. ^ "Persia". Retrieved 2010-09-09. 
  19. ^ "Iranian Provinces: Sistan and Balochistan". Retrieved 2010-09-07. 
  20. ^ "Ancient Persia". Retrieved 2010-09-09. 
  21. ^ "Darius the great". Retrieved 2010-09-10. 
  22. ^ "The largest empire in ancient history". Retrieved 2010-09-10. 
  23. ^ "History of Herodotus by Herodotus - Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)". Archived from the original on 7 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-11. 
  24. ^ "The history of antiquity". Max Duncker. Retrieved 2010-09-10. 
  25. ^ "History of Herodotus - Book 3". Retrieved 2010-09-09. 
  26. ^ "Iranians and Turanians in Avesta". Ali A. Jafarey. Retrieved 2010-09-10. 
  27. ^ "Some Royal Achaemenid Inscriptions". Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  28. ^ a b "The History, by Herodotus (book7)". Retrieved 2010-09-07. 
  29. ^ "Maka". Retrieved 2010-10-01. 
  30. ^ "People of Iran: A Cultural Anthropology of Balochis". Retrieved 2010-09-07. 
  31. ^ "The World of Achaemenid Persia". Retrieved 2010-09-13. 
  32. ^ "Baloch Society & culture". Retrieved 2010-09-07. 
  33. ^ Well Come to Pasni Online - The Brahui People. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  34. ^ "Joshua Project - Baloch, Southern of Oman Ethnic People Profile". Retrieved 2010-09-07. 
  35. ^ "Languages of Iran. Iran at Middle East Explorer". Retrieved 2010-09-07. 

External links[edit]