Bamford station was built by the Dore and Chinley Railway, a company which was absorbed by the Midland Railway prior to opening. The line was opened for goods traffic on 6 November 1893, and for passenger trains on 1 June 1894, but Bamford station was not opened until 25 June that year. The Dore and Chinley line later became known as the Hope Valley Line. The station became an unstaffed halt in 1969 when the last station master purchased the Station House. The main station building was located on the road overbridge, and was removed during the late 1970s.
During the construction of the nearby Derwent and Howden dams between 1912 and 1916, the railway carried stone from a quarry at nearby Grindleford, up a branchline to the worksite. When the dams were completed, the branchline was removed, but later re-instated in 1945 during the construction of the Ladybower Reservoir. A signalbox used to control the station and branchline, but this has since been relocated to Peak Rail. The branchline has since been removed, but there is access the old trackbed as the Thornhill Trail.