Uprising in Banat
|Uprising in Banat|
|Part of Ottoman–Serbian Wars|
Map of the uprising.
|Local Serb peasants||Ottoman Empire|
|Commanders and leaders|
voivode Velja Mironić
|Koca Sinan Pasha|
The Uprising in Banat in 1594 was a Serbian uprising against Ottoman rule in the Eyalet of Temeşvar. It was led by Teodor Nestorović, the Bishop of Vršac, and other leaders such as Sava Temišvarac and Velja Mironić.
In 1594, Serbs rose up against Ottoman rule in Banat, during the Long War (1591–1606) which was fought at the Austrian-Ottoman border in the Balkans. The Serbian patriarchate and rebels had established relations with foreign states, and had in a short time captured several towns, including Vršac, Bečkerek, Lipova, Titel and Bečej, though the uprising was quickly suppressed. The rebels had, in the character of a holy war, carried war flags with the icon of Saint Sava, the founder of the Serbian Orthodox Church and an important figure in medieval Serbia. The war banners had been consecrated by Patriarch John I Kantul, whom the Ottoman government had hanged at Istanbul. Ottoman Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha ordered that the sarcophagus and relics of Saint Sava located in the Mileševa monastery be brought by military convoy to Belgrade. Along the way, the Ottoman convoy had people killed in their path so that the rebels in the woods would hear of it. The relics were publicly incinerated by the Ottomans on a pyre on the Vračar plateau, and the ashes scattered, on April 27, 1595. According to Nikolaj Velimirović the flames were seen over the Danube.
Eventually, the uprising was crushed, and most of the Serbs from this region, fearing Ottoman retaliation, fled to Transylvania, leaving the Banat region deserted. The Ottoman authorities, who needed population in this fertile land, promised clemency to all who returned. The Serb population did come back, but the authorities' mercy did not apply to the leader of the rebellion, Bishop Teodor Nestorović, who was flayed as a punishment.
was one of the three largest uprisings in Serbian history against the Ottoman Empire, and the largest before the establishment of the autonomous Serbian state in the so-called First Serbian Uprising (1804-1813), led by Karađorđe Petrović.
The size of the uprising is illustrated in a Serbian epic poem: "Sva se butum zemlja pobunila, Šest stotina podiglo se sela, Svak na cara pušku podigao!" ("The whole land has rebelled, six hundred villages arose, everybody pointed his gun against the emperor").
The Church of Saint Sava was built between 1985 and 1989 on the Vračar plateau, on the location where his remains were burned in 1595 by Sinan Pasha. From its location, it dominates Belgrade's cityscape, and is perhaps the most monumental building in the city.
- Dušan Belča, Mala istorija Vršca, Vršac, 1997.
- Dušan J. Popović, Srbi u Vojvodini, vol. 1-3, Novi Sad, 1990.