Bamboo textiles

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A scarf made of bamboo yarn and synthetic ribbon

Bamboo textiles are cloth, yarn, and clothing made out of bamboo fibres. While historically used only for structural elements, such as bustles and the ribs of corsets, in recent years a range of technologies have been developed allowing bamboo fibre to be used in a wide range of textile and fashion applications. Modern bamboo clothing is clothing made from either 100% bamboo yarn or a blend of bamboo and cotton yarn. The bamboo yarn can also be blended with other textile fibres such as hemp or even spandex.

Traditional uses[edit]

Kinhyōshi yōrin (Yang Lin), hero of the Suikoden, holding a bamboo hat. From Utagawa Kuniyoshi's series of woodblock prints illustrating the 108 Suikoden.

In China and Japan, thin strips of bamboo were woven together into hats and shoes. One particular design of bamboo hats was associated with rural life, being worn almost universally by farmers and fishermen in order to protect their heads from the sun.[1]

An 1881 bustle design.

In the West, bamboo, alongside other components such as whalebone and steel wire, was sometimes used as a structural component in corsets, bustles and other types of structural elements used in fashionable women's dresses.[2]

Modern uses[edit]

Manufacture of bamboo viscose[edit]

Cellulose from bamboo is suitable for processing into viscose rayon.[3] Bamboo leaves and the soft, inner pith from the hard bamboo trunk are extracted using a steaming process and then mechanically crushed.

Viscose manufactured from bamboo is promoted as having environmental advantages over wood-pulp viscose. Bamboo crops may be grown on marginal land unsuitable for forestry; although demand for bamboo has sometimes led to felling of forests to plant bamboo, though this has become less common since Chinese forestry policy reforms in the 1990's.[4] The viscose processing results in the same chemical waste products as wood-pulp viscose, notably carbon disulfide, but bamboo cellulose is suitable for a closed-loop viscose process that captures all solvents used.[4]

Alternative manufacturing processes[edit]

The Swiss company Litrax[5] is one company involved in the manufacturing of bamboo fibre. Litrax claims to use a more natural way of processing the bamboo into fibre. In this the woody part of the bamboo is crushed mechanically before a natural enzyme retting and washing process is used to break down the walls and extract the bamboo fibre. This bast fibre is then spun into yarn.[6] In fine counts the yarn has a silky touch.[7][8] The same manufacturing process is used to produce linen fabric from flax or hemp. Bamboo fabric made from this process is sometimes called bamboo linen. The natural processing of litrax bamboo allows the fibre to remain strong to produce an extremely high quality product. This process gives a material that is very durable.

Some bamboo fibre is made by a bacterial process similar to retting flax into linen fibre.[9]

Source of raw material[edit]

Most of the bamboo used to make bamboo fibre and bamboo clothing is grown in China by Hebei Jigao Chemical Fiber Company.[10] They hold the patent on the process for turning bamboo into fibre. This facility produces all of the bamboo viscose on the market. The bamboo is certified organic by OCIA (The Organic Crop Improvement Association).[11] To strictly control the quality of raw material, Hebei Jigao Chemical Fiber Company has built its own bamboo plantation in Sichuan Province, China, and keeps strict control over it. The bamboo is grown in accordance to the international organic standard of OCIA/IFOAM and the USDA National Organic Program, so as to ensure each bamboo stalk is of 100% natural growth and without any chemical pesticides. The proof of the ecologically sound methods behind bamboo production is the fact that all of the fibre produced at the facility in China is Oeko-Tex 100 certified.[12] This certifies that the finished fibre has been tested for any chemicals that may be harmful to a person’s health and has been found to contain no trace chemicals that pose any health threat whatsoever. This means that every company working with bamboo starts with the same raw material and that this material is not contaminated.

Bamboo fibre[edit]

Bamboo fibre is a cellulose fibre extracted or fabricated from natural bamboo, and possibly other additives, and is made from (or in the case of material fabrication, is) the pulp of bamboo plants. It is usually not made from the fibres of the plant, but is a synthetic viscose made from bamboo cellulose. (In the US, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has ruled that unless a yarn is made directly with bamboo fiber — often called “mechanically processed bamboo” — it must be called "polyester" or "polyester made from bamboo".[13][14] However, the EPA noted: "Although the manufacturing process further purifies the cellulose, alters the physical form of the fiber, and modifies the molecular orientation within the fiber and its degree of polymerization, the product is essentially the same chemical as the raw material."[15]

Bamboo has gained popularity as a "green" fibre.[16] Manufacturers tout the fact that bamboo can be cultivated quickly, can be used as a cash crop to develop impoverished regions of the third world, and is a natural fibre (as opposed to popular synthetics like polyester) whose cultivation results in a decrease in greenhouse gases.[17] Around 75% of all polluting emissions coming from the bamboo viscose process occur in the form of air emissions.[18]

There may be environmental problems with the cultivation of land expressly for bamboo plantations,[19] and the use of harsh chemicals to turn bamboo into usable fibre for clothing.[13][20]

Bamboo is extremely resilient and durable as a fiber. In studies comparing it to cotton and polyester, it is found to have a high breaking tenacity, better moisture wicking properties, and better moisture absorption.[21] In superseding these other fibers in these various areas, supporters of bamboo fiber products and goods tout it as more Eco-friendly than cotton and polyester.[22]

Bamboo composite and biopolymer construction[edit]

There are various approaches to the use of bamboo in composites and as an additive in biopolymers for construction. In this case, as opposed to bamboo fabrics for clothing, bamboo fibres are extracted through mechanical needling and scraping or through a steam explosion process where bamboo is injected with steam and placed under pressure and then exposed to the atmosphere where small explosions within the bamboo due to steam release allows for the collection of bamboo fibre. Bamboo fibre can be in a pulped form in which the material is extremely fine and in a powdered state.

Ecological reasons for using bamboo as a raw material for textiles and clothing[edit]

Growth[edit]

Bamboo has many advantages over cotton as a raw material for textiles. Reaching up to 35 metres (115 ft) tall, bamboo is the largest members of the grass family.[23] They are the fastest growing woody plants in the world. One Japanese species has been recorded as growing over 1 metre (3.3 ft) a day.[24] There are over 1600 [25] found in diverse climates from cold mountains to hot tropical regions. About 40 million hectares of the earth is covered with bamboo, mostly in Asia.[26] The high growth rate of bamboo and the fact that bamboo can grow in such diverse climates makes the bamboo plant a sustainable and versatile resource. The bamboo species used for clothing is called Moso bamboo. Moso bamboo is the most important bamboo in China, where it covers about 3 million hectares (about 2% of the total Chinese forest area). It is the main species for bamboo timber and plays an important role for the ecological environment.[27]

Harvesting[edit]

Once a new shoot emerges from the ground, the new cane will reach its full height in just 8–10 weeks. Each cane reaches maturity in 3–5 years. Bamboo can be continually re-harvested with no damage to the surrounding environment.[citation needed] It is a grass and so regenerates after being cut just like a lawn without the need for replanting. This regular harvesting is actually of benefit to the health of the plant – studies have shown that felling of canes leads to vigorous re-growth and an increase in the amount of biomass the next year.[28]

Yield and land use[edit]

Land use is of global importance as the world’s seven billion people compete for water, food, fibre and shelter.[29] Sustainable land use practices provide both economic and environmental advantages. Bamboo can be used as food, fibre and shelter and due to its ease of growth and extraordinary growth rate it is a cheap, sustainable and efficient crop. Bamboo grows very densely, its clumping nature enables a lot of it to be grown in a comparatively small area, easing pressure on land use. Yields of bamboo of up to 60 tonnes per hectare[30] greatly exceed the yield of 20 tonnes for most trees and only 1-2 tonnes per hectare for cotton[31] with a one-time planting for bamboo and little care and maintenance needed. In a time when land use is under enormous pressure, bamboo’s high yield per hectare becomes very significant.

Greenhouse gases[edit]

Growing forests absorb CO
2
but deforestation results in fewer trees to soak up rising levels of CO
2
. Bamboo minimises CO
2
and generates up to 35% more oxygen than equivalent stands of trees.[32] One hectare of bamboo sequesters 62 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year while one hectare of young forest only sequesters 15 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year.[33]

Deforestation[edit]

Bamboo planting can slow deforestation, providing an alternative source of timber for the construction industry and cellulose fibre for the textile industry.[34] It allows communities to turn away from the destruction of their native forests and to construct commercial bamboo plantations that can be selectively harvested annually without the destruction of the grove. Tree plantations have to be chopped down and terminated at harvest but bamboo keeps on growing.[35] When a bamboo cane is cut down, it will produce another shoot and is ready for harvest again in as little as one year. Compare this to cotton – harvesting organic cotton requires the destruction of the entire crop causing bare soils to bake in the sun and release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Before replanting next years crop the cotton farmers till the fields which releases yet more CO
2
.[36]

Water use[edit]

Very little bamboo is irrigated and there is sound evidence that the water-use efficiency of bamboo is twice that of trees.[37] This makes bamboo more able to handle harsh weather conditions such as drought, flood and high temperatures. Compare bamboo to cotton which is a thirsty crop – it can take up to 20,000 litres of water to produce 1 kg of cotton and 73% of the global cotton harvest comes from irrigated land,[38][39] Some estimates indicate that cotton is the largest user of water among all agricultural commodities.

Soil erosion[edit]

Yearly replanting of crops such as cotton leads to soil erosion. The extensive root system of bamboo and the fact that it is not uprooted during harvesting means bamboo actually helps preserve soil and prevent soil erosion. The bamboo plants root system creates an effective watershed, stitching the soil together along fragile river banks, deforested areas, and in places prone to mudslides. It also greatly reduces rain run-off.[40] Conventional cotton-growing also causes a severe reduction in soil quality through the impact of constant use of pesticides on soil organisms.

Biodegradable[edit]

As a natural product derived entirely from plant cellulose, bamboo fibre is biodegradable in soil by micro organisms and sunlight.[41] Having reached its useful life, clothing made from bamboo can be composted and disposed of in an organic and environmentally friendly manner. Synthetic fibres such as nylon and polyester are not biodegradable and remain in landfill for longer.

Pesticides and fertilizers[edit]

A huge benefit of using bamboo as the organic base for textile fibres is that there is no need for pesticides or fertilisers when growing bamboo. However, herbicide and fertilizer applications are common in some places to encourage edible shoot growth. Bamboo also contains a substance called bamboo-kun – an antimicrobial agent that gives the plant a natural resistance to pest and fungi infestation, though some pathogen problems do still exist in some bamboo plantations.[42]

By contrast, only 2.4% of the world’s arable land is planted with cotton, yet cotton accounts for 24% of the world’s insecticide market and 11% of the sale of global pesticides.[43] Many of these pesticides are hazardous and toxic.

An estimated 1 million to 5 million cases of pesticide poisoning occur every year, resulting in 20,000 reported deaths among agricultural workers and at least 1 million requiring hospitalisation.[44] Even organic cotton farming uses pesticides – copper and copper salts.[45]

Fertilisers are also applied to cotton fields to increase growth rate and crop yields.

Problems and criticism around bamboo[edit]

Even though bamboo fabrics are often advertised as antibacterial, in reality finished bamboo fabric does not retain all of bamboo's original antibacterial property; research is being conducted whereby antibacterial agents are being added to bamboo fabric to enhance its antibacterial properties.[46] For the moment the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) charge companies with fake antimicrobial claims when the fiber has been made with rayon.[47] Additionally, "raw bamboo fabric lets almost all damaging UV radiation pass through and reach the skin"; as such, research is being conducted to add UV absorbing chemicals to the fabric to prevent this from occurring.[46]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Yang Ye (1999),Vignettes from the Late Ming: A Hsiao-pʻin Anthology, University of Washington Press, pp. 17, 112
  2. ^ Akiko Fukai and Tamami Suoh (2002), Fashion: The Collection of the Kyoto Costume Institute, Taschen, pp. 154, 284
  3. ^ http://homeapparel.com/blog/bamboo/
  4. ^ a b http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=bamboo-boom
  5. ^ http://www.litrax.com
  6. ^ 3. http://www.organic-babyclothing.co.uk/blog/index.php/2008/11/27/litrax-bamboo
  7. ^ http://www.ecouterre.com/how-eco-friendly-is-bamboo-fabric-really/
  8. ^ http://www.bamboo-textiles.co.uk/
  9. ^ Bamboo Retting
  10. ^ http://www.jghx.cn
  11. ^ http://www.ocia.org
  12. ^ http://www.oeko-tex.com/oekotex100_public/index.asp?cls=02
  13. ^ a b Federal Trade Commission (August 2009). "How to Avoid Bamboozling Your Customers". Retrieved 18 December 2011. 
  14. ^ Federal Trade Commission (3 February 2010). "FTC Warns 78 Retailers, Including Wal-Mart, Target, and Kmart, to Stop Labeling and Advertising Rayon Textile Products as "Bamboo"". Retrieved 18 December 2011. 
  15. ^ "Bamboo Rayon Process". 
  16. ^ http://www.o2wear.com/Bamboo-Fibre_a/257.htm
  17. ^ "Is Bamboo Fibre Sustainable? Musings on the great bamboo debate. Planet Green. 22 Apr 2008". Planetgreen.discovery.com. Retrieved 2009-06-19. 
  18. ^ http://fiberelement.com/how-much-pollution-does-bamboo-cause/
  19. ^ "Is bamboo really an environmentally friendly alternative to wood for making paper? buzzle.com, editorial". Buzzle.com. 2006-10-07. Retrieved 2009-06-19. 
  20. ^ Smith, Ray A. (2008-05-24). "Shades of Green: Decoding Eco Fashion's Claims. The Wall Street Journal. 24 May 2008". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2009-06-19. 
  21. ^ http://organicblanket.info/2013/02/17/analysis-of-bamboo-textile-properties/
  22. ^ http://organicblanket.info/2013/02/22/bamboo-bed-sheets/
  23. ^ http://www.kew.org/plants/bamboos/index.html
  24. ^ http://www.kew.org/plants/bamboos/giantbamboo.html
  25. ^ http://www.mastergardenproducts.com/bamboo.htm
  26. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A1275851
  27. ^ ‘Chinese Moso Bamboo: Its Importance’ Jinhe Fu, The Magazine of The American Bamboo Society, October 2001
  28. ^ http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/node/20202
  29. ^ http://www.sciencedaily.com: World Land Use Seen As Top Environmental Issue
  30. ^ http://www.geniaal.be/downloads/EBS4johangielis.doc
  31. ^ http://r0.unctad.org/infocomm/anglais/cotton/crop.htm
  32. ^ http://www.bamboocentral.org/shareinrepair/faq.htm
  33. ^ J. Janssen, Technical University Eindhoven, 2000
  34. ^ http://www.worldagroforestry.org/downloads/audio/VOA_Chin_Bamboo_Deforestation_Interview.mp3
  35. ^ http://www.bamboocentral.org/shareinrepair/whybamboo.htm
  36. ^ http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=11951725
  37. ^ ‘Can Bamboo Replace Thirsty Trees?’ http://www.worldagroforestry.org May 2009
  38. ^ http://www.greencottonblog.com
  39. ^ http://events.earthhourcanada.org/what_we_do/footprint/agriculture/commodities/cotton/better_management_practices/water_use/
  40. ^ http://www.bs-bamboo.co.uk/bamboo_about.html
  41. ^ http://www.o2wear.com/Bamboo-Clothing_a/255.htm
  42. ^ http://www.fashionandearth.com/index.php/faq.html
  43. ^ http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/freshwater_problems/thirsty_crops/cotton/
  44. ^ 27. http://www.ejfoundation.org/page332.html
  45. ^ http://www.ifoam.org/growing_organic/1_arguments_for_oa/criticisms_misconceptions/misconceptions_no7.html
  46. ^ a b http://www.cahs.colostate.edu/news/item/?ID=550
  47. ^ http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2009/08/bamboo.shtm