Banate of Macsó

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Banate of Macsó
Banate of Mačva
Macsói bánság
Banatus Machoviensis
Mačvanska banovina
Мачванска бановина
Banate of the Kingdom of Hungary

1254–1284

1319–1496

 

Location of Banate of Macsó
The Banate of Macsó in 1490
History
 -  Established 1254
 -  Disestablished 1496
Today part of Serbia
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The Banate of Macsó or the Banate of Mačva[1] was an administrative division (banate) of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary, which was located in the present-day Mačva region of Serbia.

Name[edit]

In Serbo-Croatian: "Mačvanska banovina" (Serbian Cyrillic: Мачванска бановина), Latin: Banatus Machoviensis, Hungarian: Macsói bánság.

History[edit]

The region of Mačva or Macsó probably came under Hungarian administration after the death of Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus in 1180.[citation needed] It was first known as the Lower Syrmia (Sirmia ulterior) region.[when?] Rostislav Mikhailovich was mentioned among the dignitaries of Béla IV as Ban of Slavonia in 1247, and from 1254 onward he was mentioned as the Duke of Macsó (in Latin, dux de Macho).[2] This was the first mention of the Banate of Macsó. The banate was named after a town called Macsó (Mačva or Macho), but the location of this settlement has not been clearly established in modern times. It is suspected that the town existed a few kilometers down the river from modern Šabac.[citation needed]

The Banate of Macsó was ruled by several powerful bans. In the 13th century, Béla of Macsó (grandson of Hungarian king Béla IV and son of Rostislav Mikhailovich) ruled the Banate of Macsó as well as Usora and Soli (areas across Drina river in today's northeastern Bosnia).

Macsó soon become apple of discord between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Kingdom of Serbia. King Stephen Uroš I of Serbia tried to conquer it in 1268, but was defeated and captured by the Hungarians. In 1284, King Stephen Dragutin of Serbia, son of Uroš I, married Catherine of Hungary and received Macsó from King Ladislaus IV of Hungary. Since the central power in the Kingdom of Hungary collapsed, Stephen Dragutin ruled an independent kingdom centered in Macsó, which also included regions of Usora and Soli in northern Bosnia, as well as Belgrade, Rudnik and Braničevo. This kingdom was known as the Kingdom of Syrmia (Srem) and Stephen Dragutin ruled it as king until his death in 1316.[3]

Macsó remained in the hands of Dragutin's son Stephen Vladislaus II until 1319. The northern part of the region along the river Sava was captured by King Charles I of Hungary while the southern part remained firmly under Serbian administration.[citation needed] In the 14th century, the bans of the Garay family (Paul Garay, Nicholas I Garay and his son Nicholas II Garay) expanded their rule not only to Bosnia but also to Upper Syrmia and the last one also became the ban of Slavonia and Croatia, which were also parts of the Kingdom of Hungary at the time.

In the 1370s it was captured by Serbian Prince Lazar who in 1377–1378 donated several villages in Macsó to his newly founded monastery of Ravanica. Lazars's son despot Stefan Lazarević was officially granted with possession of Macsó by King Sigismund of Hungary in 1403 as a vassal of the Hungarian ruler. The territory got back to Hungary with Lazarević's death. The Hungarian bans of Macsó existed during this period as well but only as titular holders and the title of ban was usually granted to the ispans (counts) of southern counties of the Kingdom of Hungary and latter to the governors of Belgrade.[citation needed] The banate was conquered by the Ottomans around 1500 AD because the records do not mention the bans of Macsó after 1496.

Administrative divisions[edit]

According to the Treaty of Tata in 1426 Macsó was divided into several districts:[4]

Population[edit]

The population was mostly Serb and Orthodox, seen in a letter of pope Gregory IX dating 1229, where the pope had ordered the Archbishop of Kalocsa to convert the Orthodox Slavs in Lower Syrmia to the Roman rite.[5]

List of bans[edit]

Term Incumbent Monarch Notes
1254–1262 Rostislav [6] Béla IV "dominus de Machou"; king Béla IV's son-in-law; he might have been in office since 1247
1262–1272 Béla [6] Béla IV
Stephen V
"dux de Machou"; son of Rostislav; murdered in 1272
1272–1273 Roland [7] Ladislaus IV gens Rátót; first ban; also palatine (1272–1273)
1273 Egyed, son of Gregory [7] Ladislaus IV first rule; gens Monoszló; also ban of Bosnia (1273)
1273 John [7] Ladislaus IV
1273 Egyed, son of Gregory [7] Ladislaus IV second rule; gens Monoszló; also ban of Bosnia (1273)
1275 (?) Albert [7] Ladislaus IV gens Ákos; only a non-authentic charter refers to him as ban
1279 Ugrin [7] Ladislaus IV "banus et dominus"; gens Csák; also master of the treasury (1272–1279) and ban of Bosnia (1279)
1279–1284 Elizabeth the Cuman [7] Ladislaus IV "ducissa de Machou [et de Bozna]"; widow of king Stephen V
1284–1316 Stephen Dragutin [7] Ladislaus IV
Andrew III
Wenceslaus
Otto
Charles I
vassal of the Hungarian monarch as king of Syrmia; formerly king of Serbia (1276–1282)
1316–1317 Stephen Vladislav II Charles I king of Syrmia
1317–1319 Stephen Uroš II Milutin [8] king of Serbia; Mačva under Serbian occupation
1320–1328 Paul Garay [8] Charles I Hungarian rule restored in 1319; also ispán of Bodrog, Valkó (1320–1328) and Syrmia Counties (1323–1328); castellan of Kőszeg
1328–1334 John Alsáni [8] Charles I also ispán of Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia, Valkó (1328–1334) and Bács Counties (1333–1334)
1335–1339 Nicholas Ostffy [8] Charles I also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia and Valkó Counties
1340–1353 Dominic Ostffy [9] Charles I
Louis I
brother of Nicholas Ostffy; also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Syrmia, Valkó and Veszprém Counties
1353–1354 Andrew Lackfi [9] Louis I also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Syrmia and Valkó Counties
1354–1359 Nicholas Csák [9] Louis I son of Ugrin Csák
1359–1375 Nicholas I Garay [9] Louis I also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia and Valkó Counties
1375–1381 John Horvat [9] Louis I first rule; also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia and Valkó Counties
1381–1382 Paul Liszkói [9] Louis I also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia and Valkó Counties
1382–1385 Stephen Kórógyi [9] Mary first rule; also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia and Valkó Counties
1385–1386 John Horvat [9] Mary
Charles II
second rule; conspired against Mary; also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia and Valkó Counties; self-declared ban and regent for anti-king Ladislaus of Naples until 1387
1386–1387 John Bánfi de Alsólendva [9] Mary also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia and Valkó Counties
1387–1390 Nicholas II Garay [9] Sigismund first rule; son of Nicholas I Garay; also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia, Valkó (1387–1390) and Virovitica Counties (1388)
1390–1392 Stephen Losonci [9] Sigismund also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia, Valkó (1390–1392) and Bereg Counties (1391)
1392–1393 George Lackfi [9] Sigismund also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia and Valkó Counties
1394 Nicholas II Garay [10] Sigismund second rule; also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia and Valkó Counties
1394–1397 Nicholas Treutel [10] Sigismund also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia and Valkó Counties
Stephen Kórógyi [10] second rule; also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia and Valkó Counties
1397 Peter Perényi [10] Sigismund first rule; also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia, Valkó and Zemplén Counties
John Maróti [10] first rule; also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia and Valkó Counties
1397–1400 Francis Bebek [10] Sigismund together with John Maróti (1398–1402); also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia and Valkó Counties
1398–1402 John Maróti [10] Sigismund second rule; together with Francis Bebek (1397–1400) and with Peter Perényi (1400–1401); also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia, Tolna and Valkó Counties
1400–1401 Peter Perényi [10] Sigismund second rule; together with John Maróti (1398–1402); also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia and Valkó Counties
1402 Stephen Ludányi [10] Sigismund together with his brother, Thomas Ludányi; also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia and Valkó Counties
Thomas Ludányi [10] first rule; together with his brother, Stephen Ludányi; also bishop of Eger (1400–1403); also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia and Valkó Counties
1402–1403 Ladislaus Újlaki [10] Sigismund first rule; together with John Maróti (1402–1410); also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia, Tolna and Valkó Counties
1402–1410 John Maróti [10] Sigismund third rule; together with Ladislaus Újlaki (1402–1403); also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia, Tolna and Valkó Counties
1403 Thomas Ludányi [10] Sigismund second rule; also bishop of Eger (1400–1403); ban for anti-king Ladislaus of Naples
1410–1418 Ladislaus Újlaki [10] Sigismund second rule; together with his brother, Emeric Újlaki; also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia, Tolna and Valkó Counties
Emeric Újlaki [10] together with his brother, Ladislaus Újlaki; also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia, Tolna and Valkó Counties
1419–1427 Desiderius Garay [11] Sigismund first rule; also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia, Tolna and Valkó Counties
1427–1428 John Maróti [11] Sigismund fourth rule; together with Peter Cseh de Léva (1427–1431); also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia, Tolna and Valkó Counties
1427–1431 Peter Cseh de Léva [11] Sigismund together with John Maróti (1427–1428) and with Stephen Újlaki (1429–1430); also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bars, Bodrog, Syrmia, Tolna and Valkó Counties
1429–1430 Stephen Újlaki [11] Sigismund son of Ladislaus Újlaki; together with Peter Cseh de Léva (1427–1431); also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia, Tolna and Valkó Counties
1431–1441 Ladislaus Garay [11] Sigismund
Albert
Vladislaus I
Ladislaus V
first rule; son of Nicholas II Garay; together with Desiderius Garay (1431–1438); also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Fejér, Syrmia, Tolna and Valkó Counties; as a supporter of Elizabeth of Luxembourg, deposed by Vladislaus I in 1441
1431–1438 Desiderius Garay [11] Sigismund
Albert
second rule; together with Ladislaus Garay (1431–1441); also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia, Tolna and Valkó Counties
1438–1458 Nicholas Újlaki [11] Albert
Vladislaus I
Ladislaus V
Matthias I
first rule; son of Ladislaus Újlaki; together with Ladislaus Garay (1431–1441), with Ladislaus Maróti (1441–1443), with Emeric Hédervári (1442–1445), with Ladislaus Garay (1445–1447), with Stephen Bebek (1447–1448), with John Kórógyi (1447–1456), with Paul Herceg de Szekcső (1456) and with Michael Szilágyi (1456–1458); also ispán of Bács, Baranya, Bodrog, Syrmia, Tolna, Valkó (1438–1458), Fejér (1440–1448), Csanád, Csongrád, Temes (1441–1446) and Somogy Counties (1446–1458); also voivode of Transylvania and captain of Belgrade (1441–1458), count of the Székelys (1441–1446), ban of Severin (1445–1446) and ban of Slavonia (1457)
1441–1443 Ladislaus Maróti [11] Vladislaus I
Ladislaus V
son of John Maróti; together with Nicholas Újlaki (1438–1458); also ispán of Arad, Békés and Zaránd Counties
1442–1445 Emeric Hédervári [11] Vladislaus I
Ladislaus V
together with Nicholas Újlaki (1438–1458) and with Ladislaus Maróti (1441–1443)
1445–1447 Ladislaus Garay [11] Ladislaus V second rule; together with Nicholas Újlaki (1438–1458); appointed palatine
1447–1448 Stephen Bebek [11] Ladislaus V together with Nicholas Újlaki (1438–1458) and with John Kórógyi (1447–1456)
1447–1456 John Kórógyi [12] Ladislaus V grandson of Stephen Kórógyi; together with Nicholas Újlaki (1438–1458) and with Stephen Bebek (1447–1448); also ispán of Požega (1450–1456) and Vrbas (1453–1456) Counties
1456 Paul Herceg de Szekcső [12] Ladislaus V together with Nicholas Újlaki (1438–1458)
1456–1458 Michael Szilágyi [12] Ladislaus V
Matthias I
first rule; together with Nicholas Újlaki (1438–1458); also castellan of Belgrade (1456–1457); regent in 1458
1458–1459 Nicholas Dombai [13] Matthias I
Peter Szokoli [13] first rule

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Virgil Ciocîltan. The Mongols and the Black Sea Trade in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries
  2. ^ Kristó, Gyula; Engel, Pál; Makk, Ferenc. Korai magyar történeti lexikon (9-14. század). 
  3. ^ Momčilo Spremić, Despot Đurađ Branković i Mačvanska banovina, Beograd 2005, 92-94.
  4. ^ G.Fejer, Codex diplomaticus Hungariae ecclesiasticus ac civilis, t.X, v. VI, Budae 1844, 809-813.
  5. ^ T.Smiciklas, Codex diplomaticus regni Croatiae, Dalmatiae et Slavoniae, III, Zagreb 1905, 305-306.[1]
  6. ^ a b Zsoldos 2011, p. 50.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Zsoldos 2011, p. 51.
  8. ^ a b c d Engel 1996, p. 27.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Engel 1996, p. 28.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Engel 1996, p. 29.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Engel 1996, p. 30.
  12. ^ a b c Engel 1996, p. 31.
  13. ^ a b Markó 2006, p. 446.

Sources[edit]

  • (Hungarian) Engel, Pál (1996). Magyarország világi archontológiája, 1301–1457, I. ("Secular Archontology of Hungary, 1301–1457, Volume I"). História, MTA Történettudományi Intézete. Budapest. ISBN 963-8312-44-0.
  • (Hungarian) Markó, László (2006). A magyar állam főméltóságai Szent Istvántól napjainkig – Életrajzi Lexikon ("The High Officers of the Hungarian State from Saint Stephen to the Present Days – A Biographical Encyclopedia") (2nd edition); Helikon Kiadó Kft., Budapest; ISBN 963-547-085-1.
  • (Hungarian) Zsoldos, Attila (2011). Magyarország világi archontológiája, 1000–1301 ("Secular Archontology of Hungary, 1000–1301"). História, MTA Történettudományi Intézete. Budapest. ISBN 978-963-9627-38-3

External links[edit]