Uprising in Banat

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Uprising in Banat
Part of Ottoman–Serbian Wars
Banatski ustanak.png
Map of the uprising.
Date 1594
Location Banat, Eyalet of Temeşvar, Ottoman Empire (modern Serbia)
Result Ottoman victory
Belligerents
Local Serb peasants Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
bishop Teodor, ban Sava and Velja Mironić [b] Koca Sinan Pasha
Strength
5,000[1]

The Uprising in Banat (Serbian: Ustanak u Banatu/Устанак у Банату[a]) in 1594 was a Serbian uprising against Ottoman rule in the Eyalet of Temeşvar. It was led by Teodor, the Bishop of Vršac, and other leaders such as Sava Temišvarac and Velja Mironić.

History[edit]

At the beginning of the Long Turkish War Pope Clement VIII began an important diplomatic mission aimed to forge an anti-Ottoman coalition and strengthen position of western Christian states in this war against the Ottoman Empire. He sent his envoy Aleksandar Komulović to convince Tsar of Russia, king of Poland (including Zaporozhian Cossacs), the prince of Transylvania and voivodes of Moldavia and Wallachia to join western anti-Ottoman coalition. Pope also instructed Komulović to inspire Serbs to rebel against the Ottomans, praising them for their bravery. Papal dipomats and jesuits Komulović and Giovanni Battista from Cres maintained extensive contacts with Peć Patriarchate.[2] This action of Komulović inspired a series of uprising and revolts on the territories populated by Serbs, including Banat Uprising and Peć Uprising.[3]

In early 1594, the Serbs in Banat rose up against the Ottomans,[4] during the Long Turkish War (1593–1606)[5] which was fought at the Austrian-Ottoman border in the Balkans. The Serbian patriarchate and rebels had established relations with foreign states,[5] and had in a short time captured several towns, including Vršac, Bečkerek, Lipova, Titel and Bečej. The rebels had, in the character of a holy war, carried war flags with the icon of Saint Sava,[6] the founder of the Serbian Orthodox Church and an important figure in medieval Serbia. The war banners had been consecrated by Patriarch Jovan Kantul,[5] and the uprising had been aided by Serbian Orthodox metropolitans Rufim Njeguš of Cetinje and Visarion of Trebinje.[7] Ottoman Grand Vizier Koca Sinan Pasha ordered the green flag of the Prophet Muhammed to be brought from Damascus to counter the Serb flag, as well as the sarcophagus and relics of Saint Sava located in the Mileševa monastery be brought by military convoy to Belgrade.[5][6] Along the way, the Ottoman convoy had people killed in their path so that the rebels in the woods would hear of it.[6] The relics were publicly incinerated by the Ottomans on a pyre on the Vračar plateau, and the ashes scattered, on April 27, 1595.[5][6] According to Nikolaj Velimirović the flames were seen over the Danube.[6]

Eventually, the uprising was crushed, and most of the Serbs from this region, fearing Ottoman retaliation, fled to Transylvania, leaving the Banat region deserted. The Ottoman authorities, who needed population in this fertile land, promised clemency to all who returned. The Serb population did come back, but the authorities' mercy did not apply to the leader of the rebellion, Bishop Teodor Nestorović, who was flayed as a punishment.

Aftermath[edit]

In 1596 revolts spread into Ottoman Montenegro and the neighbouring tribes in Herzegovina, especially under influence of Metropolitan Visarion.[7] Duke Grdan and Serbian Patriarch Jovan Kantul (s. 1592–1614) led an uprising in the Nikšić region and its surroundings.

Legacy[edit]

The size of the uprising is illustrated in a Serbian epic poem: "Sva se butum zemlja pobunila, Šest stotina podiglo se sela, Svak na cara pušku podigao!" ("The whole land has rebelled, six hundred villages arose, everybody pointed his gun against the emperor").

The Church of Saint Sava was built between 1985 and 1989 on the Vračar plateau, on the location where his remains were burned in 1595 by Sinan Pasha. From its location, it dominates Belgrade's cityscape, and is perhaps the most monumental building in the city.

Annotations[edit]

  1. ^ It is mostly known as Uprising in Banat (Ustanak u Banatu/Устанак у Банату) and Banat Uprising (Banatski ustanak/Банатски устанак). Also Uprising of the Serbs in Banat (Устанак Срба у Банату).
  2. ^
    Commanders and leaders
    • bishop Teodor (Теодор) of the Eparchy of Vršac
    • Sava Temišvarac or Sava ban (Сава бан)
    • Velja Mironić (Веља Миронић) or vojvoda Velimirović (војвода Велимировић)
    • spahija Vukadin (спахија Вукадин), Serbian rebel leader from Parte, fell at Pančevo (1594)[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ćirković, Sima M. (2008). Srbi među europskim narodima. Golden marketing-Tehnička knjiga. p. 93. ISBN 978-953-212-338-8. Govorilo se da su ustanici raspolagali sa 5000 ratnika, koji su napali i zauzeli Bečkerek, a zatim Bečej i Titel. Uništili su neke turske brodove na Dunavu, koji su opskrbljivali tvrđave na sjeveru Ugarske. 
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Zlatar1992 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ Jovanović, Alekan (1937). Spomenica dvadesetpetogodishnjice oslobodjenja Južne Srbije. p. 230. У тој инструкцији папа нарочито истиче да су Срби храбри, а да њихови суседи (према Тракији) Бугари нису за борбу... 
  4. ^ Rajko L. Veselinović (1966). (1219-1766). Udžbenik za IV razred srpskih pravoslavnih bogoslovija. (Yu 68-1914). Sv. Arh. Sinod Srpske pravoslavne crkve. pp. 70–71. Устанак Срба у Банату и спалмваъье моштийу св. Саве 1594. — Почетком 1594. године Срби у Банату почели су нападати Турке. Устанак се -нарочито почео ширити после освадаъьа и спашьиваъьа Вршца од стране чете -Петра Маджадца. Устаници осводе неколико утврЬених градова (Охат [...] 
  5. ^ a b c d e Mitja Velikonja (5 February 2003). Religious Separation and Political Intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Texas A&M University Press. pp. 75–. ISBN 978-1-58544-226-3. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Nikolaj Velimirović (January 1989). The Life of St. Sava. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-88141-065-5. 
  7. ^ a b Editions speciales. Naučno delo. 1971. Дошло ]е до похреаа Срба у Ба- нату, ко]и су помагали тадаппьи црногоски владика, Херувим и тре- бюьски, Висарион. До покрета и борбе против Ту рака дошло ]е 1596. године и у Цр- иэ] Гори и сус]едним племенима у Харцеговгаш, нарочито под утица- ]ем поменутог владике Висариона. Идупе, 1597. године, [...] Али, а\адика Висарион и во]вода Грдан радили су и дал>е на организован>у борбе, па су придобили и ... 
  8. ^ Zoran Kolundžija (2008). Vojvodina: Od najstarijih vremena do velike seobe. Prometej. 

Sources[edit]

  • Dušan Belča, Mala istorija Vršca, Vršac, 1997.
  • Dušan J. Popović, Srbi u Vojvodini, vol. 1-3, Novi Sad, 1990.