Banaras Hindu University
|Banaras Hindu University|
|काशी हिन्दू विश्वविद्यालय (Kashi Hindu Vishvavidyalay)|
|Motto in English||Knowledge imparts immortality|
|Officer in charge||Dinanath S. Pandey|
|Location||Banaras (Varanasi), Uttar Pradesh, India|
|Campus||Main campus: 1,300 acres (5.3 km2)
South campus: 2,700 acres (11 km2)
|Affiliations||UGC, NAAC, AIU|
Banaras Hindu University (Hindi: काशी हिन्दू विश्वविद्यालय ([kaʃi hind̪u viʃvəvid̪yaləy])) (known as Benares Hindu University earlier)(commonly referred to as BHU) is a public central university located in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. Established in 1916 by Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya, BHU is one of the largest residential universities in Asia, with over 20,000 students.
The university's main campus spread over 1,300 acres (5.3 km2) was built on land donated by the Kashi Naresh, the hereditary ruler of Banaras ("Kashi" being an alternative name for Banaras or Varanasi). The Rajiv Gandhi South Campus, spread over 2,700 acres (11 km2), hosts the Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Agriculture Science Centre) and is located in Barkachha in Mirzapur district, about 60 km (37 mi) from Banaras. The University is also planning to set up a campus in Bihar.
BHU is organised into 4 institutes and 14 faculties (streams) and more than 140 departments. Total student enrolment at the university exceeds 20,000, and includes students from over 34 nations. It has over 60 hostels for resident students. Several of its colleges, including engineering (IIT-BHU), science, linguistics, journalism & mass communication, performing arts, law, agriculture (IAS-BHU), medicine (IMS-BHU) and Institute of Environment And Sustainable Development (IESD-BHU), are ranked among the best in India. The university is well known for hosting an IIT. The university's engineering institute was designated an IIT in June 2012.
- 1 History
- 2 Vice-Chancellors
- 3 Campus
- 4 Academics
- 5 Science Faculty
- 6 Colleges
- 7 Faculty of Science
- 8 Inter-disciplinary schools
- 9 Research centres
- 10 Library system
- 11 Admissions
- 12 Halls of residence
- 13 Student organisations
- 14 Festivals
- 15 Rankings
- 16 Awards and Medals
- 17 Notable alumni, faculty and staff
- 18 References
- 19 Further reading
The Banaras Hindu University was established by Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya. A prominent lawyer and an Indian independence activist, Malviya considered education as the primary means for achieving a national awakening.
At the 21st Conference of the Indian National Congress in Benares in December 1905, Malviya publicly announced his intent to establish a university in Varanasi. On the request of the Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya, Sant baba Attar Singh ji Mastuana (Panjab) laid the foundation stone of Banaras Hindu University at Varanasi in 1914. Malviya continued to develop his vision for the university with inputs from other Indian nationalists and educationists. He published his plan in 1911. The focus of his arguments was on the prevailing poverty in India and the decline in income of Indians compared to Europeans. The plan called for focus on technology and science, besides the study of India's religion and culture:
"The millions mired in poverty here can only get rid (of it) when science is used in their interest. Such maximum application of science is only possible when scientific knowledge is available to Indians in their own country."
Malviya's plan evaluated whether to seek government recognition for the university or operate without its control. He decided in favour of the former for various reasons. Malviya also considered the question of medium of instruction, and decided to start with English given the prevalent environment, and gradually add Hindi and other Indian languages. A distinguishing characteristic of Malviya's vision was the preference for a residential university. All other Indian universities of the period, such as the universities in Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, etc., were affiliating universities which only conducted examinations and awarded degrees to students of their affiliated colleges.
Around the same time, Annie Besant was also trying to expand her Central Hindu School and establish a university. Established in 1898 in the Kamachha area of Varanasi, the vision behind the school was that there should be learning institutions based on Hindu philosophy. Malviya had supported Besant's cause and in 1903, he had raised 250,000 Rupees in donations to finance the construction of the school's hostel. In 1907 Besant had applied for a royal charter to establish a university. However, there was no response from the British government.
Following the publication of Malviya's plan, Besant met Malviya and in April 1911 they agreed to unite their forces to build the university in Varanasi.
Malviya soon left his legal practice to focus exclusively on developing the university and his independence activities. On 22 November 1911, he registered the Hindu University Society to gather support and raise funds for building the university. He spent the next 4 years gathering support and raising funds for the university. Malviya sought and received early support from the Kashi Naresh Prabhu Narayan Singh and Maharaja Sir Rameshwar Singh Bahadur of Raj Darbhanga.
In October 1915, with support from Malviya's allies in the Indian National Congress, the Banaras Hindu University Bill was passed by the Imperial Legislative Council. In November 1915, Besant, Bhagwan Das, and other trustees of the Central Hindu School agreed to the government's condition that the school become a part of the new university.
BHU was finally established in 1916, the first university in India that was the result of a private individual's efforts. The foundation for the main campus of the university was laid by Lord Hardinge, the then Viceroy of India, on Vasant Panchami 4 February 1916. To promote the university's expansion, Malviya invited eminent guest speakers such as Mahatma Gandhi, Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, Prof C. V. Raman, Dr. Prafulla Chandra Roy, Prof Sam Higginbottom, Sir Patrick Geddes, and Besant to deliver a series of what are now called The University Extension Lectures between 5–8 February 1916. Gandhi's lecture on the occasion was his first public address in India.
Sir Sunder Lal was appointed the first Vice Chancellor, and the university began its academic session the same month with classes initially held at the Central Hindu School in the Kamachha area, while the campus was being built on over 1,300 acres (5.3 km2) of land donated by the Kashi Naresh on the outskirts of the city.
Keeping with Malviya's vision articulated in his 1911 plan, the Banaras Engineering College (BENCO) was among the first new academic colleges of the university to be established. Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV of Mysore, the first Chancellor of BHU, performed the opening ceremony of the BENCO workshop buildings on 17 January 1919, during his visit to preside over the first university convocation.
- Rai Bahadur Sunder Lal (1 April 1916 - 13 April 1918)
- Sir P.S. Sivaswami Iyer (13 April 1918 - 8 May 1919)
- Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya (29 November 1919 - 6 September 1938)
- Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (17 September 1939 - 16 January 1948)
- Amar Nath Jha (27 February 1948 - 5 December 1948)
- Pandit Govind Malaviya (6 December 1948 - 21 November 1951)
- Acharya Narendra Dev (6 December 1951 - 31 May 1954)
- Sir C.P. Ramaswami Iyer (1 July 1954 - 2 July 1956)
- V.S. Jha (3 July 1956 - 16 April 1960)
- N.H. Bhagwati (16 April 1960 - 15 April 1966)
- Triguna Sen (9 October 1966 - 15 March 1967)
- A.C. Joshi (1 September 1967 - 31 July 1969)
- Kalu Lal Shrimali (1 November 1969 - 31 January 1977)
- M.L. Dhar (2 February - 15 December 1977)
- Hari Narain (15 May 1978 - 14 May 1981)
- Iqbal Narain (19 October 1981 - 29 April 1985)
- R.P. Rastogi (30 April 1985 - 29 April 1991)
- C.S. Jha (1 May 1991 - 14 June 1993)
- D.N. Mishra (8 February 1994 - 27 June 1995)
- Hari Gautam (2 August 1995 - 25 August 1998)
- Y.C. Simhadri (31 August 1998 - 20 February 2002)
- P. Ramchandra Rao (20 February 2002 - 19 February 2005)
- Panjab Singh (3 May 2005 - 7 May 2008)
- D.P. Singh (8 May 2008 - 21 August 2011)
- Lalji Singh (22 August 2011 – present)
BHU is located on the southern edge of Varanasi, near the banks of the River Ganges. Development of the main campus, spread over 1,300 acres (5.3 km2), started in 1916 on land donated by the then Kashi Naresh Prabhu Narayan Singh. The campus layout approximates a semicircle, with intersecting roads laid out along the radii or in arcs. Buildings built in the first half of the 20th century are fine examples of Indo-Gothic architecture.
The campus has over 60 hostels offering residential accommodation for over 12,000 students. On-campus housing is also available to a majority of the full-time faculty.
The Sayaji Rao Gaekwad Library is the main library on campus and houses over 1.3 million volumes as of 2011. Completed in 1941, its construction was financed by Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III of Baroda. In addition to the main library, there are three institute libraries, eight faculty libraries and over 25 departmental libraries available to students and staff.
Sir Sunderlal Hospital on the campus is a teaching hospital for the Institute of Medical Sciences. Established in 1926 with 96 beds, it has since been expanded to over 900 beds and is the largest tertiary referral hospital in the region.
The most prominent landmark is the Vishwanath Temple, located in the centre of the campus. The foundation for this 252 feet (77 m) high complex of seven temples was laid in March 1931, and took almost three decades to complete.
Bharat Kala Bhavan is an art and archaeological museum on the campus. Established in January 1920, its first chairman was Nobel laureate, Rabindranath Tagore, with his nephew Abanindranath Tagore as the vice-chairman. The museum was expanded and gained prominence with the efforts of Rai Krishnadasa. The museum is best known for its collection of Indian paintings, but also includes archaeological artefacts, textiles and costumes, Indian philately as well as literary and archival materials.
The South campus of BHU is located in Barkachha in Mirzapur district, about 60 km (37 mi) southwest of the main campus. Spread over an area of over 2,700 acres (11 km2), it was transferred as a lease in perpetuity to the BHU by the Bharat Mandal Trust in 1979.
It hosts the Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Agricultural Science Centre), with focus on research in agricultural techniques, agro-forestry and bio-diversity appropriate to the Vindhya Range region. The south campus features a lecture complex, library, student hostel and faculty housing, besides administrative offices.
BHU is organised into four institutes and fourteen Faculties(Streams). The institutes are administratively autonomous, with their own budget, management and academic bodies.
Faculty of Science comprises thirteen Departments covering almost all the branches in modern science. It offers B.Sc.(Hons.) and M.Sc. courses in most disciplines, M.Sc. (Tech.) in Geophysics, MCA, and conducts research programmes in all areas. Two vocational courses, Industrial Microbiology and Electronics Instrumentation and Maintenance have been introduced in recent years at U.G. level. The Departments have expertises in various related fields and are engaged in advanced research activities. The School of Biotechnology has introduced a new course on Cell Biology and Virology. It has a Bioinformatics User Center. The Department of Chemistry has been conducting research in the frontier areas of subject like Nuclear and Radio Chemistry, Organometillic Chemistry, Biosensor. The Department of Geography has a new course of Satellite Imagery Interpretation. The Department of Geology is a pioneering department in the country. The Department of Mathematics has thrust areas of research in relativity, fluid mechanics and operations research. The Department of Physics, a leading Department in the country, has International Collaboration Programmes like Indo-German and Indo-US. The Department of Statistics has two major research projects sponsored by Rockefeller Foundation. The Departments of Statistics & Botany have introduced Self-financing courses in Population Studies and Environmental Science respectively. Department of Computer Science runs B.Sc. and M.Sc. courses. Home Science is taught at MMV. Department of Biochemistry has postgraduate teaching and research programmes.
The Departments of Botany, Zoology, Physics, Geology and Chemistry are recognized Centers of Excellence and Centers of Advanced Study. The Department of Geophysics receives grants under Special Assistance Programme. The Faculty of Science keeps itself alive with regular academic activities like seminars, workshops, conferences. It is equipped with advanced and sophisticated laboratories. Faculty members have liaison with research institutions of repute in India and abroad. A large number of the teachers of the Faculty have received distinctions and honors like Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize, Jawaharlal Nehru Fellowship, FICCI Award, etc. and several are fellows of the various academies. Recently the Faculty has started on its own a Center of Advanced Studies in Science to cater to the interdisciplinary aspects of research and teaching and a self-financing course in Molecular and Human Genetics. A training and placement cell has also been started.
Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi
The Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi [IIT(BHU)] is an engineering institute under the aegis of BHU. IIT(BHU) has 13 departments and 3 inter-disciplinary schools, providing technology education with an emphasis on its industrial applications. Established in 1919, it is one of the oldest engineering institutes in India. The institute in its present form was created by the merger of three BHU colleges – BENCO, MINMET and TECHNO. It was designated an Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) by an act of Parliament in 2011.
Institute of Agricultural Sciences
The Institute of Agricultural Sciences (IAS) is one of the oldest agricultural sciences institutions in India. It is involved in both research and education and is affiliated to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).
Institute of Medical Sciences
The Institute of Medical Sciences (IMS) is a residential, co-educational medical institute. It admits students for its programs in medicine through the BHU-PMT entrance examination held across India. In addition to the MBBS programs, it offers specialisations and PhD programs for physicians in medicine and surgery. It also offers graduate and post-graduate programs in Nursing, Ayurvedic medicine, Dentistry and Health Statistics. T institute is one of the finest institute in the country. It produces one of the best physicians and results across country. There are three faculties viz. Medicine, Ayurveda and Faculty of Dental Sciences.
Institute of Environment & Sustainable Development
The Institute of Environment & Sustainable Development (IESD) aims to develop and advance the knowledge of technology and processes for sustainable development. This institute was started in the tenure of Dr. D.P. Singh as VC of BHU.
Institute of Professional Studies
- D.A.V. Post Graduate College
- Arya Mahila P.G. College
- Vasant Kanya Mahavidyalaya
- Vasanta College for Women
are affiliated colleges of Banaras Hindu University situated in different Parts of Varanasi.
Faculty of Science
Faculty of Science comprises thirteen Departments covering almost all the branches in modern science. It offers B.Sc.(Hons.) and M.Sc. courses in most disciplines, M.Sc. (Tech.) in Geophysics, MCA, and conducts research programmes in all areas. Two vocational courses, Industrial Microbiology and Electronics Instrumentation and Maintenance have been introduced in recent years at U.G. level. The Departments have expertises in various related fields and are engaged in advanced research activities. The School of Biotechnology has a Bioinformatics User Center. The Department of Chemistry has been conducting research in the frontier areas of subject like Nuclear and Radio Chemistry, Organometallic Chemistry, Biosensors. The Department of Geography has recently introduced a new course on Satellite Imagery Interpretation. The Department of Geology is a pioneering department in the country. The Department of Mathematics has thrust areas of research in relativity, fluid mechanics and operations research. The Department of Physics, a leading Department in the country, has forged several international collaborations to augment its research. The Department of Statistics has two major research projects sponsored by Rockefeller Foundation. The Departments of Statistics & Botany have introduced Self-financing courses in Population Studies and Environmental Science respectively. Department of Computer Science runs B.Sc. and M.Sc. courses. Home Science is taught at MMV. Department of Biochemistry has postgraduate teaching and research programmes.
The Departments of Botany, Zoology, Physics, Geology and Chemistry are recognised Centers of Excellence and Centers of Advanced Study. The Department of Geophysics receives grants under Special Assistance Programme. The Faculty of Science keeps itself alive with regular academic activities like seminars, workshops, conferences. It is equipped with advanced and sophisticated laboratories. Faculty members have liaison with research institutions of repute in India and abroad. A large number of the teachers of the Faculty have received distinctions and honours like Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize, Jawaharlal Nehru Fellowship, FICCI Award, etc. and several are fellows of the various academies. Recently the Faculty has started on its own a Center of Advanced Studies in Science to cater to the interdisciplinary aspects of research and teaching and a self-financing course in Molecular and Human Genetics. A training and placement cell has also been started. Academic colleges of the university include:
- Department of Library and Information Science
The Department of Library and Information Science (LIS), established in 1941, offers post-graduate study and research programs in library science and information science. It has among the oldest library science programs in India. Specialized areas of study include Information Seeking Behaviour, Knowledge Organization, Library Automation, Digital Libraries, Multilingual Information Retrieval, Semantic Web, Metadata, Webometrics/scientometrics/bibliometrics and Knowledge Management.
School of Biotechnology
The School of Biotechnology (SBT) is a center for postgraduate teaching and research under the aegis of Faculty of Science of the BHU. It was established in 1986 with funding from the Department of Biotechnology, of the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India. It offers MSc and PhD programmes in Biotechnology.
The inter-disciplinary program involves partnership between the Faculty of Science, the Institute of Medical Sciences and the Indian Institute of Technology at BHU. Notable faculty include Prof. Arvind Mohan Kayastha.
DBT-BHU Interdisciplinary School of Life Sciences
The Interdisciplinary School of Life Sciences (ISLS) is a joint initiative of the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India and the BHU. It was established with a grant of INR 238.9 million from the DBT.
DST Centre for Interdisciplinary Mathematical Sciences
The Centre for Interdisciplinary Mathematical Sciences (CIMS) focuses on research and education in mathematics, modelling and statistics. It was established under the management of the Faculty of Science, with support from the Department of Science and Technology (DST). The centre imparts post-graduate education and research with participation from the Department of Mathematics, Department of Statistics and Department of Computer Science of the Faculty of Science and the Department of Applied Mathematics of the IIT-BHU. It regularly organozes training programmes, workshops, Seminars and conferences.
Centre of Food Science & Technology
The Centre of Food Science & Technology (CFST) is an inter-disciplinary research centre with collaboration between the Institute of Agricultural Sciences and the Inidian Institute of Technology (BHU) focusing on food processing technology.
Apart from specialised centres directly funded by DBT, DST, ICAR and ISRO, a large number of departments under the Faculties of Sciences, Engineering, Technology and Social Sciences receive funding from the DST Fund for Improvement of Science & Technology Inrastructure (FIST) and the University Grants Commission (UGC) Special Assistance Programme (SAP). UGC SAP provides funds under its Centre of Advanced Study (CAS), Department of Special Assistance (DSA) and Departmental Research Support (DRS) programmes.
BHU research centres include:
- DBT Centre of Genetic Disorders;
- Center for Environmental Science and Technology;
- Nano science and Technology Center;
- Hydrogen Energy Center;
- UGC Advanced Immunodiagnostic Training and Research Center;
- Centre for Experimental Medicine and Surgery;
- Center for Women's Studies and Development (CWSD);
- Center for the Study of Nepal (CNS);
- Malviya Center for Peace Research (MCPR);
- Center for Rural Integrated Development; and
- Centre for Study of Social Exclusion and Inclusive Policy (CSSEIP)
Dst- Centre for Interdisciplinary Mathematical Sciences
Affiliated schools and colleges
- D.A.V. College
- Arya Mahila Postgraduate College
- Vasant Kanya Mahavidyalaya
- Vasanta College, Rajghat
- Ranvir Sanskrit Vidyalaya, Kamachha, Varanasi
- Central Hindu Girls and Boys school, Kamachha, Varanasi
The Banaras Hindu University Library system was established from a collection donated by Prof. P.K. Telang in the memory of his father Justice Kashinath Trimbak Telang in 1917. The collection was housed in the Telang Hall of the Central Hindu College, Kamachha. In 1921, the library was moved to the Central Hall of the Arts College (now the Faculty of Arts).
The present Central Library of BHU was established with a donation from Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III of Baroda. Upon his return from the First Round Table Conference, Gaekwad wanted a library built on the pattern of the British Library and its reading room, which was then located in the British Museum. On Malviya's suggestion, he made the donation to build the library on the BHU campus.
By 1931, the library had built a collection of around 60,000 volumes. The trend of donation of personal and family collection to the library continued as late as the 1940s with the result that it has unique pieces of rarities of books and journals dating back to 18th century.
As of 2011, the BHU Library System consisted of the Central Library and 3 Institute Libraries, 8 Faculty Libraries and over 25 Departmental Libraries, with a collection of at least 1.3 million volumes. The digital library is available to students and staff and provides online access to thousands of journals, besides access to large collections of online resources through the National Informatics Centre's DELNET and UGC's INFLIBNET.
Banaras Hindu University conducts national level undergraduate (UET) and postgraduate (PET) entrance tests usually during May–June for admission. Admissions are done according to merit in the entrance tests, subject to fulfilling of other eligibility requirements. Admissions to B.Tech./B.Pharm., M.Tech./M.Pharm. are done through JEE and GATE respectively. Admission to MBA and MIBA are done through IIM-CAT score. Admissions for PhD are done on the basis of either qualification of National Eligibility Test (NET) by the candidates or through the scores of CRET (common research entrance test). Admissions in IMS are done through PMT exam.
BHU attracts a number of foreign learners. Foreign students are admitted through the application submitted to the Indian mission in his/her country or by his/her country's mission in India.
In the year 2013 BHU is expected to conduct its PMT Exam for medical students in the month of May–June for which the forms are expected to be out in January to March 2013. Test centres for prelim exam are Varanasi, Delhi, Kolkata, Hyderabad and for main exam in Varanasi.
Halls of residence
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Eco One is a voluntary organisation of faculty members and students of Banaras Hindu University. It was founded in 2012 by Debadityo Sinha and Navendu Nidhan, students of Rajiv Gandhi South Campus of the University in Mirzapur. It has now more than 300 students and faculty members associated and Vice Chancellor of the University, Dr. Lalji Singh is Chief Patron of the organisation. Every year on Wetland Day, they organise a cleanliness drive at water falls of Mirzapur.
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|General – India|
|Engineering – India|
BHU is ranked First in India Today's India's Top 50 Universities of 2013, ahead of University of Delhi(Ranked 2). The engineering institute IT-BHU was ranked No. 7 on the Outlook India Top Engineering Colleges of 2011, No. 8 on Dataquest's India's Top Engineering Colleges 2011 (DQ-CMR Top T-Schools Survey 2011) and No. 9 in India Today Best Engineering colleges of 2011. In rankings limited to government colleges, it has ranked No. 8 in Mint's Top 50 Government Engineering Colleges of 2009.
In a countrywide survey conducted by the prestigious India Today group in 2010, BHU was ranked as number 1 among all Indian universities.
The Banaras Hindu University (BHU) ranks first in India in the field of academic and research output as per Scopus and Web of Science Database BHU was also ranked first in India by a Paris-based organisation
Awards and Medals
Following awards and medals are given to meritorious students in BHU-
- BHU Medal- BHU Medal is given to the students, who secure first position in their respective departments or faculties.
Notable alumni, faculty and staff
Alumni and faculty of BHU have gained prominence in India and across the world.
Among BHU's administrators was Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, who went on to become the President of India. Other famous administrators have included, Sir Sunder Lal, K. L. Shrimali, Moti Lal Dhar and many others. BHU's eminent faculty have included Birbal Sahni, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar and Pandit Omkarnath Thakur.
The university's alumni include C.N.R Rao, Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar, Harivansh Rai Bachchan, Bhupen Hazarika, Kamalesh Chandra Chakrabarty, Ashok Agarwal, Jayant Vishnu Narlikar, Basanti Dulal Nagchaudhuri, Dr.Anand Mohan-Director NIT Kurukshetra, Ahmad Hasan Dani, Kota Harinarayana, and Manick Sorcar. Amongst its famous international students are Robert M. Pirsig and Koenraad Elst .
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- "About CGD". Centre for Genetic Disorders, BHU. Retrieved 2012-06-04.
- "Welcome". Centre for Environmental Science & Technology, BHU. Retrieved 2012-06-04.
- "Genesis and history". Sayaji Rao Gaekwad Library, BHU. Retrieved 2012-06-04.
- "Manuscript Conservation Centres". National Mission for Manuscripts. Retrieved 2012-06-04.
- "History". National Mission for Manuscripts. Retrieved 2012-06-04.
- "Library Services". Banaras Hindu University. Retrieved 2012-06-06.
- "Developing Library Network". National Informatics Centre. Retrieved 2012-06-06.
- "Information and Library Network Centre". University Grants Commission. Retrieved 2012-06-06.
- BHU PMT Banaras Hindu University. MBA. Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
- Eco One: The journey till now. Eco One Blog (2012-03-24) Retrieved on 2013-09-21.
- Eco One relived Wyndham Fall. Eco One Blog (2012-02-24). Retrieved on 2012-02-24.
- Shining of Windham Fall on Wetland Day by Eco1. Eco One Blog (2013-02-21). Retrieved on 2013-02-21.
- Eco One conserves Kharanja Fall. Eco One Blog (2014-02-18). Retrieved on 2014-02-18.
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- "Top 50 Government Engineering Colleges of 2009" (PDF). Mint. 23 June 2009. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- The Chronicle: Banaras Hindu University ranked as number 1 in 2010 India Today survey of Indian Universities. ITBHUGlobal.org (2010-06-03). Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
- BHU first in country: Scopus - Times Of India. Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com (2013-03-02). Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
- BHU becomes best university 10494223. Jagran.com (2013-06-20). Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
- Leah Renold, A Hindu Education: Early Years Of The Banaras Hindu University (Oxford University Press).
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