Ban of Croatia

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Not to be confused with Banovina of Croatia.
The heraldic standard of the Croatian ban in the 19th century included the historical coats of arms of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia

Ban of Croatia (Croatian: Hrvatski ban; Hungarian: horvát bán) was the title of local rulers or office holders and after 1102 viceroys of Croatia. From earliest periods of Croatian state, some provinces were ruled by Bans as a rulers representative (viceroy) and supreme military commander. In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually become chief government officials in Croatia. They were at the head of Ban's Government, effectively the first prime ministers of Croatia. The institution of ban in Croatia persisted until the 20th century.

Origin of title[edit]

Main article: Ban (title)

South Slavic ban (Croatian pronunciation: [bâːn], with a long [a]). The long form is directly attested in 10th-century Constantine Porphyrogenitus' book De Administrando Imperio as βο(ε)άνος, in a chapter dedicated to Croats and the organisation of their state, describing how their ban "has under his rule Krbava, Lika and Gacka".[1]

Medieval bans[edit]

References from the earliest periods are scarce, but history recalls that the first known Croatian ban is Pribina in the 10th century (in 949 and in 969). Ban on his territory was pursuing administrative, judicial and military authority.

The meaning of the title was elevated to that of provincial governor in the Kingdom of Croatia (for example, King Dmitar Zvonimir was originally a ban in 1065 serving under King Peter Krešimir IV).

Bans in the Kingdom of Croatia[edit]

Name Dates Notes
Pribina c. 949-969 First historically attested ban.
Godemir c. 969-995
Gvarda c. 995-1000
Božeteh c. 1000-1030
Stephen Praska c. 1035-1058
Gojčo c. 1059-1069
Demetrius Zvonimir c. 1059-1074 Became King of Croatia in 1076
Petar c. 1075-1091

Bans (c. 1102 - c. 1225)[edit]

After the Croats elected Hungarian kings as kings of Croatia in 1102, the title of ban acquired the meaning of viceroy - bans were appointed by the king, as his representatives in Kingdom of Croatia, heads of the Parliament and also as supreme commander of Croatian Army.

Croatia was governed by the 'viceregal' ban as a whole between 1102 and 1225, when it was split into two separate banovinas: Slavonia and Croatia. Two different bans were occasionally appointed until 1476, when the institution of a single ban was resumed. Most of bans were native nobles but some were also of Hungarian ancestry.

Most notable bans from this period were Pavao Šubić, Petar Berislavić.

Name Dates Notes
Ugra 1102 - c. 1105 Governs on behalf of Coloman of Hungary
Sergije c. 1105 Governs on behalf Coloman of Hungary
Ugrin, archbishop of Kalocsa 1107 Governs on behalf of Coloman of Hungary
Klaudije 1116–1117
Aleksije or Dominik c. 1130 - c. 1141
Beloš Vukanović 1142–1158 Son of Uroš I of Rascia of the House of Vukanović-Urošević.
He is dux and comes palatinus of Kingdom of Hungary, he rules the kingdom with his sister, Helena, since his nephew and heir Géza II is a minor.
Arpa 1158
Beloš Vukanović 1163 Second term
Ampudin 1164–1180
Mavro or Dionizije c.1180 - 1183
Suban 1183–1185
Kalán 1190–1193
Dominik 1193–1195
Andrija 1198–1199
Nikola + Branko or Benedikt 1199–1200
Martin Hontpázmán 1202–1203
Hipolit 1204
Merkurije 1205–1206
Stjepan Mihaljević 1206–1208
Banko 1208–1209
Bertold Andechs VII Meranski 1209–1211 (b. 1282 - d. 1251)
Mihajlo 1211–1213
Ðula Šikloški (Gyula of Siklós) 1213
Ohuz or Okić 1214–1215
Ivan 1215–1216
Poža 1216–1217
Bank 1217–1218
Ðula Šikloški (Gyula of Siklós) 1218–1219 second term
Ohuz or Okić 1219–1220
Šalamon c. 1222 - c. 1225
Mihajlo or Aladár 1225

Parallel bans of Slavonia and Dalmatia[edit]

From 1225 to 1476 there were parallel bans of "the Croatia and Dalmatia" and of "the Whole of Slavonia". The following is the list of the former; the latter are listed at Ban of Slavonia. During the period of separate titles of ban, several persons held both titles, which is indicated in the notes.

Bans of the Dalmatia and Croatia
Name Reign Notes
Vojink 1225
Valegin 1226
Stjepan 1243–1251
Butko 1259
Nikola Omedejev (son of Amade Aba) 1272–1273
Paul I Šubić of Bribir 1273–1312
Mladen II Šubić of Bribir 1312–1322
Nikola I Lacković 1342–1343
Nikola Bánffy of Lendava 1345–1346 also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Pavao Ugal 1350 also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Stjepan I Lacković 1350–1352 also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Nikola Bánffy of Lendava 1353–1356 second term, also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Ivan Ćuz 1356–1358
Nicholas Széchy 1358–1366
Konja Széchényi 1366–1367
Mirko (Emmeric) Lacković 1368
Šimun (Simon) Mauricijev 1369–1371
Charles of Durazzo 1371–1376
Nikola Széchy 1377–1380 second term
Emerik Bubek 1380–1383
Stjepan II Lacković 1383–1384
Toma 1384–1385
John of Palisna or Ivan de Paližna 1385-1386 Co-Ruled with relative Ivan (John) Anjou Horvat de Radics (1385,1386,1387), also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Ladislav of Lučenac 1387
Dionizij of Lučenac 1387–1389
John of Palisna or Ivan de Paližna 1389 also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Ivan 1389–1392
Ivan Frankopan of Krk 1391–1393 (died 1393), also at the time the Ban of Slavonia

After the death of King Louis I of Hungary, his daughter Mary succeeded to the throne, which led to kings Charles III and Ladislaus of Naples claiming the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen. A war erupted between forces loyal to Mary and later to her husband and successor, Sigismund of Luxembourg, and those loyal to Ladislaus.

During this time, Sigismund appointed Nikola II Gorjanski (who was also count palatine) the ban of Croatia and Dalmatia in 1392, Butko Kurjaković in 1394, and then again Gorjanski in the period 1394–1397. Nikola Gorjanski, between 1397 and 1402, was also at the time the Ban of Slavonia, succeeded by Ladislav Grdevacki (1402–1404), Pavao Besenyő (1404), Pavao Pecz (1404–1406), Hermann II of Celje (1406–1408).

Ladislaus in turn appointed his own bans, including Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić. In 1409, this dynastic struggle was resolved when Ladislaus sold his rights over Dalmatia to the Republic of Venice.

Bans of the Dalmatia and Croatia
Name Reign Notes
Pavao Kurjaković 1410–1411 co-ruled with Ivan Kurjaković
Petar de Alben 1412–1419
Dionizije IV Lacković 1416–1418 also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Albert de Ungh 1419–1426
Nikola Frankopan 1426–1432 Son of ban Ivan Frankopan
Stjepan Frankopan 1434–1437 co-ruled with Ivan Frankopan 1434-1436
Ivan Hunyadi 1446–1450
Ladislav Hunyadi 1454–1455
co-Ban Nikola Frankopan 1456–1458 Son of Ban Nikola Frankopan; also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Pavao Špirančić 1459–1463
Mirko (Emeric) Zapoljski 1464–1465 also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Ivan Thuz of Lak 1466–1467 also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Blaž Madar Podmanicki 1470–1472 also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Nikola Iločki 1472 also at the time the Ban of Slavonia (1457-1463)
Damjan Horvat 1472–1473 also at the time the Ban of Slavonia
Damjan Horvat 1473–1476

Bans of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia[edit]

From 1476 onwards, the titles of Ban of Dalmatia and Croatia and Ban of Whole of Slavonia are again united in the single title of Ban of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia:

Name Reign Notes
Andrija Bánffy of Lendava 1476–1477
Ladislav of Egervár 1477–1481
Blaž Madar Podmanicki 1482
Matija Gereb 1483–1489
Ladislav of Egervár 1489–1493
Emerik (Mirko) Derencin 1493 known from the Battle of Krbava field
Ivan Bot 1493
Ladislav Kaniški 1493–1495
Ivaniš Korvin 1495–1498
Juraj Kaniški 1498–1499
Ivan Korvin 1499–1504
Franjo Balassa of Gyarmat 1505
Andrija Bot 1505–1507
Marko Mišljenović 1506–1507
Ivan Ernust of Čakovec 1508–1509
Juraj Kaniški 1508–1509
Andrija Bot 1510–1511
Mirko (Emeric) Perényi 1512–1513
Petar Berislavić 1513–1520
Ivan Karlović (Johann Torquatus) of Krbava (Corbavia) 1521–1524
Ivan Tahy 1525
Franjo Baćan (Batthyány) 1525–1527
Krsto (Christopher) Frankopan (Frangepan) 1527 (died 1527) Grandson of Ban Stephen Frankopan

Habsburg-era Croatia[edit]

Josip Jelačić, ban of Croatia (1848-1859)

The title of ban persisted in Croatia after 1527 when the country became part of the Habsburg Monarchy, and continued all the way until 1918.

Among the most distinguished bans in Croatian history were the three members of Šubić/Zrinski family - Nikola Šubić Zrinski and his great-grandsons Nikola Zrinski and Petar Zrinski. Also there are two notable Erdödys: Toma Erdödy, great warrior and statesman in one person, and Ivan Erdödy, to whom Croatia owes much for protecting her rights against the Hungarian nobility, his most widely known saying in Latin is Regnum regno non praescribit leges, "a kingdom may not impose laws to a(nother) kingdom".

In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually become chief government officials in Croatia. They were at the head of Ban's Government, effectively the first prime ministers of Croatia. The most known bans of that era were Josip Jelačić, Ivan Mažuranić and Josip Šokčević

Bans in the Habsburg Monarchy[edit]

The Habsburg dynasty ruled Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia between 1527 and 1848, and appointed the following bans:

Ivan Karlović (Johann Torquatus) of Krbava (Corbavia) 1527–1531 (died 1531) Married Jelena (Ilona) Zrinski
Simon Erdődy with... 1530–1534  
Louis Pekry of Petrovina 1532–1537  
Tamás Nádasdy opposed by... 1537–1542  
Petar Keglević of Buzin 1537–1542  
Nikola Šubić Zrinski 1542–1556 (born 1508, died 1566) 1543 married Katalin Frangepan, daughter of Ban Christopher Frangepan
Petar Erdődy of Monyorokerek 1557–1567  
Lucas Zekel of Ormosd 1567  
Juraj Drašković with... 1567–1575  
Fran Frankopan (Frangepan) of Slunj and then... 1567–1573  
Gašpar Alapić (Alapy) of Veliki Kalnik (Nagy-Kemle) 1574–1575  
Krsto Ungnad of Sonneg 1576–1583  
Toma Erdődy of Monyorokerek (Eberau) 1583–1595  
Gašpar Stankovački 1595–1596  
Ivan II Drašković of Trakošćan 1596–1606 (born 1550, died 1613)
Toma Erdödy 1608–1615  
Benedikt Thuroczy 1615–1616  
vacant 1616–1617  
Nikola Frankopan of Tržac 1617–1622  
Juraj V Zrinski 1622–1626  
Žigmund (Sigismund) Erdödy 1627–1639  
Ivan III Drašković 1639–1646  
Nikola VII Zrinski 1647-1664ign (born 1620, died 1664)
Petar Zrinski 1665–1670  
Nikola Erdödy 1671–1693  
Adam Baćan (Batthyány) August 26, 1693 - September 7, 1703  
Ivan Pálffy January 24, 1704 - February 17, 1732  
Ivan V Drašković February 17, 1732 - January 4, 1733 (died 1733)
Josip Eszterházy of Galanta August 13, 1733 - June 25, 1741  
György Branyng 1741–1742  
Karlo Baćan (Karl Josef Batthyány) March 16, 1743 - July 6, 1756  
Franjo Leopold Nádasdy opposed by... 1756–1783  
Franjo Fauszty 1757- ?  
Franjo Eszterházy opposed by... 1783–1785  
Franjo Szechenyi 1783–1785  
Franjo Balassa of Gyarmat 1785–1790  
Ivan Erdödy 1790 - March 30, 1806  
Ignaz Gyulai von Máros-Nemethy und Nádaska 1806–1831  
Franjo Vlašić February 10, 1832 - May 16, 1840  
Juraj Haulik 1840 - June 16, 1842 Acting Ban
Franz Haller June 16, 1842 – 1845 (born 1796, died 1875)
Juraj Haulik 1845 - March 23, 1848 Acting Ban

Bans of the interregnum during the Revolutions of 1848[edit]

Croatia was a Habsburg crown territory between 1849 and 1867[2] during which time the following bans were appointed:

Josip Jelačić of Bužim March 23, 1848 - May 19, 1859 (born 1801, died 1859)
Johann Coronini-Cronberg July 28, 1859 - June 19, 1860 (born 1794, died 1880)
Josip Šokčević June 19, 1860 - June 27, 1867 (born 1811, died 1896)

Bans in the Austro-Hungarian Empire[edit]

Croatia was returned to Hungarian control in 1867 when the Habsburg Empire was reconstituted as the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Between then and 1918 the following bans were appointed:

Levin Rauch June 27, 1867 - January 26, 1871 (acting to December 8, 1868) (born 1819, died 1890)
Koloman Bedeković Komorski January 26, 1871 - February 12, 1872 (born 1818, died 1889)
Antun Vakanović February 17, 1872 - September 20, 1873 Acting Ban; (born 1808, died 1894)
Ivan Mažuranić September 20, 1873 - February 21, 1880 (born 1814, died 1890)
Ladislav Pejačević February 21, 1880 - September 4, 1883 (born 1824, died 1901)
Hermann Ramberg September 4, 1883 - December 1, 1883 Acting Ban; (born 1820, died 1899)
Dragutin Karoly Khuen-Héderváry December 4, 1883 - June 27, 1903 (born 1849, died 1918)
Teodor Pejačević July 1, 1903 - June 26, 1907 (born 1855, died 1928)
Aleksandar Rakodczaj June 26, 1907 - January 8, 1908 (born 1848, died 1924)
Pavao Rauch of Nyek January 8, 1908 - February 5, 1910 (born 1865, died 1933)
Nikola Tomašić February 5, 1910 - January 19, 1912 (born 1864, died 1918)
Slavko Cuvaj January 19, 1912 - July 21, 1913 (acting from April 5, 1912) (born 1851, died 1931)
Ivan Skerlecz July 21, 1913 - June 29, 1917 (acting to November 27, 1913) (born 1873, died 1951)
Antun Mihalović June 29, 1917 - January 20, 1919 (born 1868, died 1949)

Kingdom of Yugoslavia[edit]

Ban was also the title of the governor of each province (called banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. The weight of the title was far less than that of a medieval ban's feudal office. Most of Croatian territory was divided between Sava and Littoral Banovina, but also some parts were outside this provinces.

In 1939 Banovina of Croatia was created with Cvetković-Maček agreement as a unit of limited autonomy. It consisted of Sava and Littoral Banovina along with smaller parts of Vrbas, Zeta, Drina and Danube Banovina's. Ivan Šubašić was appointed for the Ban of Banovina of Croatia until the collapse of Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1941. Šubašić was also the last person who held the position of Croatian Ban.

Bans in the Yugoslav Kingdom[edit]

Following a brief period of self-rule at the end of World War I, Croatia was incorporated into the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918, under the Karađorđević dynasty.

Ivan Paleček January 20, 1919 - November 24, 1919  
Tomislav Tomljenović November 24, 1919 - February 22, 1920  
Matko Laginja February 22, 1920 - December 11, 1920 (born 1852, died 1930)
Teodor Bošnjak December 23, 1920 - March 2, 1921 acting Ban
Tomislav Tomljenović March 2, 1921 - July 3, 1921  

In 1929, the new Constitution of the Kingdom renamed it Kingdom of Yugoslavia and split up Croatia between several banovinas (provinces):

Bans of the Sava Banovina
Bans of the Littoral Banovina
Name Reign
Josip Silović October 3, 1929 - 19..
Ivo N. Perović 19.. - 1935
Marko Kostrenčić 1935–1936
Viktor Ružić 1936 - 26 August 1939
Name Reign
Ivo Tartaglia 1929 - June 1932
Josip Jablanović 1932–1935
Mirko Buić 1935 - 26 August 1939

In 1939, the Banovina of Croatia was created with Cvetković-Maček agreement as a unit of limited autonomy within Kingdom of Yugoslavia. It consisted of Sava and Littoral Banovina along with smaller parts of Vrbas, Zeta, Drina and Danube Banovina's.

Ivan Šubašić August 26, 1939 - April 10, 1941 (born May 7, 1892, died March 22, 1955)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ De Administrando Imperio 30/90-117, "καὶ ὁ βοάνος αὐτῶν κρατεῖ τὴν Κρίβασαν, τὴν Λίτζαν καὶ τὴν Γουτζησκά"
  2. ^ http://www.encarta.com.au/encyclopedia_761577939_6/Croatia.html

External links[edit]