List of Caribbean membranophones
- "Enko" redirects here. "-enko" is also a common suffix of Ukrainian surnames, meaning "son of".
This is a list of membranophones used in the Caribbean music area, including the islands of the Caribbean Sea, as well as the musics of Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Belize, Garifuna music, and Bermuda. It only includes membranophones that are indigenous to the local music area or are a vital and long-standing part of local culture. It does not include membranophones that are, for example, a part of Western style orchestras, nor does it include trap sets and other common membranophones used in popular music recordings of many genres across the world. Almost all membranophones are drums and percussion instruments.
||Suriname||211.212||Afro-Surinamese bass drum that sets a steady beat for folk music, played with a stick, of the set with apinti and tumao, pitch can be varied based on the location of the head struck, made from hollow logs with heads of skin, used in spiritual ceremonies, where it is associated with snake spirits|
|Dominican Republic||211.211.2-7||One of the smaller drums used in the ensembles called palos, of the Afro-Dominican religious ceremonies, played either in pairs or trios, with single skin heads either pegged or tacked|
||Suriname||211.211.2||Principal Afro-Surinamese drum of the set with agida and tumao, tenor drum, decorated with carvings, and used for communication by Surinamese slaves and for religious purposes in connection with sky and ancestor spirits, pitch can be varied based on the location of the head struck, made from hollow logs with heads of skin|
|Cuba||211.21-814||Drum used in Afro-Cuban Abakuá societies, small enkomo drum of the biankomeko ensemble, along with the kuchiyeremá and biapá, and the taller bonkó enchemiyá|
||Haiti||211.211.2||5-to-6-foot-tall (1.5 to 1.8 m) cylindrical drum with three windows near the base so the drummer (or pair of drummers) can play it easily, decorated with brightly colored kerchiefs (foulas)|
||Grenada||211.221.1||Open-bottomed, goatskin-headed, made from barrels or tree trunks, smaller partner of the tambou, used in the belair dance|
|Montserrat||211.311||Small goatskin frame drum, played with the back of the hand, front of the fingers and the palm, used to attract spirits for the jumbie dance|
||Dominican Republic||2||Small double-headed drum, used in merengue only in the south of the country|
||Virgin Islands||211.211.2||Played by two drummers, one using two sticks and the other hands and feet, used in dance genre of the same name (bamboula)|
||Bonaire and Curaçao||211.22||Single-headed, made from a wooden barrel, often from the herring industry, with a skin frame, played two-handed|
||Cuba||211.222.2-7||Barrel drum variant of a batá drum, often with the system of lacing replaced by nailing the heads to the drum, most common in Matanzas Province|
buleador, primo, repicador, subidor
|Puerto Rico||211.221.2||Barrel drums, covered with lightly stretched skins, consists of large buleador drums and smaller subidor drums, used in bomba|
|bas a dé fas, tambou
||Guadeloupe||211.212.2||Bass drum, double-headed, played with sticks, used in Carnival, specifically mizik a mas Byé Fò|
|bas a yon fas, tambou
||Guadeloupe||211.221-7||Bass barrel drum, one-headed, laced, and played with sticks, used in Carnival, specifically mizik a mas a Sen Jan|
|bas, tambou di
boula, tambou dibass, tambou dibas, tambou bas
|Martinique and Guadeloupe||211.311||Small frame drum played with both striking and rubbing, used in indoor music, and quadrilles, ladja and gwo ka, and in the Tamil music of Indo-Caribbean Martinique|
|bas, tambou||See foulé, tambou||-|
|bas, tambou||See bas, tambou di||-|
|bas, tambou||See bas a yon fas, tambou||-|
|base, tambou di||See bas, tambou di||-|
||Antigua and Barbuda||211.211.2||Bass drum, accompaniment to stilt dancers and Christmas music|
||Barbados||211.212.1||Double-headed drum that keeps the ground rhythm and is slung across the drummers' shoulder, used in tuk bands|
||Grenada||211.212.1||Double-headed bass drum, played with a hard stick in one hand for the lower head, and a soft mallet in the other hand for the upper head, used to accompany quadrilles|
repeater (Maroon only)
|Jamaica||211.212.1||Double-headed bass drum, carried with a strap and leader of marching bands, played with a covered stick in Nyabinghi ceremonies, used in marching bands, and Rastafarian and Maroon music|
|Cuba||211.22.2||Largest barrel-shaped hand drum of the tumbadora family|
||Haiti||211.311||Goatskin-headed tambourine, used in secular music|
||Cuba||211.26-813||Family of three drums: iyá, itótele and okónkolo, used in Lucumi religious rites, all goblet-shaped and with two goatskin heads called tcha-tchás, sometimes with a nut inside (coco-Africano), both for aural and spiritual reasons|
||Guyana||2||Afro-Guyanese bass drum, used in folk music traditions|
||Indo-Trinidadian||211.212.1||Double-headed bass drum, used in Muslim Hosay (Hosein) rituals, now widespread among Afro-Trinidadians and others|
||Martinique||211.251.2-91(+22)||Single-headed, open-bottomed conical drum with a hole in the barrel and a goatskin head, stretched by a rope hoop, wrapped in more rope, used in all African-derived Martinican dances and as a symbol of Afro-Martinican identity, including tambour bélé, kalenda, and danmyé, also used to synchronize collective labor in northern Martinique, and is a part of most Martinican rural work songs, uses a plucking string in the northern region|
||Dominica||211.221.2-86+22||Single-headed barrel drum, covered at one end by goatskin, stretched with rope and pegs, and played barehanded, accompanies bélé, features a plucked strings across the head|
|bélé, tambou||See ka||-|
|Trinidad and Tobago||211.212.2||Cylindrical drums with double skins, smallest of the set with conga and oumalay drums|
|bench drum||See gumbe||-|
||Afro-Cuban Abakuá drum ensemble, consisting of four drums: bonkó enchemiyá and enkomo: biapá, arobapá, and kuchiyeremá|
|Cuba||211.21-814||Small enkomo drum of the biankomeko ensemble, along with the biapá, arobapá, and kuchiyeremá, and the taller bonkó enchemiyá|
||Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Carriacou (Grenada) and Saint Kitts and Nevis||
||Music and dance ritual, which includes drums traditionally made of tree trunks, now often of rum kegs|
|bigi doon||See gaan doon||-|
||Cuba||211.321||Unstrung banjo with a drumhead attached|
||Puerto Rico||211.221.2||Barrel-shaped bass drum, used in genre of the same name (bomba)|
||Cuba||211.212.1||European-style bass drum, used in comparsa, a pre-Easter procession|
|boncó||See bonkó enchemiyá||-|
||Cuba||211.211.1||Drums of unequal size played in a pair and held between the knees, originally used in Cuban folk music of various kinds, also used in music of Puerto Rico and across the area, especially Guyana|
bonko enchemi, bonko, boncó
|Cuba||211.21-814||Largest drum of the biankomeko ensemble, along with the enkomo: biapá, arobapá, and kuchiyeremá|
|bonko||See bonkó enchemiyá||-|
|bonko enchemi||See bonkó enchemiyá||-|
|boom boom||See keg||-|
||Guadeloupe||211.221.2||Single-headed hand drum, similar to tambou bèlè and played transversally and single-handed, produces lower sounds and the basic rhythms of the music, used in gwo ka, Carnival, wrestling matches and wakes|
tambou dibas, bulla, bula
|Carriacou||211.221.2||Hand drum, formerly made of barrels, now more often rum casks; narrower and lower-tuned cousin of the kata, used in the Big Drum tradition, barrel contains a hole on the side, skin is stretched by a hoop wrapped in cloth|
|Haiti||211.221.2-7||Cowskin hand drum, with the head pegged in place around a decorative collar, used in rada along with segon and manman drums|
||Trinidad and Tobago||211.222-92||Double-headed barrel drum, played open handed, drum heads attached with hoops, accompanies kalenda stick fighting|
|bula||See boula (Carriacou, Haiti)||-|
|bulla||See boula (Carriacou)||-|
primo, repicador, burlador
|Puerto Rico||211.221.2||Larger, barrel-shaped hand drums, covered with tight animal skin stretched using pegs, used in bomba|
||Cuba||211.211.2||Smallest yuka tubular drum, along with caja and mula|
||Cuba||211.211.2||Largest yuka tubular drum, along with cachimbo and mula, played by two people, one striking the bass and the other hitting the body with a pair of sticks|
|cast||See playing cast||-|
||Guadeloupe||2||Small and high pitched drums, played with sticks, used in Carnival, specifically mizik a mas a Sen Jan|
|circular||See snare drum (Jamaica)||-|
tumbadora, tumba, requinto, quinto, ricardo, niño, supertumba, super quinto, tres golpes, salidor, true conga
|Originally Cuban, now found throughout the Caribbean, especially Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic and Haiti||211.221.1-7||Tall, narrow and single-headed barrel drum, open at the bottom, played by congueros, traditionally wood, now often fiberglass, animal-skin heads can be tuned; also used in popular genres from salsa to ripsaw|
||Trinidad and Tobago||211.212.2||Cylindrical drums with double skins, middle-sized drum of the set with bembe and oumalay drums; since introduced to Guyana|
||Dominican Republic||211.212.2||Cylindrical folk drums|
||Dominican Republic||211.212.2||Cylindrical folk drums with a low bass tone, smaller version of the conga|
|cut drum||See kata||-|
||Trinidad and Tobago||211.221-92||Single-headed barrel drum, played open handed, drum heads attached with hoops, accompanies kalenda stick fighting|
|Guadeloupe and Martinique||211.222.1||Double-headed barrel drum, used in chouval bwa and Carnival music|
||Indo-Caribbean||211.212.1||Double-headed drum, used in chutney|
|dibas, tambou||See bas, tambou di||-|
|dibass, tambou||See bas, tambou di||-|
||Guadeloupe||211.261.2||Skin-covered hand drum, goblet-shaped and played bare-handed, used in gwo ka moderne|
|doumbedoum||See dèbonda, tambou||-|
||Grenada||211.221.2||Bass drum made from a cardboard barrel, used in parang|
|Cuba||231.13-814||Single-headed three-legged friction drum used in Abakuá ceremonies, played by rubbing a stick over the membrane, which is attached using wedges whose tightness can be modified|
|Cuba||211.21-814||Small cylindrical, or slightly tapered, goatskin-headed drums of the biankomeko ensemble, consisting of three types: biapá, arobapá, and kuchiyeremá|
||French Guiana||211.221.2-92||Large barrel drum, used in Creole instrumental ensembles and kaseko, plays a basic rhythm accompanied by the tambou koupé, head typically made of goatskin, attached with a vine or iron hoop|
|French drum||See hun||-|
jumbie drum, woowoo
|Montserrat||211.311||Goatskin frame drum, played with the back of the hand, front of the fingers and the palm, used to attract spirits for the jumbie dance|
|Jamaica||211.211.1||Cylindrical drum, one-headed, held between players' legs and performed by tapping with the hand or fingers, originally used in Burru cult rituals, now also common in Nyabinghi ceremonies|
||Guyana||211.21||Afro-Guyanese cylindrical drum|
||French Guiana||2||Large bass drum that leads dances, used by the Alukuó Maroons|
||Haiti||211.211.1||Bamboo stomping tubes, sometimes played in groups|
||Bermuda||211.211.2||Afro-Bermudan drum, related to the Bahamian goombay, used in the genre of the same name (gombey)|
||Haiti||211.251.2-7||Cowskin hand drum, played with a hand and a bow, in a set with katabo and tambou manman|
||Bahamas and Turks and Caicos||211.211.2-7||Goatskin-headed drum traditionally made from improvised materials (especially discarded barrels), goatskin is tuned by heating it with a candle and attached with nails, used in the Bahamian genre of the same name (goombay)|
||French Guiana||211.3||Frame drum, used in Creole dance accompaniment for a dance of the same name (gragé)|
|groska||See gwo ka||-|
gumbay, goombeh, goombah, goombay, gombay, bench drum
|French Guiana and Jamaica||211.31||Small Maroon-derived goatskin square-framed drum, introduced to Sierra Leone|
also used synonymously with ka
||Family of hand drums, used in lewoz and other traditions, as well as zouk|
||Generic term for drums used in ceremonies called grounations; these include the bass drum, funde and kété|
||Family of four drums used in the Haitian-Cuban Arada ceremonies, consisting of hugán, xumpé, hun-hogúlo and huní|
|Cuba||211.22-861||Largest of the four drums used in the Haitian-Cuban Arada ceremonies, along with xumpé, hun-hogúlo and huní|
|Cuba||211.22-861||Second-smallest of the four drums used in the Haitian-Cuban Arada ceremonies, along with hugán, xumpé and huní|
|Cuba||211.22-861||Smallest of the four drums used in the Haitian-Cuban Arada ceremonies, along with hugán, xumpé and hun-hogúlo|
||Saint Lucia||2||Smaller drum used in Kélé rituals, literally child drum|
||Cuba||211.26-813||Intermediate-sized batá goblet-shaped drum, made of wood and covered with skin, along with the iyá and okónkolo; wax-like substance called ida or fardela sometimes used to produce a duller sound|
||Cuba||211.26-813||Largest batá goblet-shaped drum, made of wood and covered with goatskin, along with the itótele and okónkolo; red wax-like substance called ida or fardela is used to produce a duller sound, wrapped with bells and belts (chaguoro or tchaworo)|
|Haiti||211.21-92||Shorter and squatter variety of petwo|
|jumbie drum||See French reel, balaban||-|
also used synonymously with gwo ka
|Guadeloupe and Martinique||211.221||Single-headed drums, used in Carnival, specifically mizik a mas a Kongo, made from a barrel with goatskin heads tighted by cord|
||Saint Lucia||211.221||Barrel drum with a goatskin head, used in various folk forms, including chanté siay, jwé dansé and jwé gém|
||French Guiana||211.211.1||Open-bottomed and single-headed drum, played transversally and carved from a single fragment of wood, used in Creole dance accompaniment for kanmougé and mayouri dances, played in pairs with the lead called the "female" type and the support the "male"|
cut drum, cutter, cot
|Carriacou||211.211.2||Hand drum, formerly made of barrels, now more often rum casks; wider and higher-tuned cousin of the boula, used in the Big Drum tradition, barrel contains a hole on the side, skin is stretched by a hoop wrapped in cloth|
||Haiti||211.251.2-7||Cowskin hand drum, played with two sticks, in a set with gonde and tambou manman|
|Jamaica||211.211.1+111.231||Large, low-pitched, plays a 4/4 rhythm, covered with a goat skin, used in Kumina ceremonies, where it plays a steady rhythm, and is often used several at a time, open end sometimes banged with sticks|
|Virgin Islands||211.212.1||Double-headed bass drum, used in masquerades and fife and drum ensembles|
|Jamaica||211.21||Small skinny cylindrical drum, improvised, used in Nyabinghi celebrations, played with bare hands, also used in dub poetry|
|Montserrat||211.221||Goatskin deep-barreled drum, used in Carnival and other celebrations|
||Antigua and Barbuda||211.11||Kettle drum, accompaniment to stilt dancers and Christmas music|
||Bermuda||211.11||Central use in Bermudan traditions, derived from British kettle drum, especially common in gombey|
||Virgin Islands||211.11||Snare drum, used in fife and drum ensembles|
||Cuba||211–864||Tall drum with goatskin head, held in place by cords, wedges and hoops, used in the Kimbisa culture|
||Cuba||231.12||Friction drum, single-headed, with a stick inserted and rubbed to produce the sound, used in the Kimbisa tradition|
|Guyana||211.11||Kettle drum, used in masquerades|
||French Guiana||211.221.2-92||Small barrel drum, used in Creole instrumental ensembles and kaseko, used to improvise for dancing while the tambou foulé plays a basic rhythm, head typically made of goatskin, attached with a vine or iron hoop|
||Jamaica||211.21||Cylindrical drum, used by the Maroons of Moore Town|
|Cuba||211.21-814||Small enkomo drum of the biankomeko ensemble, along with the arobapá and biapá, and the taller bonkó enchemiyá|
||Any kind of Dominican or Grenadan folk drum|
||Dominica||211.211.2||Cylindrical drum, small and wooden with goatskin at one end, strapped across the shoulder and played with two sticks, used in chanté mas|
|Haiti||211.21-92||Taller and narrower variety of petwo|
||Saint Lucia||2||Larger drum used in Kélé rituals, literally mother drum|
||Haiti||211.251.2-7||Hand drum with a cowhide head, pegged in place and with a decorated collar, used in many Afro-Haitian musics, used in rada, petwo and other folk traditions|
||Haiti||211.212.2||Cylindrical drum that comes in pairs, traditionally made from wood or a two-gallon container with both top and bottom removed and replaced with heads, played with fingers|
makyé, marqueur, maké
|Guadeloupe||211.221.2||Single-headed hand drum, small, high-pitched, played upright and one-handed, and held between the legs, interacts with dancers by responding to movement and improvises with the boula drum, used in gwo ka, Carnival, wrestling matches and wakes|
||Dominican Republic||211.3||Small rural folk handheld frame drum|
||Cuba||211.211.2||Intermediate-sized yuka tubular drum, along with caja and cachimbo|
||Cuba||2||Smallest drum of the conga family|
|Cuba||211.26-813||Smallest batá goblet-shaped drum, made of wood and covered with skin, along with the itótele and iyá|
||Trinidad and Tobago||211.212.2||Cylindrical drums with double skins, middle-sized drum of the set with bembe and conga drums|
||Dominican Republic||211.12||Kettledrum, played in pairs, made from containers used to boil sugarcane juice, with tension lugs to adjust the tightness of the single-head, closed bottom|
||Dominican Republic||211.211.2-7||One of the smaller drums used in the ensembles called palos, of the Afro-Dominican religious ceremonies, played either in pairs or trios, with single skin heads either pegged or tacked|
||Dominican Republic||211.211.2-7||Larger folk long drum made from a tree trunk, used singly in ensembles called palos, of the Afro-Dominican religious ceremonies, played either in pairs or trios, with single skin heads either pegged or tacked|
||Dominican Republic||211.211.2-7||Smaller folk long drum made from a tree trunk, used singly in ensembles called palos, of the Afro-Dominican religious ceremonies, played either in pairs or trios, with single skin heads either pegged or tacked|
|Dominican Republic||211.211.2-7||Ensembles that include a number of drums, include the types of palo and alcahuete, used in the Afro-Dominican religious ceremonies, played either in pairs or trios, with skin heads either pegged or tacked|
|Puerto Rico||211.3||Handheld frame drum, used in plena, adapted from European tambourine|
||Dominican Republic||211.3||Small rural folk handheld frame drum|
|Haiti||211.21-92||Cylindrical drum headed with cowskin, attached with cords, comes in two varieties: loango and juba|
||French Guiana||2||Medium-sized drum that supports dancers, played in pairs, with one played solo, and both played bare-handed, used among the Alukuó Maroons|
playin kya, cast
|Jamaica||211.211.1+111.231||Small, high-pitched, plays complex, syncopated rhythms, covered with a goat skin, used in Kumina, open end sometimes struck with sticks|
|playin kya||See playing cast||-|
||Suriname||2||Small, skin-covered bass drum, common among the rural Afro-Surinamese|
||Barbados||2||Long drum, made from a hollow tree trunk with goat or sheep skin on either end|
||St Maarten||211.31||Goatskin frame drum, sometimes played in pairs or larger groups, usually using both hands|
||Cuba||211.221||Smallest barrel-shaped hand drum, made out of a box with two sloping sides, of the tumbadora family, plays the most intricate rhythms of the group, not always characterized as a tumbadora or conga drum|
||Haiti||2||Drum headed with cowskin, attached with wooden pegs|
||Haiti||2||Goatskin drum, used alongside tambou manman, used in petwo and YaYa TiKongo rhythms|
|rattle||See snare drum (Jamaica)||-|
|repeater||See bass drum (Jamaica), snare drum (Jamaica)||-|
||Jamaica||2||Used in the Burru rituals, now imported to Rastafarian music|
||Puerto Rico||211.25||Small conical hand drum, improvises over the other drum rhythms, used in plena|
||Turks and Caicos and Bahamas (Cat Island only)||2||Goat- or cow-skin drum, heated to produce a pitch|
|round||See snare drum (Jamaica)||-|
||Saba||211.22||Made from kegs or barrels, and attached to a skin frame secured by wood, rope and pegs|
|scratch band barrel drum
||Virgin Islands||211.222||Double-headed barrel drum, used in scratch bands|
||Haiti||211-7||Cowskin hand drum with artistic collars, used in rada along with boula and manman drums|
|side drum||See snare drum||-|
||Suriname||2||Large Afro-Surinamese bass drum with a cymbal on top, used in kaseko|
||Bermuda||211.212.1||Central use in Bermudan traditions, generally played in pairs, used in gombey|
|Barbados||211.212.1||Doubled headed side snare drum, used in tuk bands|
||Cuba||211.212.1||Snare drum used in comparsa pre-Easter celebrations|
side drum, Maroon only: repeater, rattle, round, circular
|Jamaica||211.212.1||Snare drum played with wooden sticks, carried with a strap, used in marching bands and Maroon music|
||Suriname||211.212.1||Snare drum, used in kaseko|
||Cuba||211.261.2-813||Drum with straight but sloping sides, closest to being a classic goblet drum, variation on a batá drum|
|Puerto Rico||211.22||Smaller, barrel-shaped hand drums, covered with tight animal skin, used in bomba|
|super quinto||See conga||-|
||Dominican Republic originally, now also common on St Maarten||211.222||Double-headed barrel drum of African origin, played with a stick on one head and a bare hand on the other|
||Grenada||211.221.1||Open-bottomed, goatskin-headed, made from barrels or tree trunks, larger partner of the baboula, accompanies the belair dance|
||Martinique and Guadeloupe||
||Generic term for drums|
||Puerto Rico||211.211.2||Long drum, made from a hollowed-out tree trunk and topped with animal skin|
||Haiti||212.211||Miniature version of the tymbale, beaten with two sticks|
|Curaçao||211.211.2||Long drum, made from a hollow log, used in tambú|
||Haiti||Barrel drum made from hardwood and topped with animal skin|
||Indo-Trinidadian, now commonplace||211.11||Kettle drum with a goatskin head, used in the Muslim Hosay (Hosein) ritual|
||Saint Lucia||211.212.1||Snare drum, used in cockfights, séwinal, merry-go-rounds, other celebrations|
||Jamaica||2||Carried with a strap, used in marching bands|
|Cuba||211.211.1||European-derived open-bottomed twin drum, played using sticks|
||Guadeloupe||211.212.1||Cylindrical drum like the tom-tom drum, [played with sticks|
||Guadeloupe||211.212.1||Bass drum, played with sticks|
|Antigua and Barbuda||2||Small drum, decorated with shells and tin|
|tres golpes||See conga||-|
|tres por dos
||Cuba||211.22||Medium-sized barrel-shaped hand drum of the tumbadora family|
|true conga||See bass tumbadora||-|
||Cuba||211.221-7||Largest variety of the conga family, stave drum with a cowskin head|
bass tumbadora, true conga, tres por dos, quinto
|Cuba||211.22.2||Cuban conga drum, barrel-shaped hand drum|
||Suriname||211.211.2||Intermediate drum of the set, with agida and apinti, played with one hand, pitch can be varied based on the location of the head struck, made from hollow logs with heads of skin|
||Barbados||211.212.1||Hollowed-out tree trunk with skins at either end|
||French Guiana||2||Small drum, used among the Alukuó Maroons|
||Dominica||22||Small barrel frame drum, headed with goatskin; a cord with an attached bead is placed on the drumskin to add a buzzing quality to the sound, used to accompany work songs|
||Haiti||212.212.1||Large two-headed hooped drum, carried with a strap and sometimes with an attached board called an assot|
||Cuba||23||Abakua friction drum, details of construction are kept secret|
|woowoo||See French reel||-|
|Cuba||211.22-861||Second-largest of the four drums used in the Haitian-Cuban Arada ceremonies, along with hugán, hun-hogúlo and huní|
makuta, ngoma, tambor de yuka
|Cuba||211.211.2||Class of three folk tubular drums: caja, mula, and cachimbo|
||Haiti||22||Cylindrical drum used in the dance of the same name, has a wire stretched across the single goatskin head|
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