||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (November 2013)|
|Nickname(s): Kota Seribu Warung Kopi|
|Motto: Saboeh Pakat Tabangun Banda|
|Coordinates: Coordinates: ID|
|Founded||22 April 1205|
|• Mayor||Mawardy Nurdin|
|• City||61.36 km2 (23.69 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,935,36 km2 (113,335 sq mi)|
|Elevation||0-10 m (0-32.9 ft)|
|• Density||3,457/km2 (8,950/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||3,872/km2 (10,030/sq mi)|
|Time zone||WIB (UTC+7)|
|• Summer (DST)||WIB (UTC+7)|
|Area code(s)||+62 651|
|License plate||BL XXX XX|
Banda Aceh is the provincial capital and largest city in the province of Aceh, Indonesia. It is located on the island of Sumatra and has an elevation of 35 meters. The city regency covers an area of 64 square kilometres and according to the 2000 census had a population of 219,070 people. Banda Aceh is located at the northwestern tip of Indonesia at the mouth of the River Krueng Aceh.
The city was originally named Kutaraja, and determined as the provincial capital in 1956. Kuta Raja means "City of the King," in reference to the founding of the Aceh Sultanate from Champa origins. Later its name was changed to Bandar Aceh Darussalam, popularly known as Bandar Aceh. The first part of the name comes from the Persian bandar (بندر) meaning "port" or "haven." Today the city is spelled Banda Aceh, with the loss of "r" in "Bandar". The city is also dubbed to as the "port to Mecca," and or the "porch of Mecca" (Indonesian: Serambi Mekkah). This is because in the past during the days when the hajj pilgrims travelled by sea, hajj pilgrims from all over Indonesian would make a stop over in the city before continuing their journey to Mecca. It is also known that some of the earliest Southeast Asian Islamic sultanates — such as Samudra Pasai — were first established in Aceh, which means Islam first arrived in Aceh before spreading throughout Southeast Asia.
Banda Aceh was not frequently the subject of international discussion until 26 December 2004, the day the Indian Ocean earthquake struck off the western coast of Sumatra. Banda Aceh was the closest major city to the earthquake's epicenter, and it suffered further damage when a tsunami struck shortly afterward. It was the most severely hit of the locations affected. One hundred sixty-seven thousand people died and many more were injured. The tsunami was caused by an earthquake of magnitude 9.3 and struck at about 6:58 am. The epicenter was about 155 miles off the coast of Banda Aceh.
The elected mayor and vice-mayor of Banda Aceh are Mawardi Nurdin and Illiza Saaduddin.
Banda Aceh, the capital of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam, was established when the kingdom of Samudera Pasai was on the verge of collapse in the 14th century. The Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam was built on the ruins of the kingdoms of Hinduism and Buddhism, such as the Kingdom of Indra Purba, the Kingdom of Indra purwa, the kingdom of Indra Patra, and the Kingdom Indrapura (Indrapuri).
Based on research conducted on headstones in the area, which is the word of tombstones Sultan Shah, one of the sultans who ruled the Sultanate of Aceh, obtained information that the Sultanate of Aceh capital in Kutaraja (Banda Aceh). The founder and first ruler of the Sultanate of Aceh was Mughayat Sultan Ali Shah who was crowned on Sunday, 1 Jumadil Early 913 Hijri or September 8, 1507 CE.
Information regarding the existence of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam are unfolding with the discovery of the tombstone which was the tomb of Sultan Ali Shah Mughayat. On the tombstone the founder of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam is located in Banda Aceh Cage XII, Mughayat mentioned that Sultan Ali Shah died in the year 936 Hijri Dzulhijah 12 or on August 7, 1530. In addition there are also other tombstones in Kuta Alam, which is the tomb of the father of Sultan Ali Shah Mughayat, namely Syamsu Shah, who mentions that Syamsu Shah died on 14 Muharram 737 Hijri. A tombstone found again in Kuta Alam is the tomb of King Ibrahim who later discovered that he was the younger brother of Sultan Ali Shah Mughayat.
According to records in the inscription etched, Raja Ibrahim died on 21 Muharram in 930 Hijri or coincide with the date of 30 November 1523. Raja Ibrahim is right hand Mughayat Sultan Ali Shah of the most courageous and faithful. Ibrahimlah who led attacks against Aceh Darussalam Portuguese , Pedir , Power , and Ocean Pasai , until finally Ibrahim died as heroes in the great battle. The dates are found in the inscriptions on top by itself means to hold onto in determining the course of history in Aceh in periods in question (Mohammad H. Said a, 1981:157).
The emergence of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam which had its capital at Banda Aceh can not be separated from the existence of the Islamic Empire Lamuri . One of the famous sultan of the Islamic Empire Lamuri is Munawwar Shah Sultan. Sultan is then considered to be his greatest Sultan of Aceh Darussalam, Sultan Iskandar Muda . At the end of the 15th century, with the establishment of a good relationship with the neighboring kingdom, the center of the throne of the Kingdom of Lamuri moved to Meukuta Nature (Rusdi Sufi & Agus Budi Wibowo a, 2006:72-73). Location Meukuta Alam palace located in the region of Banda Aceh.
In 1508, the arrival of a fleet of Portuguese, first led by Diogo Lopez de Sequeira in the Malacca Strait, disrupted maritime commerce traffic in the waters of Aceh . From Banda Aceh, in May 1521, Sultan Ali Shah departed Mughayat fleet attacked the Portuguese in the waters of the Strait of Malacca . This attack resulted admiral Portuguese, Jorge de Britto died. Defeat Portuguese army is very embarrassing because Aceh Darussalam gets spoils of war belong to the tools that further strengthen the Portuguese hence Aceh Darussalam (Said a, 1981:187).
Some notes from the west, one of which is written by CR Boxer, said that by the year 1530 the war fleet of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam completeness of war have got a fairly complete and up to date. In fact, historians Portuguese themselves, Fernão de Costanheda Loper, said that the Sultan of Aceh (Mughayat Ali Shah) earn more than the supply of cannon fort the Portuguese in Malacca itself.
Mughayat Sultan Ali Shah ruled the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam which had its capital at Banda Aceh , just over 10 years. According to inscriptions found on tombstones Mughayat Sultan Ali Shah, the first ruler of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam passed away on 12 Dzulhijah Year 936 Hijri or coincide with the date of August 7, 1530 AD. Although the reign of Shah Sultan Mughayat relatively short, but he managed to build Banda Aceh as a center of Islamic civilization in Southeast Asia.
As the successor to the throne of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam , was appointed the eldest son of the late Sultan Shah Mughayat named Salah ad-Din as the new ruler of Aceh Darussalam. Under the reign of Sultan Salah ad-Din, the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam attacked Malacca in 1537 but did not succeed. In 1539, the leadership of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam Mughayat transferred to the Shah's youngest son, namely Ala ad-Din Shah paragraph Ri `al-Kahar or often known also by the name of Sultan Mansur Shah. Brother of Salah ad-Din's slowly-slowly solidified the power of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam to perform some breakthrough. According to Mendez Pinto, travelers who arrive in Aceh in 1539, the Sultanate of Aceh army under the command of Sultan Ala ad-Din Shah paragraph Ri `al-Kahar, consisting of laksar-camps, among others, came from Turkey , Cambay and Malabar (Lombard, 2007:65-66). At this time, Banda Aceh has evolved into one of the city center of defense who participate in securing maritime trade routes and traffic pilgrims performed piracy fleet of Portuguese.
In addition to constantly be firm against the invaders from the west, Sultan Ala ad-Din Shah paragraph Ri `al-Kahar also attacked local kingdoms helped the Portuguese. Forces invaded the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam Malacca twice (in 1547 and 1568), charming Sultan of Johor for helping the Portuguese , as well as defeating the Kingdom of Aru(Eastern Sumatra) in 1564. To legalize the power of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam on the Kingdom of Aru , then was appointed Abdullah, the first son of Sultan Ala ad-Din Shah paragraph Ri `al-Kahar, for control of the Kingdom of Aru who was subdued and became part of the power of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam . However, many of the wars between the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam against the Portuguese claimed many victims of the two warring sides. In a battle that occurred on February 16, 1568, Sultan Ala ad-Din Shah paragraph Ri `al-Kahar lost his beloved son, Sultan Abdullah, who is leading the Kingdom of Aru.
Sultan Ala ad-Din Shah paragraph Ri `al-Kahar died on 8 Jumada beginning of year 979 Hijri or AD 28 September 1571. Because of the crown prince, Abdullah, died in a battle against the Portuguese, then raised to the highest pass on the reins of the throne of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam is the second child of the deceased who holds Sultan Ibn Sultan Husin Ri `Ala` uddin Shah paragraph or also commonly known by the name of Ali Ri `paragraph Shah. Sultan Ibn Sultan Husin Ri `Ala` uddin Shah paragraph is a leader who is merciful and compassionate people. In the field of politics, defense and security, Sultan Ibn Sultan Husin Ri `Ala` uddin Shah paragraph father tried to continue the struggle in efforts to repel the Portuguese colonialists from Earth Aceh.
However, the movement is not segemilang Sultan father although he was put through the attack on Malacca up to two times during the period 1573 to 1575. Resilience Sultan Ibn Sultan Husin Ri `Ala` uddin Shah verses getting giddy when Aceh Darussalam attack Johor , where the Sultan was captured and became a prisoner of war. The end of the reign of Sultan Husin Ibn Sultan `Ala` Ri `uddin Shah verses, which lead the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam during the 7 years, ending when the sultan died on 12 Rabi` ul Beginning in 987 Hijri or coincide with the date of June 8, 1578 in the year of our Lord. Since the death of Sultan Ala ad-Din Shah Ri'ayat, for about 33 years of Banda Aceh, the capital of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam several times pergantuan Sultan and political uncertainty. Unfortunately, there is no adequate historical records that mention how the condition of the people in Banda Aceh in these times.
After the death of Sultan Husin Ibn Sultan `Ala uddin Shah Ri` verse, Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam entered a period of bleak. Substitute Sultan `Ala uddin Shah Ri` verse entrusted to his son, Sultan Muda, but his reign only lasted for 7 months. Because when the Sultan Muda died young and old still does not have offspring, then the successor is appointed as Sri Sultan Alam who is the son of Sultan Ala ad-Din Shah paragraph Ri `al-Kahar, 4th ruler of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam . However, Sri Sultan Alam, who previously was vice Sultan of Aceh in Pariaman ( West Sumatra ), it also fails to manage the political turmoil that occurred in Banda Aceh. In just 2 months of rule, Sri Sultan Alam was killed.
The wheels of government of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam subsequently run by Sultan Zainal Abidin. Leader of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam this time is the grandson of Sultan `Ala ad-Din Shah paragraph Ri` al-Kahar or children of Sultan Abdullah, the leader of the region Aru who was killed when fighting against the Portuguese. Just like the previous ruler, Sultan Zainal Abidin is also not able to lead the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam properly. In fact, the sultan is a figure of the cruel, cruel, and bloodthirsty. Sultan Zainal Abidin did not hesitate to kill in order to satisfy lust and ambition. Sultan who ruled with an iron fist leading the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam during the 10 months before he died on October 5, 1579 (Said a, 1981:205).
After the era of Sultan Zainal Abidin tyranny ended, the successor to the leadership of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam had shifted from a blood line first. Narrated, in about the year 1577 the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam Sultanate attack Silver and successfully killed the leader of the Sultanate of Perak , Sultan Ahmad. Consort of Sultan Ahmad along with 17 of their children were taken to Aceh as part of the spoils of war. The eldest son of Sultan Ahmad, named Mansur, mated to a daughter of the Sultan of Aceh Darussalam is named Kana. Not long afterwards, a leader Mansur ditabalkan Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam replace Sultan Zainal Abidin, the title of Ala al-Din Sultan Mansur Shah, was crowned in 1579.
Sultan is not directly descended from the sultans of Aceh Darussalam Sultanate's founder, came from Perak, was a pious, righteous, fair, but also loud and emphatic. During the leadership of Sultan Mansur Shah of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam feel Islam is very strong in the lives of its people. To support this policy, Sultan Mansur Shah bringing religious teachers and renowned scholars from abroad. However, the religious leadership of Sultan Mansur Shah who applied did not make a stop restive Aceh Darussalam. On January 12, 1585, when a group of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam on the way home from a trip to Perak, Sultan Mansur Shah was killed.
The death of Sultan Mansur Shah makes a line of the throne of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam returned complicated to determine who is entitled to become the next leader of Aceh Darussalam. Consensus on the big guys (the traditional leaders and the influential and respected empire), it was decided that the right to occupy the throne of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam to replace Sultan Mansur Shah, Sultan Buyung with the title of Sultan Ali Shah Putra Ri `clause which is a child of the ruler Indrapura , Munawar Sultan Shah.However, again the helm of power of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam is not lasting. Sultan Ali Shah paragraph Ri `Son died in 1589 in a murder. Actually, that would be the leader of Aceh Darussalam previously was King Ayim, grandson of Sultan Mansur Shah, but prospective young sultan was also killed.
Leader of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam is the next Sultan `Ala` udin Ri verse Mukammal Shah Said Ibn Al-Sultan Firman (1589-1604). In the era of Sultan Ala `Ri` paragraph udin Said Al-Mukammal Shah in power, colonialism Europe increasingly permeate the start of the archipelago with the UK and the Netherlands. Dated June 21, 1595, the merchant fleet Netherlands led de Houtman brothers, Cornelis and Frederick, arrived in Aceh. Cornelis lead ship "De Leeuw" while Frederick acted as captain of the ship "De Leeuwin". At first arrival of the Dutch were warmly welcomed by the population of Aceh. However, the emergence of the merchant class Dutch Aceh alone were considered to pose a threat to those Portuguese who had been there before. Portuguese alone can ultimately cut off from the earth Aceh Darussalam in 1606 thanks to the glories of the attack led by Perkasa Alam who later became Sultan Aceh Darussalam and mashyur with the name Sultan Iskandar Muda.
Dated 4 April 1607, Sultan Ali Shah died Ri `clause. There was a bit of tension after the death of Sultan Ali Shah Ri `paragraph particulars who earned the title as the next Sultan of Aceh Darussalam. Perkasa Alam emerged as the strongest candidate because it is supported by all the influential traditional leaders. Not long ago, news spread that Perkasa Alam was asked to become the ruler of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam. New sultan is then known by the name of Sultan Iskandar Muda Alam Johan Pahlawan Meukuta. Despite going a little tense atmosphere, but in a relatively long time, Perkasa Alam or who holds the Sultan Iskandar Muda, is able to control the situation by means of coordinating government, civil, and military, so his position as the Sultan of Aceh Darussalam firm.
Perkasa Alam was born in 1590. This gallant young man was a descendant of the former leaders of Aceh Darussalam, Sultan Ala ad-Din Shah paragraph Ri `al-Kahar. Perkasa Alam also known by several other names, including Tun Darmawangsa and Rank. After holding the reins of leadership of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam and bears the name of Sultan Iskandar Muda, his title was increased as the Crown Nature. In addition, the Sultan of Aceh Darussalam which is also known as the greatest honor Sri Perkasa Alam Johan Sovereign. Sometimes people call it by uniting the names, which became Perkasa Alam Maharaja Tun Darmawangsa Rank. At the time, Banda Aceh grow back as a center of maritime trade, especially for commodity pepper which was very high demand from Europe.
Banda Aceh, Iskandar Muda make the world a garden, which started from the palace complex. Sultanate palace complex was also named Dar'ad-Dunnia (World Wildlife). The Book Bustanus Salatin completed by Nuruddin Ar-Raniry in 1636 stated that the eastern part of the Palace of Aceh is an enormous garden. In the middle of the park has been ordered to dig a river that nurtured a bathhouse, with plastered with rock cliffs and has a fountain jars. Inside the park there are 4 monuments: (1) Chinese architecture building built by experts from China and is named after Hall Custom China as a symbol of the special relationship between the Sultanate of Aceh with the Chinese Empire, (2) building a banquet for the state guests who named Ivory Hall, (3) Institute of Light Fireworks, and (4) Golden Hall for the rest. Unfortunately this building all the time estimated looted Dutch aggression. The central part of the park is a monument shaped mountain that is now known as Gunongan with 9.5 meters tall, flower-shaped three-level, which has a door like a cave. On the side there is a stone carved with arabesque motifs on the banks of the river where the daughter washing hair (called Stone Flower peterana Lela Mashadi).
Manuscript Bustanus Salatin also mentions that in the park and near the river there is a monument carved lotus flowers and colored indigo Sultan called for the inauguration Peterana Lotus Flower. Gate into the park community called by the name of Pinto Khob. Building Khop doors made of limestone with a cavity as the door and the ceiling shaped arc to go through with the east and west. The top of the entrance is decorated with two crossed petiole, giving rise to fantasy (effect) figure stiliran face with eyes and nose as well as the oral cavity door. This garden was also planted mentioned by shade trees and a variety of flowers that continue to provide fragrance.
The greatest leaders of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam, Sultan Iskandar Muda, finally died on 28 Rajab 1046 Hijiriah or December 27, 1636 AD, in a relatively young age, 46 years. Iskandar Muda was buried in the palace complex Darud Donya, who is now in the left side of the Hall of the Governor of Aceh. According to TH Zainuddin was quoted as saying by H. Mohammad Said in his book titled "Aceh Throughout the Ages" (Watchful Field, 1981), Sultan Iskandar Muda had 3 children. The first was a girl named Miss Sri Alam, which is the fruit of the queen of hearts Sultan Reubee. Second, of the concubines from Ethiopia, Sultan Iskandar Muda obtained boy named Imam Black, who later lowered Polim Commander. Sultan Iskandar Muda last child is Meurah Peupok, obtained from a concubine wife comes from Gayo. According to custom and law in Aceh at the time, the child of a concubine could not anointed king (Said a, 1981:332). After the death of Sultan Iskandar Muda, Aceh Darussalam Sultanate existence continues despite not been able to achieve greatness as obtained during the government of Sultan Iskandar Muda.
Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam had also led by the queen for 59 years. When Sultan Iskandar Thani died, as his successor was his wife the Taj `al-` Alam Tsafiatu `ddin aka Miss Sri Alam, who is also the daughter of Sultan Iskandar Muda. Queen who is also known as the Queen Safi al-Din Taj al-Alam Aceh Darussalam Sultanate ruled for 34 years (1641-1675). The reign of Queen tinged with a fair amount of effort on the part of foreign trickery and treachery of the danger in the palace. The reign of Queen Taj `al-` Alam Tsafiatu `ddin for 34 years it will not be able to pass safely without wisdom and fabulosity that is owned by the Queen. In this respect, Aceh Darussalam history can boast having had a remarkable heroine in the middle undermining Dutch colonialists getting stronger.
Aceh Darussalam Sultanate reign after the death of Queen Taj `al-` Alam Tsafiatu `ddin who died on October 23, 1675 was passed by a few women leaders to the next era. Is the title of Sri Paduka Putroe Sultanah Nakiatuddin Nurul Alam Shah is the choice of the traditional leaders and the palace to hold the reins of government of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam is next. That said, choosing the Queen who is often called by the name of Her Majesty Naqi al-Din al-Nur Alam made efforts to address the seizure of power by some people to feel entitled. But government Naqi Queen Nur al-Din al-Alam only lasted for 2 years before the Queen finally exhale efflux on January 23, 1678. Two leaders of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam after Naqi Queen Nur al-Din al-Alam women still acted, namely Sri Ratu Inayat Zaqi al-Din Shah (1678-1688), and then the Queen Kamalat Zinat al-Din Shah (1688-1699 ).
After the era of Sultan Iskandar Muda greatness ended, Netherlands kissed chance to return to disturb the ground in Aceh. Entering the second half of the 18th century, Aceh began to come into conflict with the Dutch and the British. At the end of the 18th century, the territory of Aceh in the Malay Peninsula, namely Kedah and Pulau Pinang seized by the British. In 1871, the Dutch began to threaten Aceh, and on March 26, 1873, the Dutch formally declared war on Aceh. In the war, the Dutch failed to conquer Aceh and for the first time in the history of the archipelago, a Dutch war leader killed by natives. In 1883, 1892 and 1893, the war erupted, however, can only be mastered Dutch and Banda Aceh to secure its interests. While the new resistance bases in rural areas continue to emerge.
In aggression to-2, the total number of troops on the second expedition was 13,000 people (389 officers, subordinate 8100, 1000 waiter, 3200 inmates and 243 female). Most of them are people who have already contracted cholera. This outbreak further into Aceh and slowly but surely, killing many troops in Aceh. Even the Sultan of Aceh who had retreated with his troops have come infected, also died of this plague. Massive evacuation of troops out of Aceh Banda Aceh, immediately celebrated by Van Swieten by proclaiming the fall of the sultanate of Aceh and Banda Aceh to change the name of Kuta Raja. Looking at the data and the name of officer deaths in the Netherlands in the attack fighters in the Tomb Officers Dutch Aceh in Kherkoff, Banda Aceh, the victims who fell in the Netherlands continue to happen until 1911.
Once entered in the lap of the Government of the Republic of Indonesia new since December 28, 1962 the name was again changed to the city of Banda Aceh by the Ministry of Public Administration and Regional Autonomy dated May 9, 1963 No.. December 52/1/43-43
On December 26, 2004, the city was hit by a tsunami caused by the 9.2-magnitude earthquake in the Indian Ocean . The disaster claimed hundreds of thousands of inhabitants and destroyed more than 60% of the city's buildings. Based on the statistical data issued by the City Government of Banda Aceh, Banda Aceh population until the end of May 2012 amounted to 248,727 inhabitants.
One of the unique features of Banda Aceh are the motorized becaks that are found almost everywhere. Unlike traditional becaks, a motorized becak can take passengers anywhere in the city. The fare for riding a motorised becak is relatively cheap and is usually negotiated beforehand.
Transport such as taxis and minibuses (known as labi-labi) is also common.
Sultan Iskandar Muda International Airport is located in Blang Bintang, 13.5 km from Banda Aceh.
Two main highways run out of Banda Aceh to the south. One runs down the eastern side of the province through main towns such as Bireuen and Lhokseumawe to Medan, the large capital of the province of North Sumatra. The other highway runs down the western side of the province through lesser-populated areas to the towns of Calang, Meulaboh, and Singkil. The main bus station called Terminal Terpadu Batoh is located at Jalan Mr. Teuku Muhammad Hasan.
- Pelabuhan Ulèë Lheuë was formerly the main sea port in Aceh. It now functions as ferry terminal. It is located in the Meuraksa area.
- Pelabuhan Malahayati, the current main sea port, is located in Krueng Raya, 27 km from Banda Aceh. It now functions as a main freight cargo terminal.
The TVRI Aceh (state-owned), Kutaraja TV and Aceh TV (private) are the three local TV stations in Banda Aceh. The oldest newspaper in Banda Aceh, also around Aceh are Harian Serambi Indonesia, besides several newspapers, such as Harian Aceh, Harian Waspada, Harian ProHaba, and Harian RajaPost.
Banda Aceh features a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen climate classification, with near constant average temperatures. The city annual average temperature is 27 degrees Celsius and most days in Banda Aceh hovers around this mark. However, the city features wetter and drier seasons, with June through August being the driest months of the year. Like all cities with a tropical rainforest climate, Banda Aceh does not have a true dry season month; a month where less than 60 mm of precipitation falls on average. The city experiences on average a little less than 2000 mm of precipitation annually.
|Climate data for Banda Aceh|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||27.01
|Precipitation mm (inches)||256
|Avg. rainy days||8.5||5.9||7.8||8.8||12.4||10.3||9.2||10.6||12.5||15.5||14.3||12.7||128.5|
The Baiturrahman Grand Mosque
Grand Mosque, located in the heart of Banda Aceh, is one of the most famous landmarks in the city. The original mosque was built around the 12th century during the Sultanate of Iskandar Muda (1607–1636). It was rebuilt in 1875 after it was burnt down in the Aceh war. The architecture and interior design of the mosque is notable for having seven domes and four smaller towers along with a main tower. The mosque can accommodate up to 9,000 people.
A number of places near to the centre of Banda Aceh have been established as reminders of, and to provide information about, the impact of the December 2004 tsunami in the city. These include several mass burial centres such as the graves at Ulee Lheue, several places where boats were carried several kilometers inland by the tsunami (PLTD Apung 1, or the "Floating Diesel Plant", and the "Floating Boat on the Roof"), and the Tsunami Museum.
Dutch Kerkhoff Poucut Cemetery
The Kerkhoff Poucut is a Dutch military burial ground located near the centre of Banda Aceh, next to the Tsunami Museum. The cemetery name is a combination of Kerkhof (Dutch for churchyard or graveyard) and poucut or poteu cut (Acehnese for prince). The Kerkhoff Poucut is recorded as the largest Dutch military cemetery outside the Netherlands. There are around 2,200 graves of white Dutch soldiers as well as recruits from Ambon, Manado and Java, as well as several Dutch generals.
The Aceh Museum is one of the oldest museums in Indonesia. The original museum was established almost 100 years ago. After Independence in 1945 the museum became the property of the regional government. In 1969 the museum was moved from the original site at Blang Padang to the current location in Jl Sultan Alaiddin Mahmudsyah. The museum contains a wide range of artifacts relating to the history and cultural life of Aceh.
PLTD Apung 1
PLTD Apung 1 is a ship power plant which was located near the Ule Lheu beach in Banda Aceh before the Tsunami of December 2004 hit the city. After Tsunami, The large ship was shifted close to the city centre of Banda Aceh. Then, the local government decided to change it into a tsunami museum. Now, the PLTD Apung 1 has become one of the most important landmarks in Banda Aceh.
Besides its landmarks, royal heritage sites, and attractive beaches, Banda Aceh is also famous for its keudè kupi (coffee shop) where specially brewed coffee is served. There are two kind of brewed coffees Ulèë Karéng and Beurawé coffee.
Several festivals are held annually by the City:
- Banda Aceh Festival
- Festival Krueng Aceh Peunayong
- Festival Geulayang Tunang (kite festival)
- Festival Kupi, etc.
- Indonesia City Expo
There are three beaches close to Banda Aceh which can visited by car or motor cycle in 15 to 20 minutes:
- Ujông Batèë Beach, a black sand beach with calm waves, suitable for swimming and kids activities
- Lhôk Nga Beach, dangerous for swimming
- Lam Pu'uk Beach, very quiet, the most developed beach, visited by local and foreign tourists, suitable for surfing and watching the sunset; has cliffs and good scenery
The majority religion of the population is Islam, with minorities including Buddhists, Christians (both Protestant and Catholic), and Hindus.
Banda Aceh is home to four long-standing churches; the Hati Kudus Catholic church, Western Indonesian Protestant church (GPIB), Methodist church and the Batak Protestant church (HKBP), while there are also 93 mosques, 112 musholla (small mosques), a Buddhist temple and a Hindu temple in the city.
- Seta,William J. Atlas Lengkap Indonesia dan Dunia (untuk SD, SMP, SMU, dan Umum). Pustaka Widyatama. p. 7. ISBN 979-610-232-3.
- Government of Indonesia (25 October 1956). UU 24/1956, Establishment of Regional Autonomy in the Province of Aceh and Replacement of Regulation about the Establishment of the Province of North Sumatra. Indonesia Ministry of Justice and Law. UU 24/1956. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 2 September 2007
- Jayasuriya, Sisira and Peter McCawley in collaboration with Bhanupong Nidhiprabha, Budy P. Resosudarmo and Dushni Weerakoon, The Asian Tsunami: Aid and Reconstruction after a Disaster, Cheltenham UK and Northampton MA USA: Edward Elgar and Asian Development Bank Institute, 2010.
- Jayasuriya and McCawley, ibid.
- John Pike, 'Banda Aceh', accessed 23 January 2011.
- "Pelabuhan". Bandaacehkota.go.id. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- "Banda Aceh, Indonesia - Solar energy and surface meteorology". Gaisma.com. August 2011. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- "Gunongan". Bandaacehtourism.com. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- Hotli Semanjuntak, 'Kerkhoff Poucut Cemetery, testifying to the Aceh War', The Jakarta Post, 20 March 2012.
- "Coffee Shopping". Aceh-hotels.com. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- "Cafe in Aceh". Lonelyplanet.com. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- "Festival". Bandaacehtourism.com. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- "Menikmati hembusan keindahan pantai Aceh". Waspada.co.id. 2011-03-27. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- "Banda Aceh to act quickly to prevent religious conflicts". The Jakarta Post. 2012-12-19. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
- "Google Translate". Translate.google.co.uk. 2012-03-22. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
- "Banda Aceh - Samarkand". Kbri-tashkent.go.id. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- "Dutch - Indonesian sister cities". Id.indonesia.nl. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- "Sister Cities". Kompetiblog2011.studidibelanda.com. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- Dallal, Tamalyn. 40 Days & 1001 Nights: One Woman's Dance Through Life in the Islamic World..., 2007. ISBN 0-9795155-0-5 (book). The first part of the journey through the Islamic world goes through Banda Aceh and describes everyday life of the people in this part of Indonesia.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Banda Aceh.|
- Official site
- Aceh.net Visit Aceh: Eco and Islamic Tourism, Cultural Information, Investment and highlights of directory