Balu Mahendra

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Balu Mahendra
Balu Mahendra (cropped).JPG
Balu Mahendra in 2013
Born Balanathan Benjamin Mahendran
(1939-05-20)20 May 1939
Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
Died 13 February 2014(2014-02-13) (aged 74)
Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Cause of death
Cardiac arrest
Other names Mahendra, Balu, Bala Mahendran
Alma mater
Occupation Literary editor, cinematographer, film director, screenwriter, film editor
Years active 1971–2013
Title ISC
Spouse(s)
  • Ahileshwari Mahendra
  • Shoba (1978–80; until her death)
  • Mounika (1998 – 2014) (his death)

Balanathan Benjamin Mahendran (20 May 1939 – 13 February 2014), commonly known as Balu Mahendra,[a] was a cinematographer, director, screenwriter and film editor, who worked in various Indian film industries, primarily in Tamil and Malayalam cinema. Born into a Sri Lankan Tamil household, Mahendra developed a passion towards photography and literature at a tender age. He was drawn towards film-making after witnessing the shoot of David Lean's The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957) in Sri Lanka. A graduate of the London University, he started his career as a draughtsman before gaining an admission to the Film and Television Institute of India (FTII) to pursue a course in cinematography. Mahendra entered films as a cinematographer in the early 1970s and gradually rose to becoming a film-maker by the end of the decade.[2]

Making his directorial debut through the Kannada film Kokila (1977), Mahendra made over 20 films in all South Indian languages and two in Hindi. He was one of the earliest film-makers in Tamil cinema to introduce realism, and is considered to be a part of the first in a wave of directors and screenwriters who re-vitalised the Tamil film industry. Towards the tail end of his career, in 2007, he established a film school in Chennai which offers courses in cinematography, direction and acting. Following a brief phase of poor health, Mahendra died of cardiac arrest in Chennai.

Widely regarded as an auteur,[3][4] Mahendra wrote the script for his films, handled the camera and edited the film himself apart from directing. He was the recipient of six National Film Awards—including two for Best Cinematography, three Filmfare Awards South, and several state awards from the governments of Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

Early life[edit]

Mahendra was born in 1939 into a Sri Lankan Tamil family in the village Amirthakali near Batticaloa, Sri Lanka.[5][6] Born to a professor father,[7] he did his schooling at Methodist Central College and St. Michael's College, Batticaloa.[1][8] As a teenager, he was drawn towards films by his class teacher.[9] It was during this time he got an opportunity to watch classics such as Bicycle Thieves (1948) and Battleship Potemkin (1925), arranged by the teacher.[9] When he was at the sixth grade, he got an opportunity to witness the making of David Lean's The Bridge on the River Kwai (shot in Sri Lanka) during a school field trip.[10][11] Inspired by Lean's personality, Mahendra determined to become a film-maker.[9][11]

"I used to cut my cinematography classes and attend classes conducted in the departments of direction, screenplay writing and editing. However, I used to get the top rank in cinematography, so the professor did not mind my going to other classes. My main concern at that time was direction and scripting with a little bit of interest in cinematography."

—Mahendra in an interview to Frontline in 2013[12]

Right from his childhood, Mahendra was interested in fine arts and literature. Upon completion of school, he joined the London University and graduated with a bachelors degree (honours) in science.[13] After his graduation, he returned to Sri Lanka and worked in Colombo as a draughtsman in the survey department for a brief period during which he edited a Tamil literary magazine titled Thyen Aruvi.[1] In Colombo, he worked as an amateur drama artist with Radio Ceylon and got acquainted with the Sinhala theatre groups.[1]

Mahendra's passion for cinema prompted him to leave for India and join the Film and Television Institute of India, Pune in 1966.[1] He had to take up cinematography as he could not gain admissions to other disciplines.[11][14] At the institute he was exposed to world cinema as he got an opportunity to watch films made by François Truffaut and Jean-Luc Godard, both associated with the French New Wave movement.[12] In 1969, Mahendra graduated from the institute with a gold medal.[11]

Film career[edit]

Debut as cinematographer[edit]

Lean (left) and Ray (right) are two of Mahendra's biggest inspirations to become a filmmaker.

As a fresh graduate from the FTII, Mahendra's early attempts to enter Tamil cinema were unsuccessful.[1] He got his first break as a cinematographer in 1971 in the Malayalam film Nellu.[11][15] Ramu Kariat, the director of Nellu, was impressed by A View from the Fortress, Mahendra's diploma film at the FTII.[8][10] Though the filming of Nellu began in 1971, production delays postponed its release for three years.[15] Meanwhile, Kariat signed up Mahendra for another film titled Maaya which released in 1972. However, P. N. Menon's Panimudakku (1972) got released before Maaya, thus becoming Mahendra's first release.[16] He continued to work in Malayalam films such as Sasthram Jayichu Manushyan Thottu (1973), Kaliyugam (1973) and Chattakari (1974).[11]

Nellu, shot in colour, won the Kerala State Film Award for Best Cinematography after it was released in 1974.[11] Mahendra had continued successes with films such as Prayanam (1975) and Chuvanna Sandhyakkal (1975), both fetching the state award for best photography to him for the second consecutive time.[16] Between 1971 and 1976, he worked in about 20 films—mostly in Malayalam—as a cinematographer.[16] The following year he made his directorial debut with Kokila. Made in Kannada, the film was a "triangular love story".[17] In addition to a Best Screenplay award from the Karnataka government,[18] Mahendra won his first National Film Award for Best Cinematography for the film.[19] The film was both critically acclaimed and commercially successful. It was equally successful in the neighbouring state of Tamil Nadu and has the distinction of being the only Kannada film to complete 150 days in Madras (now Chennai) as of 2014.[17]

Entry into Tamil films[edit]

Despite being a Tamil, it was not until 1978 he worked in a Tamil film when he signed up as the cinematographer for J. Mahendran's directorial debut Mullum Malarum (1978).[20] Apart from handling the cinematography, Mahendra involved himself in other aspects such as screenwriting, casting, editing and direction in the film.[21] After completing Mullum Malarum, Mahendra decided to work on his second directorial venture, this time in Tamil. He named the film Azhiyadha Kolangal (1979), which according to him was "partly autobiographical".[22][23] Inspired from the 1971 American film Summer of '42,[24] Azhiyadha Kolangal was a coming-of-age film that dealt with the story of three adolescent boys who are in the awakening of sexuality.[22] Although it was controversial for its theme, it was a box-office success.[23] During this time he did the cinematography of K. Vishwanath's Telugu film Sankarabharanam (1979) which turned out to be a major critical and commercial success.[25]

Mahendra's third film as director Moodu Pani (1980) was loosely based on Alfred Hitchcock's 1960 film Psycho.[26] Moodu Pani saw Mahendra collaborating with Ilaiyaraaja for the first time; Ilaiyaraaja was Mahendra's regular composer since then.[27] In 1982, Mahendra made Moondram Pirai which had Kamal Haasan and Sridevi in the lead. The film told the story of a school teacher who looks after a girl suffering from amnesia. It had a 300-day run in the theatres and was labelled a "blockuster". The film fetched two National Film Awards including an award for cinematography for Mahendra.[25] The same year he made Olangal (1982) which marked his directorial debut in Malayalam.[16] Inspired from Erich Segal's novel Man, Woman and Child, the film was a critical success.[28] At the end of the year, Mahendra won two Filmfare trophies for directing Olangal and Moondram Pirai.[29]

In 1983, Mahendra entered Hindi cinema with Sadma, a remake of Moondram Pirai, with Kamal Hasan and Sridevi reprising their roles. Mahendra received a Filmfare nomination for Best Story and became a well-known director with the Hindi audience with the film.[30] The same year, he worked as the cinematographer of the Kannada film Pallavi Anu Pallavi, Mani Ratnam's debut film.[31] During this time, he made his second film in Malayalam titled Oomakkuyil. Unlike Olangal, Oomakkuyil failed to create an impact among the audience.[16]

Mainstream cinema and tryst with art film genre[edit]

During the mid 1980s, Mahendra concentrated on mainstream films.[3] The first of which Neengal Kettavai (1984) was labelled an outright commercial picture. Later Mahendra noted that he made the film with a sole intention to prove critics that he could make commercial films.[27] The following year, he collaborated with Rajinikanth to make Un Kannil Neer Vazhindal which turned out to be a commercial failure.[3][32] He then worked on the Malayalam film Yathra (1985) with Mammooty in the lead role as a forest officer. Made with "artistic values" the film earned INR1.9 million (equivalent to INR13 million or US$220,000 in 2014) and was the highest-grossing Malayalam film that year.[16][33] By this time, he declined an offer to direct the Kannada film Malaya Marutha (1986).[18] As a director who is known for making intense films, critics were surprised when he made Rettai Vaal Kuruvi (1987), a full-length comedy film. Closely based on the 1984 American film Micki and Maude, the film is regarded as one of the best comedies ever made in Tamil cinema during the decade.[34] The film would serve as a base for his future films Marupadiyum (1993) and Sathi Leelavathi (1995) which explored similar themes.[35]

Towards the end of the decade, Mahendra made two low-budgeted films—Veedu (1988) and Sandhya Raagam (1989). While Veedu focused on the life of a lower middle-class urban woman and her struggle to build a house,[36][37] Sandhya Raagam dealt with "old age".[31][38] At the 35th, Veedu won two National Film Awards—including one for Best Regional Film—and Sandhya Raagam won the Best Film on Family Welfare two years later.[37] According to Mahendra, both the films were a tribute to his mother and father respectively.[38][31] He named these two films as his best works as they were made with fewest mistakes and compromises.[39]

In 1992, Mahendra made Vanna Vanna Pookkal which was produced by S. Dhanu. The film had a 100-day run and won the award for the "Best Regional Film" at the 39th National Film Awards.[26][40] The next year, he remade Mahesh Bhatt's Arth in Tamil as Marupadiyum. Mahendra made the film as he felt it was close to his personal life.[31] He then came up with a full-length comedy Sathi Leelavathi in 1995 which was produced by Kamal Haasan.[35] The following year, he made a comeback in Bollywood through Aur Ek Prem Kahani, a remake of his Kannada film Kokila.[17] He then made Raman Abdullah (1997)—a remake of the Malayalam film Malappuram Haji Mahanaya Joji (1994)—which deals with a friendship between two friends belonging to different religions. The film's shoot became the epicentre of a dispute that arose between the Tamil Film Producers Council and Film Employees Federation of South India (FEFSI).[41] It was reported that members of FEFSI had stopped the filming of Raman Abdullah as Mahendra was engaging outside cast members in the film. This led FEFSI to go for an indefinite strike which affected to the delaying of several Tamil films.[42][43] The film received negative reviews and failed at the box-office.[10]

After Raman Abdullah, Mahendra took a break from films during which he made Kathai Neram, a television series based on different short stories, mostly by Sujatha.[44] It was aired in Sun TV during the early 2000s.[45]

Final years[edit]

Following a five-year sabbatical, he returned with Julie Ganapathi (2003). The film was based on the psychological thriller novel Misery by Stephen King. According to Mahendra, Julie Ganapathi was made on the lines of his previous films Moondram Pirai (1982) and Moodu Pani (1980).[46][47] A review from Rediff.com stated, "Balu Mahendra has kept the flag of sensible cinema within the commercial format once again in his latest offering Julie Ganapathy" and rated the film as one of the best thrillers ever made.[48] In spite of being a critical success, the film turned out to be a commercial failure. For his next film Adhu Oru Kana Kaalam (2005), he decided to cast Dhanush in the lead role. Initially he stated that the film to be an extension of his 1979 film Azhiyatha Kolangal.[49] However, he ended up making a different film. The film was loosely based on his own Malayalam film Yathra released in 1985. When asked about the difference between the two films, he said "Yat[h]ra was the love story of two adults, this is the love story of two adolescents."[50] Shobha Warrier of Rediff.com wrote that the film was "extremely disappointing".[50]

In 2007, he started a film school named "Cinema Pattarai" in Chennai. The institute offers courses in disciplines such as cinematography, direction and acting.[10] After a brief hiatus from films, he made a comeback through Thalaimuraigal (2013), which marked his acting debut. Apart from acting, he also scripted, directed, edited and served as the cinematographer of the film. The film was about the relationship between an ageing man and his grandson.[10] The film received positive response with Mahendra's acting being well acclaimed.[51][52][53] Malathi Rangarajan of The Hindu stated, "If Mahendra's aim was to make a film that can compete on a global level, Thalaimuraigal is a concrete step in that direction."[54] Despite being a critical success, the film was a commercial failure.[2] At the 61st National Film Awards, the film won the Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration.[55]

Personal life[edit]

P. Bharathiraja and J. Mahendran are among the others seen in the picture
P. Bharathiraja and J. Mahendran attending the funeral

Mahendra was married thrice. He was first married to Akhileshwari with whom he had a son.[32][56] His relationship with actress Shoba ended in 1980 after she committed suicide following their marriage.[1] Upon Shoba's death, media speculated that it was not a suicide and further added that Mahendra was responsible for her death. In 1985, a case was filed against him and Akhileshwari as they were "illegally" staying in India; both suffered four months of imprisonment for illegal immigration.[32] However, the court after a few months dismissed the plea saying that his stay had "enriched" the Tamil culture as he had made significant contributions to Tamil cinema.[1][24] Following that, Mahendra wrote a series of "sentimental musings" in the Tamil magazine Kumudam under the title Shobavum Naanum (Shoba and me).[57] Their relationship was later explored in the 1983 Malayalam film Lekhayude Maranam Oru Flashback by its director K. G. George.[58] However, when the film was released, Mahendra in an interview said that he has nothing to do with the film and has not discussed about it with George.[59] In 1998, he married another actress Mounika and declared their marriage publicly in 2004.[60][61]

Following a heart attack on 13 February 2014, Balu Mahendra was admitted to Vijaya Hospital in Chennai where he was declared dead after six hours of cardiac arrest.[62][63] Shortly after the news of his death, members of the Indian film industry posted their condolences in Twitter and Facebook.[64] The Tamil film fraternity mourned the death and paid homage to him at his "film school" in Saligramam, Chennai,[25] and decided not to work on the following day as a sign of respect.[56] The last rites of Mahendra were performed at Porur crematorium on the same day.[65]

Style and legacy[edit]

As a photographer, Mahendra was inspired by the works of French New Wave cinematographers such as Néstor Almendros and Michael Chapman. Among his contemporaries, he admired the works of Ashok Kumar. Mahendra believed a "well-photographed movie is that which is very close to the script".[12] As a film-maker, he claims himself as belonging to the realistic way of story-telling devised by Satyajit Ray and Vittorio De Sica.[38] Mahendra was drawn towards realistic cinema after watching Ray's Pather Panchali (1955).[25] He is credited as being one among the earliest filmmakers to bring "naturalism" in Tamil cinema in the 1970s.[3][66] He usually photographed, scripted and edited all his films.[38] His films were characterised by strong "visual appeal" and minimal number of characters.[67][68] A majority of his films centre on the complexity of human relationships and are known to portray women as strong characters.[38][69] Although influenced by realism, his films Moodu Pani, Rettai Vaal Kuruvi and Julie Ganapathi heavily borrowed from American cinema.[38]

Mahendra was equally praised for his cinematography and directorial finesse.[10] Described by the media as "one of the finest cinematographers of Indian cinema",[2][70] he was among the first to pioneer innovative colour in South India. Subrata Mitra, the cinematographer of Ray, presented a viewfinder to Mahendra acknowledging his talent.[10] Fellow cinematographer Madhu Ambat described that it was Mahendra who gave "fame" to those cameramen who came out of the Pune Film Institute, and further noted that he was one of the few film-makers who effectively used romantic realism.[71] Lauded for usage of "natural lighting",[10][72] Mahendra was considered as "one of the few filmmakers in Tamil who believes in telling a story visually".[73] Kamal Haasan described that he was one of the few directors who balanced between art and popular cinema.[74] As a film-maker, he inspired contemporary actors and film-makers such as Mani Ratnam, Kamal Haasan and Sripriya,[75] He has mentored next generation film-makers including Bala, Ameer, Vetrimaaran, Ram and Seenu Ramasamy.[10] Cinematographers like Santosh Sivan,[76] Ravi K. Chandran,[77] Natarajan Subramaniam and K. V. Anand have taken inspirations from him.[78] The negatives of his acclaimed films—Moodu Pani,[79] Veedu, Sandhya Raagam, Marupadiyum and Sathi Leelavathi—are lost.[72]

Awards and nominations[edit]

Awards and nominations received by Balu Mahendra
Year Award Category Nominated work(s) Result
1974 Kerala State Film Award Best Cinematography (Colour) Nellu Won[26]
1975 Kerala State Film Award Best Cinematography (black-and-white) Prayanam, Chuvanna Sandhyakkal (Black-and-white) Won[80]
1977 National Film Awards Best Cinematography (Black-and-white) Kokila Won[26]
Karnataka State Film Awards Best Screenplay Won[26]
1978 Nandi Awards Best Cinematographer Manavoori Pandavulu Won[81]
1982 National Film Awards Best Cinematography (Colour) Moondram Pirai Won[26]
Filmfare Awards South Best Director (Tamil) Won[29]
Best Director (Malayalam) Olangal Won[29]
1983 Filmfare Awards Best Story Sadma Nominated[82]
1986 Nandi Awards Best Cinematography Nireekshana Won[81]
1987 National Film Awards Best Feature Film in Tamil Veedu Won[26]
1989 National Film Awards Best Film on Family Welfare Sandhya Raagam Won[26]
1991 National Film Awards Best Feature Film in Tamil Vanna Vanna Pookkal Won[26]
2013 National Film Awards Best Feature Film on National Integration Thalaimuraigal Won[55]
2013 61st Filmfare Awards South Best Tamil Director Thalaimuraigal Nominated[83]
Lifetime Achievement Award – South
Won[b][84]

Filmography[edit]

As director[edit]

As cinematographer only[edit]

Television[edit]

  • Kathai Neram (2000)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The name Balanathan is patronymic. His actual name is Mahendran.[1]
  2. ^ Awarded posthumously

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Balu Mahendra was also a literary figure". Ceylon Today. 17 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c "Sadma director Balu Mahendra dies at 74". The Hindustan Times. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d Rangan, Baradwaj (14 February 2014). "Naturalism was his signature". The Hindu. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  4. ^ "Tamil cinema's auteur Balu Mahendra dead". Business Standard. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  5. ^ Prasad, Shiva (20 May 2013). "Balu Mahendra turns a year older!". The Times of India. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  6. ^ Raghu, Sunita (17 September 2013). "I genuinely feel I can act: Balu Mahendra". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 20 September 2013. 
  7. ^ Rajadhyaksha & Willemen 1999, p. 141.
  8. ^ a b K.S, Sivakumaran (21 March 2012). "Arts from far – Indian Tamil Cinema: Balu Mahendra". Daily News. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c Mahendra, Balu (7 September 2012). "சினிமாவும் நானும்...." (in Tamil). filmmakerbalumahendra.blogspot.in. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i N Venkateswaran (14 February 2014). "Balu Mahendra, who made his visuals speak, dies at 74". The Times of India. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g "Balu Mahendra: True to the spirit of '60s,'70s, his stories were simple and visuals evocative". The Indian Express. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  12. ^ a b c S.R. Ashok Kumar (18 October 2013). "Cinematography has changed, so also the way films are made". Frontline. Retrieved 22 February 2014. (subscription required)
  13. ^ Dey 1982, p. 45.
  14. ^ B. Kolappan; Karthik Subramanian (13 February 2014). "Veteran filmmaker Balu Mahendra passes away". The Hindu. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  15. ^ a b "Kamal Haasan: "Balu Mahendra and I shared a very close relationship"". Desimartini.com. HT Media. 17 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f Viswanath, Chandrakanth (14 February 2014). "Balu Mahendra – a Deft Director Who Wielded Candid Camera". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  17. ^ a b c "The Best Films of Balu Mahendra". Rediff. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  18. ^ a b "Kokila was Balu's first as director". The Hindu. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  19. ^ "Balu Mahendra: The method, the madness". Rediff.com. 7 January 2002. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  20. ^ Kolappan, B.; Subramanian, Karthik (13 February 2014). "Veteran filmmaker Balu Mahendra passes away". The Hindu. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  21. ^ Mahendra, Balu (21 April 2013). "முள்ளும் மலரும் படத்தில் நான்" (in Tamil). filmmakerbalumahendra.blogspot.in. Retrieved 19 December 2013. 
  22. ^ a b Warrier, Shobha (18 August 2003). "Sex and teenage fantasies". Rediff. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  23. ^ a b Ajith Kumar, P.K. (26 August 2010). "A life in cinema". The Hindu. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  24. ^ a b Babu Jayakumar, G (14 February 2014). "Visual Epics to Relive the Master Storyteller". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  25. ^ a b c d Kolappan, B. (14 February 2014). "Balu Mahendra passes away". The Hindu. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i Venkateswaran, N (14 February 2014). "Balu Mahendra, who made his visuals speak, dies at 74". The Times of India. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  27. ^ a b G., Prasad (18 August 2007). "Off the beaten track". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 June 2013. 
  28. ^ Ajith Kumar, P.K. (15 February 2014). "A fascinating journey in filmdom". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  29. ^ a b c Reed 1984, pp. 234–235.
  30. ^ "Sadma Director Balu Mahendra Dead". Outlook. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  31. ^ a b c d Ajith Kumar, P.K. (27 August 2010). "A life in cinema". The Hindu. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  32. ^ a b c "Eyecatchers". India Today. 15 July 1985. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  33. ^ Pillai, Sreedhar (15 January 1986). "Malayalam films: New heroes". India Today. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  34. ^ A. Ganesh Nadar (13 February 2014). "Balu Mahendra's death will leave a void in the Tamil film industry". Rediff. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  35. ^ a b Malini, Shankaran (14 September 2011). "'A good film is like a good feast'". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  36. ^ "Eyecatchers". India Today. 15 May 1988. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  37. ^ a b "Veedu (1988)". Rediff. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f Baskaran 2013, p. 122.
  39. ^ "Balu Mahendra: The method, the madness". Rediff.com. 7 January 2002. Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  40. ^ Mannath, Malini (1 January 1993). "Run-of-the-mill fare". The Indian Express. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  41. ^ Baskaran 2009, p. 114.
  42. ^ Kindem 2000, p. 50.
  43. ^ "Madras film strike: Producers demand their pound of flesh". Rediff.com. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  44. ^ V. Raman, Mohan (15 February 2014). "The Balu Mahendra I knew". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 July 2014. 
  45. ^ "A Chennai landmark shuts down". Rediff.com. 23 April 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  46. ^ Warrier, Shobha (4 March 2003). "Julie Ganapathy was a big risk". Rediff. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  47. ^ Rangarajan, Malathi (21 February 2003). "Julie Ganapathy". The Hindu. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  48. ^ "Julie Ganapathy". Rediff. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  49. ^ Warrier, Shobha. "Sex and teenage fantasies". Rediff. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  50. ^ a b "Athu Oru Kana Kaalam disappoints". Rediff. 8 November 2005. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  51. ^ "'Thalaimuraigal' Review Roundup: Balu Mahendra's Film Gets Positive Response". International Business Times. 22 December 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  52. ^ Suganth, M (27 December 2013). "Thalaimuraigal". The Times of India. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  53. ^ Saraswathi, S (23 December 2013). "Review: Thalaimuraigal is brilliant". Rediff. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  54. ^ Rangarajan, Malathi (21 December 2013). "Thalaimuraigal: For generations to come". The Hindu. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  55. ^ a b "61st National Film Awards Announced" (PDF) (Press release). Press Information Bureau (PIB), India. 16 April 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014. 
  56. ^ a b Mathai, Kamini (14 February 2014). "To Balu sir with love". The Times of India. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  57. ^ "Silk Route". Mint. 30 September 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  58. ^ Joy, Prathibha (13 February 2014). "Veteran director Balu Mahendra no more". The Times of India. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  59. ^ Pillai, Sreedhar (15 May 1983). "Imitation of Life". India Today. reprinted by bharatgopy.com. Retrieved 30 July 2014. 
  60. ^ "பாலு மகேந்திரா உடலுக்கு மெளனிகா அஞ்சலி". The Hindu (in Tamil). 14 February 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014. 
  61. ^ Shankar (14 February 2014). "கணவர் பாலு மகேந்திரா உடலைப் பார்க்க மௌனிகாவுக்கு 'ஒருவழியாக' அனுமதி" (in Tamil). Oneindia.in. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  62. ^ "Veteran director Balu Mahendra dead!". The Times of India. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  63. ^ "Balu Mahendra: Indian filmmaker dead". BBC News. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  64. ^ "Celebrities mourn legendary Balu Mahendra's death". The Hindustan Times. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  65. ^ Seshagiri, Sangeetha (14 February 2014). "Balu Mahendra Cremated: Suriya, Vijay, Kamal and Other Film Personalities Paid Last Respects to Acclaimed Director". Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  66. ^ Kumar 2000, p. 178.
  67. ^ Saran 2014, p. 145.
  68. ^ "Visuals in Balu Mahendra's films speaks several emotions, says filmmaker K Vishwanath". IBNLive. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  69. ^ Rajendran, Sowmya. "Balu Mahendra, master of complex relationships". Sify. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  70. ^ "Farewell, Balu". Oman Tribune. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  71. ^ "ബാലു ഛായാഗ്രാഹകര്‍ക്ക് മേല്‍വിലാസം നല്‍കി -മധു അമ്പാട്ട്‌". Mathrubhumi (in Malayalam). 14 February 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  72. ^ a b Krishnan, Rukmini (18 February 2014). "Balu Mahendra: A legend that lives on". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  73. ^ "Style meets substance". The Hindu. 28 January 2006. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  74. ^ Haasan, Kamal (14 February 2014). "Kamal Haasan's tribute to Balu Mahendra". The Hindu. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  75. ^ Sampath, Janani (15 January 2014). "Eighties Flavour Keen to Leave Imprint". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  76. ^ "Awesome Few". Frontline. Retrieved 1 December 2013. 
  77. ^ "Cinematographer who said no to Kamal five times". Behindwoods.com. Retrieved 1 December 2013. 
  78. ^ Cineswami (13 February 2014). "The legacy of Balu Mahendra". India Webportal Private Limited. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  79. ^ "The chronicler of Kollywood". The Times of India. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  80. ^ "State Film Awards 1969 – 2011". Department of Information and Public Relations. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  81. ^ a b "Balu Mahendra Is No More". cinejosh.com. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  82. ^ "The Nominations – 1983". Indiatimes. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  83. ^ "Best Director". Filmfare. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  84. ^ "Veterans steal the show at 61st Idea Filmfare Awards". The Times of India. 13 July 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  85. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Balu Mahendra: Camera". Malayalam Music Movie Encyclopedia. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  86. ^ Garga 1996, p. 292.
  87. ^ a b "Artist Profile: Balu Mahendra". aptalkies.com. Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  88. ^ Ramachandran 1982, p. 96.
  89. ^ "Urangatha Ninaivugal". Upperstall.com. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]