|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2013)|
|Dark blue:Skardu, Ghanche, Shigar and Kharmang (GB)
Light blue:Kargil (J&K)
|Region||Gilgit-Baltistan, Jammu and Kashmir|
|District||Gilgit Baltistan: Skardu, Ghanche, Shigar and Kharmang
Jammu and Kashmir: Kargil, Ladakh
|• Total||72,000 km2 (28,000 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,500 m (4,900 ft)|
Baltistan (Urdu:بلتستان, Balti: བལ་ཏི་སྟྰན), also known as Baltiyul (Balti: བལ་ཏི་ཡུལ་།), is a mountainous region, the majority of which lies in Gilgit–Baltistan in the northern part of Pakistan. It is situated in the Karakoram mountains just to the south of K2, the world's second highest mountain. It is an extremely mountainous region, with an average altitude of over 3,350 m (11,000 ft).
Baltistan borders Gilgit Agency in the west, the Xinjiang Autonomous Region (China) in the north, Ladakh in the east, and the Kashmir Valley in the south. Since 1947, the region is divided by the Line of Control, with four of its five disctricts – Skardu, Gangche, Shigar and Kharmang – being controlled by Pakistan and the Kargil district being part of Indian-administered Kashmir. A small portion of Baltistan, including the village of Turtuk in the Nubra Valley, lies in the Ladakh district of Indian Kashmir.
The region is inhabited principally by the Balti people of Tibetan descent. The vast majority of the population adheres to Islam. The Skardu district has majority Shia community of around 90%, while the Gangche district has majority of Noorbakhsh community of around 85%.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Tourism
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Panorama
- 6 Fauna
- 7 Culture
- 8 Popular culture references
- 9 Media
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 External links
Baltistan was described in the Encyclopaedia Britannica Eleventh Edition, published in 1911, thus:
Baltistan forms the west extremity of Tibet led by the tribes of Umer Mukhtar and Sumair Malik, whose natural limits here are the Indus from its abrupt southward bend in 74 45 E., and the mountains to the north and west, separating a comparatively peaceful Tibetan population from the fiercer Aryan tribes beyond. Muslim writers about the 16th century speak of Baltistan as Little Tibet, and of Ladakh as Great Tibet, thus ignoring the really Great Tibet altogether. The Balti call Gilgit a Tibet, and Dr Leitner says that the Chilasi call themselves But or Tibetans; but although these districts may have been overrun by the Tibetans, or have received rulers of that race, the ethnological frontier coincides with the geographical one given. Baltistan is a mass of lofty mountains, the prevailing formation being gneiss. In the north is the Baltoro Glacier, the largest out of the arctic regions, 35 miles (56 km) long, contained between two ridges whose highest peaks to the south are 25,000 ft (7,600 m) and to the north 28,265 ft (8,615 m). The Indus, as in Lower Ladakh, runs in a narrow gorge, widening for nearly 20 m. after receiving the Shyok. The capital, Skardu, a scattered collection of houses, stands here, perched on a rock 7,250 ft (2,210 m). above the sea. The house roofs are flat, occupied only in part by a second storey, the remaining space being devoted to drying apricots, the chief staple of the main valley, which supports little cultivation. But the rapid slope westwards is seen generally in the vegetation. Birch, plane, spruce and Pinus wallichiana appear; the fruits are finer, including pomegranate, pear, peach, vine and melon, and where irrigation is available, as in the North Shigar, and at the deltas of the tributary valleys, the crops are more luxuriant and varied.
|Valley||District||Area (km²)||Population (1998) [2001 census for Kargil]||Numbers of Estate||Headquarters|
|Purig||Kargil district||14,086 km2||143,388||9||Kargil|
For centuries, Baltistan consisted of small independent valley states that were connected to each other through blood relationships of the rulers (rajas), trade, common beliefs and strong cultural and language bonds. These states were subjugated by force by the Dogra rulers of Kashmir in the nineteenth century. In 1947 when India and Pakistan gained independence, Baltistan was still part of Kashmir. The people of Baltistan being predominantly Muslims revolted against the Dogra rulers and after a struggle lasting a year became independent. Along with Gilgit, it is now administered by Pakistan as the region of Gilgit–Baltistan (formerly Northern Areas). Its links with Kashmir as a subjugated people today continue to be an impediment in granting its population citizenship of Pakistan. On 29 August 2009 the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan announced the creation of Gilgit–Baltistan, a new province-like autonomous region with Gilgit city as its capital and Skardu as the largest city.
Baltistan was known as Little Tibet in olden days and in course of time this name was extended to include the area of Ladakh as well. Later on, in order to differentiate it from Ladakh, Baltistan was called Little Tibet whereas Ladakh was known as Great Tibet. But locally Ladakh and Baltistan is known as Maryul ("Red Country") and Baltistan is known as Baltiyul.
Origin of Baltis and Baltistan
|“||Tibetan Khampa entered in Khaplu through Chorbat Valley and Dardic tribes came to Baltistan through Roundu Valley from Gilgit prior to civilization, and these groups eventually settled down, creating the Balti people.||”|
It was believed that the Balti people came under the sphere of influence from the kingdom of Zhang Zhung. Baltistan came under the control of the Tibetan king Songtsen Gampo in the 7th century. Under Tibetan cultural influence, the Bon and Animist Baltis began to adopt Tibetan Buddhism from Indian Buddhism. Religious artifacts such as the Gompas and Chortens were erected, and Lamas played an important role in the lives of the Baltis.
It was in the 14th century that religious Muslim scholars from Iran and Kashmir penetrated Baltistan’s mountainous terrain to spread Islam amongst a people who were originally Buddhist. The Kharmang came under the control of the Namgyal royal family, and fostered a close relationship with Ladakh in the east when the Raja of Ladakh, Jamyang Mangyal, attacked the principalities in the district of Purik annihilating the Skardu garrison at Kharbu and putting to sword a number of petty Muslim rulers in the Muslim principalities in Purik (Kargil), Ali Sher Khan Anchan, Sher Ghazi, Raja of Khaplu and Raja of Shigar left with a strong army by way of Marol and by passing the Laddakhi army occupied Leh, the capital of Ladakh. The Raja of Ladakh was ultimately taken prisoner. Legends show that the Balti army obsessed with success advanced as far as Purang, in the valley of Mansarovar Lake, and won the admiration of their enemies and friends. The Raja of Ladakh sued for peace and since Ali Sher Khan’s intention was not to annex Laddakh, he agreed subject to the condition that the village of Ganokh and Gagra Nullah should be ceded to Skardu and he (the Ladakhi Raja) should pay annual tribute. This tribute was paid through the Gonpa (monastery) of Lama Yuru till the Dogra conquest of Ladakh. Hashmatullah records that the Head Lama of the said Gonpa had admitted before him the payment of yearly tribute to Skardu Darbar till the Dogra conquest of Ladakh.
Ali Sher Khan Anchan also included Gilgit and Chitral into his kingdom of baltistan. It is related that Baltistan was a flourishing country during the reign of Ali Sher Khan Anchan. They valley from Khepchne to Kachura was flat and fertile and fruit trees abounded in it. The sandy desert now extending from Sundus village to the Skardu Airport was a prosperous town. Skardu had hardly recovered from the shock of the death of the Anchan when it was visited by a great flood converting it into a sandy desert.
In 1845, the area came under the rule of the Dogras. At the time of the independence of India from the British, the region became divided between India and Pakistan.
The region of Baltistan is bestowed with some of the greatest bounties of Nature. Tourists from all over the world have a great attraction toward this region because of its beautiful valleys, plains, peaks and heritage sites.
The capital of Baltistan, Skardu welcomes the visitors with its ethereal tourist resorts, daunting plains, wonderful lakes and alpine mountains. Shangri-la, Deosai plain, Satpara Lake, Basho etc. are adorable places to visit. In the north of Skardu, Shigar valley fascinates the people by its splendid plains, hiking tracks, tempting peaks ad camping sites. Other valleys in Baltistan region are Khaplu, Rondu, Kachura Lake and Kharmang.
Glaciers in Baltistan
Baltistan of Pakistan has a rocky wilderness of 27000 Sq. Miles (about 68000 km2) containing the biggest cluster of majestic mountains anywhere in the world and the biggest glaciers anywhere outside the polar region. The mighty Himalayas come advancing into this region from India, Tibet and Nepal and north of them spread the more localized but still majestic Karakoram range, both heading northwest while in between flows the mighty Indus river. Along the Indus are many lovely valleys alongside the main river and in the path of its tributaries.The famous glaciers found in Baltistan are Baltoro Glacier, Biafo Glacier, Siachen Glacier, Trango Glacier and Godwin-Austen Glacier etc.
Baltistan is home to more than 20 peaks of over 20,000 feet, including K2, the second highest mountain on Earth. Other well known peaks include Masherbrum (also known as K1), Broad Peak, Hidden Peak, Gasherbrum II Gasherbrum IV and Chogolisa, situated in Khaplu Valley.The following peaks have so far been scaled by various expedition:
|Name of Peak||Photos||Height||Date of Conquest||Location|
|2. Gasherbrum I||(26,360Ft)||7/7/1956||Ghanche District|
|3. Broad Peak||(26,550)||9/6/1957||Ghanche District|
|4. Muztagh Tower||(23,800Ft)||6/8/1956||Ghanche District|
|5. Gasherbrum II||(26,120Ft)||4/7/1958||Ghanche District|
|6. Hidden Peak||(26,470Ft)||4/7/1957||Ghanche District|
|7. Khunyang Chhish||(25,761 Ft)||4/7/1971||Skardu District|
|8. Masherbrum||(25,659 ft)||4/8/1960||Ghanche District|
|9. Saltoro Kangri||(25,400Ft)||4/6/1962||Ghanche District|
|10. Chogolisa||(25,148 Ft)||4/8/1963||Ghanche District|
Baltistan has a population of about 322,000 which is a blend of many different ethnic groups, predominantly Tibetans, Monpas and Dards while a few Kasmiri merchants settled in Skardu while Syed and Iranian craftsmen came here with the arrival of Islam. Yabgo Royal family of Khaplu were from Yarkant County.
Baltistan has been called as living museum for wildlife. The Baltistan High altitude Deosai National Park, in southern Baltistan, is a good habitat for predators as it has abundant prey populations.
There are two main categories of animals which are found in different parts of Baltistan.
Balti music and art
A Balti version says that the Mughal Princess Gul Khatoon better known in Baltistan as Mindoq Gialmo (Flower Queen) brought with her musicians and artisans into Baltistan. The musicians and artisans propagated Mughal music and art under her patronage. Musical instruments such as the ‘Surnai’, ‘Karnai’, ‘Dhol’, ‘Chang’ etc. found their way into Baltistan.
The classical and other dances are displayed on the occasion of Nowruz (21 March), and on the marriages of Rajas etc. These can be classified into Sword Dances, Broqchhos and Dewan or Ghazal. The following are the names of the sword dances:
- CHHOGHO PRASUL commemorates a great victory by the Maqpon Rajas over their enemies. As a mark of respect the musician who plays on the drum or ‘DANG’ stands up and goes on playing on it for sometime. It is worthy of note that the Maqpon princes would sometimes dance when this tune was played.
- GASHO – PA is a sword dance associated with the Gasho Dynasty of Purik (Kargil) who loomed large in this region one time. It is also called ‘GHBUS – LA – KHORBA’.
- SNEOPA OR THE MARRIAGE PROCESSION DANCE is performed on the occasion of the marriages of Rajas. In it the PACHONES or twelve Wazirs who accompany the bride take part.
The architecture of Baltistan contains Tibetan, Mughul and Iranian influences and monastic architecture reflects a deeply Buddhist approach. The Buddhist Straight painted can be seen on feature on every Fort, and khanqah of Noorbakhshi sect including the likes of Chaqchan Mosque, Amburik mosque Shigar, Khanqah e Muallah Shigar, Khaplu Fort, Shigar Fort, Skardu Fort etc. The Baltit Fort in Hunza valley was built by Balti architects.
Baltistan is said to be the birth centre of Polo. Because the word Polo is a Balti Tibetan word which means ball as Balti people call Football kang polo and call Volleyball laq polo. This evidence can be found in old Balti folk songs. Polo is played here even today in its original form. This royal sport is indigenous to the Karakoram Range. It was Ali Sher Khan Anchan the Maqpon ruler of Baltistan who introduced this game to other valleys upon his conquests that stretched beyond Gilgit and Chitral. Polo grounds are almost present in all villages of Baltistan.
Popular culture references
The government radio broadcaster "Radio Pakistan " (AIR) and government television station "Skardu TV station" both have stations in Khaplu that broadcast local content for all the day.
There are also a handful of private news outlets.
- Daily k2 is a newspaper published from Skardu serving Gilgit-Baltistanin Urdu.
- Bad-e-Shimal, claims to be the largest circulated daily of Gilgit and Baltistan.
- Nawa-e-Sufia, a monthly magazine covering Baltistan's religious news of Nurbakshi sect.
- "SASNET: Social Work Lund". Retrieved 2010-06-21.
- pg.88 Rediscovery of Ladakh: H. N. Kaul ISBN 81-7387-086-1
- Flames in Kashmir - Bhim Singh - 1st Ed University of Michigan, 2nd Ed Har-Anand Publications, 1998
- p.302 Kashmir: shadow of terrorism - Mamta Rajawat ISBN 81-261-1439-8
- p.74 The Pamirs Being a Narrative of a Year's Expedition on Horseback and on Foot-back through Kashmir, Western Tibet, Chinese Tartary and Russian Central Asia Volume I ISBN 1-4021-8434-4/1-4021-2473-2
- In pictures: Life in Baltistan - BBC News, 1 July 2013
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ladakh and Baltistan". Encyclopædia Britannica 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 58.
- A Socio-Political Study of Gilgit Baltistan Province.
- Gertel, Jörg; Richard Le Heron (2011). Economic Spaces of Pastoral Production and Commodity Systems. Ashgate. p. 181. ISBN 978-1-4094-2531-1.
- Chisholm 1911.
- Yousaf Hussain Abadi, A view on Baltistan
- Mustansir Hassan Tard, Nanga Parbat
- Where Indus is Young
- Baltistan in History by Banat Gul Afridi 1986
- Tarekh e jammu, molvi hashmatullah
- Hussainabadi, Muhammad Yousuf: Baltistan per Aik Nazar 1984
- "Baltistan - North Pakistan".
- Hussainabadi, Muhammad Yousuf: Tareekh-e-Baltistan 2003
- Kashmir: Its Aborigines and Their Exodus.
- The last colony: Muzaffarabad-Gilgit-Baltistan.
- Proceedings of the International Seminar on the Anthropology of Tibet and the Himalaya.
- Ali, Manzoom (2004, June 12). Archaeology of Dardistan.
- Kashmir profile - BBC News
- "ABOUT GILGIT-BALTISTAN".
- Baltistan in History, Banat Gul Afridi
- "Beautiful Gilgit Baltistan".
- "BALTI MUSIC AND ART".
- Hussainabadi, Muhammad Yousuf: Balti Zaban 1990
- Wallace, Paul (1996). A History of Western Himalayas . Penguin Books, London.
- polo in baltistan, hassan hasrat
- Baltistan the home of polo, Dr Ahmed hassan dani
- "English Dictionary".
- Dani, Ahmad Hassan: History of Northern Areas of Pakistan, National Institute of Historical Research, Islamabad, 1991.
- "Radio Pakistan".
- "Daily Bad e Shimal".
|Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Baltistan.|