Baltimore City Public Schools
|Baltimore City Public Schools|
|Type and location|
|Superintendent||Gregory Thornton [CEO] |
|Budget||$1.32 billion (2014)|
|NCES District ID||2400090|
|Students and staff|
Baltimore City Public Schools (BCPS) is a public school district in the state of Maryland, United States, that serves the youth for the city of Baltimore (in distinction to the separate and "younger" public school system (district) for the surrounding county of Baltimore, known as the Baltimore County Public Schools [BCoPS]). Traditionally however, the Baltimore City Public Schools system has usually never referred to itself as a "district," as the operation of the schools was synonymous with the city of Baltimore. Its headquarters are located on 200 East North Avenue at North Calvert Street in the "Dr. Alice G. Pinderhughes Administration Building". As of 2012, it is currently the fourth largest school system in Maryland. In the 2013–14 school year, the school district serves approximately 84,000 students of 195 schools and programs for grades pre-K to 12.
History and organization
The school district was established in 1829 by Baltimore City Council; authorized by General Assembly of Maryland, in an Act of 1827. City Schools was part of the Baltimore City Government since 1829, but became separate from the government in 1997 when partial control by the "Superintendent of Public Instruction" and the "Board of School Commissioners" (previously of 1829 as "Board of Commissioners, Public Schools of Baltimore City") was ceded to the State of Maryland in exchange for increased funding and an "expanded partnership". Now, the Mayor and the Governor jointly appoint the revamped "Board of School Commissioners" ("School Board") that oversees the BCPS system, and which in turn interviews and hires the "C.E.O." ("Chief Executive Officer") and "C.A.O." ("Chief Academic Officer"). The school system is currently run by CEO, Dr. Andres Alonso (superintendent) appointed by the school board in the summer of 2007, Dr. Alonso officially began work on July 1, 2007. Dr. Alonso comes from the New York City Department of Education, where he served as deputy chancellor to the current chancellor Joel I. Klein.The Baltimore Teachers Union ("Teachers Union") is chapter of the American Federation of Teachers (previously the Public School Teachers Association of Baltimore City, founded 1849, a local chapter of the National Education Association.
City Schools was desegregated in 1954 following the ruling of the Supreme Court of the United States in Brown v. Board of Education. Limited desegregation had already happened with the Baltimore Polytechnic Institute being forced to admit African-American students on its prestigious "A" course in 1952, as none of the black schools in Baltimore offered an equal or equivalent course.
High schools that have been well known include: Baltimore School for the Arts, a public high school that is nationally recognized for its success in preparing students for the arts; Carver Vocational-Technical High School, the first African-American vocational high school and center established in the state of Maryland; Digital Harbor High School, one of the only secondary schools that emphasizes in information technology; Frederick Douglass High School, the second oldest African-American High School in the United States.; Lake Clifton Eastern High School; the largest school campus of physical size in Baltimore City; Baltimore City College, the third oldest public high school in the country; Western High School, the oldest public all-girls high school in the nation; and Baltimore Polytechnic Institute; a public high school that share the second-oldest high school football rivalry with Baltimore City College.
Criticism and recent developments
In late 2003, City Schools was discovered to be in a severe fiscal crisis, with a deficit estimated to be anywhere from $54–64 million (depending on the reporting source). As a means of reducing the gap, extensive layoffs of teachers and staff took place and new controls were enacted to ensure that spending was more closely monitored. A loan from the city temporarily ended the deficit and City Schools paid the loan back over a two-year period. Criticism of the system still takes place with regard to the awarding of "emergency" contracts.
As of 2013, City Schools has the second-highest per student cost in the nation, spending $15,483 per student per year.
From March 1, 2006 to March 4, 2006, City Schools students from high schools across Baltimore City held a three-day student strike to oppose an imminent plan to "consolidate" many area high schools into fewer buildings. The school system asserted that these buildings are underutilized. The students and other advocates assert that the reason the extra space exists in these buildings is because class sizes often are about 40 students per class. Martin J. O'Malley, then-mayor of Baltimore, apparently gave an ear to the students' demands in this latest round of strike actions, fearing it could have an impact on his status with the general public in a gubernatorial election year. The end of March saw a change in the balance of power, with the State of Maryland threatening to take over 11 City schools.
On April 8, 2007 the Baltimore Sun's Sara Neufeld stated in an article that the Baltimore City Public School budget was full of errors.
A recent poll conducted by the Baltimore Sun and Annapolis pollster OpinionWorks July 8–10, 2007 recently revealed Baltimore citizens grim opinion of the system. Asked to grade the Baltimore public schools, 2 percent of respondents gave the system an A; 10 percent gave it a B; 32 percent chose C; 22 percent D; and 20 percent Fail, with 15 percent unsure. If the system were assigned a mean grade-point average based on the poll, it would be a 1.45, the equivalent of about a D-plus".
A March 2012 article in the Baltimore Sun illustrates how the budget is not being carefully monitored. The severe budget cuts led to a thin staff working overtime, leading to high overtime wage earnings. Along with this, Dr. Andres Alonso's driver earned double his salary in overtime, making his pay last year higher than Governor Martin O'Malley's.
On November 27, 2012, Dr. Andres Alonso announced a 10-Year Plan which, pending approval of the School Board, will lead to the closing of four elementary/middle schools following the 2012-2013 school year, as well as the closing of thirteen additional schools over the next five years. The plan also includes proposals for renovating and relocating the schools not being affected by closures.
- "School District Directory - Chief Executive Officer". Baltimore City Public Schools. Retrieved April 2, 2012.
- "Search for Public School Districts – District Detail for Baltimore City Public Schools". National Center for Education Statistics. Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- The school district is also referred to as "BCPSS" the "Baltimore City Public School System", and "City Schools".
- "Finding Information." (Archive) Baltimore City Public Schools. Retrieved April 9, 2011. "Dr. Alice G. Pinderhughes Administration Building 200 E. North Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21202 "
- The building was rebuilt/renovated/enlarged 1980's, (former building of the Baltimore Polytechnic Institute, (1912-1967), former site of the Maryland School for the Blind, (1868-1912).
- "Baltimore City Public Schools - U.S. Dept. of Ed.". U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- Neufeld, Sara (July 2007). "Schools average grade of D-plus". Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- Neufeld, Sara (July 2007). "Beginning of the Alonzo era". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2007-07-26.[dead link]
- Templeton, Furman L. (Winter 1954). ""The Admission of Negro Boys to the Baltimore Polytechnic Institute "A" Course,"". The Journal of Negro Education 23 (1): 29. doi:10.2307/2293243. JSTOR 2293243.
- Crockett, Sandra. "Breaking The Color Barrier At Poly In 1952". Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, MD.
- "Film shows Baltimore school struggling despite No Child Left Behind law". Associated Press. June 21, 2008. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
- Katz-Stone, Adam (January 28, 2000). "School boundaries". Baltimore Business Journal. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
- "WHS Flyer". Western High School. Archived from the original on February 5, 2009. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
- Patterson, Ted (2000). Football in Baltimore: History and Memorabilia. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-8018-6424-7.
- "Baltimore schools coverage". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2007-07-26. "Archived information on the city system's planned closures, the proposed state takeovers and past financial problems."
- "Baltimore Second in Per Pupil Spending, Census Says". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2013-07-08. "Baltimore Second in Per Pupil Spending, Census Says."
- "Students Overview". NAPCS Dashboard. Retrieved 2011-07-05. "."
- "Baltimore schools coverage". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2011-07-05. "Archived City school board adopts $1.23 billion budget."
- Tavernise, Sabrina (2010-12-01). "Baltimore Schools, a Mission for Andres Alonso". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2010-12-02.
- Green, Erica L. (2012-03-01). "City schools pay $14 million overtime in four years". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
- Proposed 10-Year Plan Recommendations, Baltimore City Public Schools, retrieved November 27, 2012
- "The Learning", documentary film about teachers from the Philippines brought in from overseas to be employed in the Baltimore school system
- Tancinco, Lourdes Santos, "Hundreds of Filipino teachers in Maryland face uncertainties", Philippine Daily Inquirer, April 16, 2011
- Baltimore City Public Schools website
- Baltimore Teacher Union (BTU)
- City Schools Teacher Support System (TSS)
- Baltimore City Public Schools – Maryland Report Card
- Baltimore City Government