Banda Singh Bahadur

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Banda Singh Bahadur (born Lachman Dev, also known as Lachman Das and Madho Das[1][2]) (27 October 1670, Rājaurī–9 June 1716, Delhi) was a Sikh military commander.

At age 15 he left home to become an ascetic, and was given the name ‘’Madho Das’’. He established a monastery at Nāndeḍ, on the bank of the river Godāvarī, where in September 1708 he was visited by, and became a disciple of, Guru Gobind Singh, who gave him the new name of Banda Singh Bahadur. Armed with the blessing and authority of Gobind Singh, he assembled a fighting force and led the struggle against the Mughal Empire. His first major action was the sack of the Mughal provincial capital, Samana, in November 1709.[1] After establishing his authority in Punjab, Banda Singh Bahadur abolished the zamindari system, and granted property rights to the tillers of the land. He was captured by the Mughals and tortured to death in 1716.

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

There are different views regarding the origin of Banda Singh Bahadur:

  • According to some Sikh historians, such as Khushwant Singh, he was born to a farming family of Hindu Dogras.[3][4][5][6][7] According to this version, he was born on 16 October 1670 at Rajouri, between Jammu and Poonch in Kashmir (now Jammu and Kashmir). He was named Lachman Dev. Wrestling, horseback riding, and hunting were his major pastimes. As a young man, he once shot dead a doe and was shocked to watch the mother and her aborted fawn writhing in pain and dying. After this gloomy scene he had a change of heart. He left his home and became a disciple of a Bairagi Sadhu: Janaki Das, who gave him the name: Madho Das. In the company of the Sadhus, he travelled through Northern India and finally arrived at Nanded (in present-day Maharashtra), situated on the bank of the river Godavari.
  • The Mahan Kosh, a Sikh encyclopaedia written by Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha, (Bhasha Bibhag Punjab, Patiala), states that he was Minhas Rajput, either from Rajouri in Jammu region or Doaba region of Punjab.[full citation needed]
  • P.N. Bali calls him a Mohyal Brahmin.[8][full citation needed]
  • Hakim Rai calls him a Punjabi Khatri/Rajput.[9][full citation needed]
  • Giani Budh Singh a noted scholar of Poonch in his famous book Chhowen Rattan described Banda Bahadur as "Brahmin".[citation needed]
  • Harjinder Singh Dilgeer in his book Sikh Twareekh (1469–2007) (published by Singh Brothers Amritsar, in 5 volumes in 2008) narrates that Banda Singh was a Rajput, born in 1670. At the age of 16 he left his home and joined the party of wandering Hindu ascetics (sadhu). He spent two years with two saadhus (Janki Das and then Ram Das)and then joined Baba Lunia, near Burhanpur. In 1696, he met Guru Gobind Singh at Kankhal, near Hardwar but this was a short meeting. After this, Sri Guru Gobind Singh visited him in August 1708.

Role in Sikh History[edit]

Early Conquests[edit]

Banda Singh Bahadur camped in Khar Khoda, near Sonipat from there he took over Sonipat and Kaithal.[10] In 1709 Banda Singh captured the Mughal city of Samana with the help of revolting oppressed Hindu and common folk, killing about 10,000 Mohammedans.[11][12] Samana which was famous for minting coins, with this treasury the Sikhs became financially stable. The Sikhs soon took over Mustafabad[13] and Sadhora (near Jagadhri).[14] The Sikhs than captured the Cis-Sutlej areas of Punjab including Ghurham, Kapori, Banoor, Malerkotla, and Nahan. The Sikhs captured Sirhind in 1710 and killed the Governor of Sirhind, Wazir Khan who was responsible for the martyrdom of the two youngest sons of Guru Gobind Singh at Sirhind. Becoming the ruler of Sirhind Banda Singh gave order to give ownership of the land to the farmers and let them live in dignity and self-respect.[15] Petty officials were also satisfied of with the change. Dindar Khan, an official of the nearby village, took Amrit and became Dinder Singh and the newspaper writer of Sirhind, Mir Nasir-ud-din, became Mir Nasir Singh[16]

Banda Singh's Sikh Raj[edit]

Banda Singh developed a the village of Mukhlisgarh, and made it his capital He then renamed the city it to Lohgarh (fortress of steel) where he issued his own mint.[17] The coin described Lohgarh: "Struck in the City of Peace, illustrating the beauty of civic life, and the ornament of the blessed throne." He briefly established a state in Punjab for half a year. Banda Singh sent Sikhs to the Uttar Pradesh and Sikhs took over Saharanpur, Jalalabad and other areas near by bringing relief to the repressed population.[18] In the regions of Jalandhar and Amritsar, the Sikhs started fighting for the rights of the people. They used their newly established power to remove corrupt officials and replace them with honest ones.[18]

Revolutionary[edit]

Banda Singh is known to have abolished or halted the Zamindari system in time he was active and gave the farmers proprietorship of their own land.[19] It seems that all classes of government officers were addicted to extortion and corruption and the whole system of regulatory and order was subverted.[20] Local tradition recalls that the people from the neighborhood of Sadaura came to Banda Singh complaining of the iniquities practices by their land lords. Banda Singh ordered Baj Singh to open fire on them. The people were astonished at the strange reply to their representation, and asked him what he meant. He told them that they deserved no better treatment when being thousands in number they still allowed themselves to be cowed down by a handful of Zamindars.[21]

Persecution from the Mughals[edit]

The rule of the Sikhs over the entire Punjab east of Lahore obstructed the communication between Delhi and Lahore, the capital of Punjab, and this worried Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah He gave up his plan to subdue rebels in Rajasthan and marched towards Punjab.[22] The entire Imperial force was organized to defeat and kill Banda Singh.[23] All the generals were directed to join the Emperor’s army. To ensure that there were no Sikh agents in the army camps, an order was issued on August 29, 1710 to all Hindus to shave off their beards.[24]

Banda Singh was in in Uttar Pradesh when the Moghal army under the orders of Munim Khan[25] marched to Sirhind and before the return of Banda Singh, they had already taken Sirhind and the areas around it. The Sikhs therefore moved to Lohgarh for their final battle. The Sikhs defeated the army but reinforcements were called and they laid siege on the fort with 60,000 troops.[26][27] Gulab Singh dressed himself in the garments of Banda Singh and seated himself in his place.[28] Banda Singh left the fort at night and went to a secret place in the hills and Chamba forests. The failure of the army to kill or catch Banda Singh shocked Emperor, Bahadur Shah and On 10 December 1710 he ordered that wherever a Sikh was found, he should be murdered.[29] The Emperor became mentally disturbed and died on February 18, 1712.[30]

Banda Singh Bahadur wrote Hukamnamas to the Sikhs telling them to get themselves reorganized and join him at once.[31] In 1711 the Sikhs gathered near Kiratpur Sahib and defeated Raja Bhim Chand,[32] who was responsible for organizing all the Hill Rajas against Guru Gobind Singh and instigating battles with him. After Bhim Chand’s dead the other Hill Rajas accepted their subordinate status and paid revenues to Banda Singh. While Bahadur Shah's 4 sons were killing themselves for the throne of the Mughal Emperor[33] Banda Singh Bahadur recaptured Sadhura and Lohgarh. Farrukh Siyar, the next Moghal Emperor, appointed Abdus Samad Khan as the governor of Lahore and Zakaria Khan, Abdus Samad Khan's son, the Faujdar of Jammu.[34] In 1713 the Sikhs left Lohgarh and Sadhura and went to the remote hills of Jammu and where they built Dera Baba Banda Singh.[35] During this time Sikhs were being hunted down especially by pathans in the Gurdaspur region.[36] Banda Singh came out and captured Kalanaur and Batala[37] which rebuked Farrukh Siyar to issue Mughal and Hindu officials and chiefs to proceed with their troops to Lahore to reinforce his army.[38]

Siege in Gurdas Nangal[edit]

In March 1715, Banda Singh Bahadur was in the village of Gurdas Nangal, Gurdaspur, Punjab, when the army under the rule of Samad Khan,[39] the Mogual king of Delhi laid siege to the Sikh forces.[40] The Sikhs fought and defended the small fort for eight months.[41] In December 7, 1715 Banda Singh starving soldiers were captured.

Execution[edit]

On December 7, 1715 Banda Singh Bahadur was captured from the Gurdas Nangal fort and put in an iron cage and the remaining Sikhs were captured, chained.[42] The Sikhs were bought to Delhi in a procession with the 780 Sikh prisoners, 2,000 Sikh heads hung on spears, and 700 cartloads of heads of slaughtered Sikhs used to terrorize the population.[43][44] They were put in the Delhi fort and pressured to give up their faith and become Muslims.[45] On their firm refusal all of them were ordered to be executed. Every day, 100 Sikhs were brought out of the fort and murdered in public daily,[46] which went on approximately seven days. The Mughals could hardly contain themselves of joy while the Sikhs showed no sign of dejection or humiliation, instead they sang their sacred hymns; none feared dead or gave up their faith.[47] After 3 months of confinement[48] On June 9, 1716, Banda Singh’s eyes were gouged, his limbs were severed, his skin removed, and then he was killed.[49]

Criticism[edit]

Banda Bahadur was criticized for various reasons by Tat Khalsa and Nihang Singhs which includes:

  1. Creation of his own Panth called Bandai Khalsa,
  2. Changing Khalsa rites and code of conduct,
  3. Unnecessary battles and killing of Muslims
  4. Abusing Mata Sundri,
  5. Being womanizer and
  6. Surrendered to Mughal army with 700 personnel.[50][51][52][53]

All early Sikh historical resources including Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha, Giani Gian Singh, Historian Karam Singh, Giani Kartar Singh, Nihang Dharam Singh etc. also mentioned these facts.

Prachin Panth Prakash - Ratan Singh Bhangu[edit]

Prachin Panth prakash was completed by Nihang Ratan Singh Bhangu in 1841 is considered as most important resource mentioned detailed information of Banda Bahadur.[54] He mentioned that Banda Bahadur created his panth parallel to Khalsa Panth and made his own code of conduct. He criticized on varoious points including Banda being a Womanizer, Egoistic, deserter and coward attitude of Banda Bahadur.[52]

Mahima Prakash - Sarup Dass Bhalla[edit]

This manuscript was completed by Sarup Das, who belong to lineage of Guru Amar Dass, in 1776.[55] In his manuscript, Sarup Das mentioned incident of Gurdas Nangal and surrendering of Banda Bahadur of, where Banda Bahadur made comments against Guru's wishes.[56] The key points mentioned in his writings are:

  • After surrendering, Banda Bahadur admitted at Delhi that he hadn't followed code of conduct given by Guru Gobind Singh.[57]
  • Banda had desire of marrying again even during the siege which lead to agitation.[58]

It was Binod Singh who agitate against him and had clash with him inside fort. After that Binod Singh left fort and Banda Bahadur surrendered later on. He confessed at Delhi:

"ਕਿਸੀ ਕੀ ਕਿਆ ਮਕਦੂਰ ਥਾ ਜੋ ਮੁਝ ਕੋ ਮਾਰਤਾ॥ ਪਰ ਸਤਗੁਰ ਕੀ ਆਗਿਆ ਮੇਰੇ ਸੇ ਭੰਗ ਹੁਈ ਹੈ ॥"

— (Banda Bahadur, as per Mahima Prakash)

Mata Sundri, who was already in Delhi fetched out Baba Kahn Singh from the prisoner group and didn't save Banda Bahadur from capital punishment.[59]

Mahankosh, Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha[edit]

Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha - states in his Mahankosh that:[51]

.....ਪਰਭੁਤਾ ਵਧ ਜਾਨ ਪਰ ਬੰਦਾ ਬਹਾਦੁਰ ਨੂੰ ਕੁਝ ਗਰਬ ਹੋਇਆ, ਆਪਣੀ ਗੁਰੂਤਾ ਕੀ ਅਭਿਲਾਖਾ ਜਾਗ ਗਈ | ਜਿਸ ਪਰ ਉਸ ਕੇ ਕਈ ਨਿਯਮ ਗੁਰਮਤਿ ਵਿਰੁਧ ਪਰਚਾਰ ਕਰਨੇ ਚਾਹੇ ਜਿਸ ਤੋਂ ਪੰਥ ਦਾ ਵਿਰੋਧ ਹੋ ਕੇ ਖਾਲਸੇ ਦੇ ਦੋ ਦਲ ਬਣ ਗਝ.....

This means After attaining popularity, Banda turned Egoistic and wished to become Guru. Under this Egotism, he preached his own Code of Conduct against Gurmat(i). Due to which Panth split into two parts. One Tat Khalsa(With Gur Gobind Singh) and other Bandai Khalsa (Khalsa of Banda Bahadur).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ganda Singh. "Banda Singh Bahadur". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 27 January 2014. 
  2. ^ "Banda Singh Bahadur". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 May 2013. 
  3. ^ A History of the Sikhs: 1469-1838 - Khushwant Singh - Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 2013-03-18. 
  4. ^ Chib, Sukhdev Singh (1977). Punjab. Light & Life Publishers. p. 15. OCLC 3768858. "Originally a Dogra Rajput named Lachhman Das, Banda Bahadur was born in a farmer family at Rajouri." 
  5. ^ Duggal, Kartar Singh (2001). Maharaja Ranjit Singh: The Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. p. 40. ISBN 978-81-7017-410-3. OCLC 48811299. "A Rajput of the Dogra tribe, his real name was Lachhman Dev." 
  6. ^ Mahajan, Vidya Dhar (1964). India since 1526. S. Chand. p. 205. OCLC 3975743. "Banda Bahadur was a Dogra Rajput. He was born in 1670. His original name was Lachhman Dev and he was very fond of hunting. Later on he became a Bairagi and went away to Deccan." 
  7. ^ Singh, Mian Goverdhan (1982) [1932]. History of Himachal Pradesh. Yugbodh Pub. House. p. 141. OCLC 9063139. "He was a Dogra Rajput/Khatri who was born at Rajouri in Kashmir." 
  8. ^ P. N. Bali. History of Mohyals.
  9. ^ Hakim Rai. Legend of Lachman Das,disciple of Guru Gobind Singh
  10. ^ Ralhan, O. P. (1997). The Great Gurus of the Sikhs: Banda Bahadur, Asht Ratnas etc. Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 9788174884794. 
  11. ^ Singh, Teja (1999). A Short History of the Sikhs: 1469-1765. Patiala: Publication Bureau, Punjabi University. p. 79. ISBN 9788173800078. 
  12. ^ Dātā, Piārā (2006). Banda Singh Bahadur. National Book Shop. p. 37. ISBN 9788171160495. 
  13. ^ Singh, Harbans (1995). The Encyclopaedia of Sikhism: A-D. Punjabi University. p. 273. ISBN 9788173801006. 
  14. ^ Sagoo, Harbans (2001). Banda Singh Bahadur and Sikh Sovereignty. Pennsylvania State University: Deep & Deep Publications. p. 128. 
  15. ^ Singh, Gurbaksh (1927). The Khalsa Generals. Canadian Sikh Study & Teaching Society. p. 8. ISBN 0969409249. 
  16. ^ Later Mughal. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. 1991. p. 98. 
  17. ^ Grewal, J. S. (1998). The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. p. 83. ISBN 9780521637640. 
  18. ^ a b Singh, Gurbaksh (1927). The Khalsa Generals. Canadian Sikh Study & Teaching Society. p. 9. ISBN 0969409249. 
  19. ^ Jawandha, Nahar (2010). Glimpses of Sikhism. New Delhi: Sanbun Publishers. p. 81. ISBN 9789380213255. 
  20. ^ Sagoo, Harbans (2001). Banda Singh Bahadur and Sikh Sovereignty. Deep & Deep Publications. p. 158. ISBN 9788176293006. 
  21. ^ Singh, Teja (1999). A Short History of the Sikhs: 1469-1765. Patiala: Publication Bureau, Punjabi University. p. 85. ISBN 9788173800078. 
  22. ^ Singha, H.S. (2005). Sikh Studies, Book 6. Hemkunt Press. p. 14. ISBN 9788170102588. 
  23. ^ Singh, Harbans (1995). The Encyclopaedia of Sikhism: A-D. Punjabi University. p. 27. ISBN 9788173801006. 
  24. ^ Bakshi, S. R. (2005). Early Aryans to Swaraj. Sarup & Sons. p. 25. ISBN 9788176255370. 
  25. ^ Sharma, S.R. (1999). Mughal Empire in India: A Systematic Study Including Source Material, Volume 2. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 627. ISBN 9788171568185. 
  26. ^ Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 595. ISBN 9780313335389. 
  27. ^ Gupta, Hari (1978). History of the Sikhs: Evolution of Sikh confederacies, 1708-1769 (3rd rev. ed.). the University of Virginia: Munshiram Manoharlal. p. 19. 
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  30. ^ Johar, Surinder (2002). The Sikh Sword to Power. The University of Michigan: Arsee Publishers. p. 27. 
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  32. ^ Kapoor, Sukhbir (1988). The Ideal Man: The Concept of Guru Gobind Singh, the Tenth Prophet of the Sikhs. The University of Virginia: Khalsa College London Press. p. 177. 
  33. ^ General Knowledge Digest 2010. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. 2010. p. 2.134. ISBN 9780070699397. 
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  35. ^ Singh, Patwant (2007). The Sikhs. Random House Digital, Inc. ISBN 9780307429339. 
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  37. ^ Gill, Pritam (1978). History of Sikh nation: foundation, assassination, resurrection. The University of Michigan: New Academic Pub. Co. p. 279. 
  38. ^ Singh, Teja (1999). A Short History of the Sikhs: 1469-1765. Patiala: Publication Bureau, Punjabi University. p. 94. ISBN 9788173800078. 
  39. ^ Jawandha, Nahar (2010). Glimpses of Sikhism. New Delhi: Sanbun Publishers. p. 82. ISBN 9789380213255. 
  40. ^ Pletcher, Kenneth (2010). The History of India. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 200. ISBN 9781615302017. 
  41. ^ Hoiberg, Dale (2000). Students' Britannica India, Volumes 1-5. New Delhi: Popular Prakashan. p. 157. ISBN 9780852297605. 
  42. ^ Duggal, Kartar (2001). Maharaja Ranjit Singh: The Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. p. 41. ISBN 9788170174103. 
  43. ^ Johar, Surinder (1987). Guru Gobind Singh. The University of Michigan: Enkay Publishers. p. 208. ISBN 9788185148045. 
  44. ^ Sastri, Kallidaikurichi (1978). A Comprehensive History of India: 1712-1772. The University of Michigan: Orient Longmans. p. 245. 
  45. ^ Singh, Gurbaksh (1927). The Khalsa Generals. Canadian Sikh Study & Teaching Society. p. 12. ISBN 0969409249. 
  46. ^ Jawandha, Nahar (2010). Glimpses of Sikhism. Sanbun Publishers. p. 89. ISBN 9789380213255. 
  47. ^ Singh, Teja (1999). A Short History of the Sikhs: 1469-1765. Patiala: Publication Bureau, Punjabi University. p. 97. ISBN 9788173800078. 
  48. ^ Singh, Ganda (1935). Life of Banda Singh Bahadur: Based on Contemporary and Original Records. Sikh History Research Department. p. 229. 
  49. ^ Singh, Kulwant (2006). Sri Gur Panth Prakash: Episodes 1 to 81. Institute of Sikh Studies. p. 415. ISBN 9788185815282. 
  50. ^ Sakhi 1, Mahima Parkash, Sarup Dass Bhalla
  51. ^ a b Mahankosh, Banda Bahadur
  52. ^ a b Prachin Panth Prakash, Rattan Singh Bhangu
  53. ^ Sketch of Sikhs, Read Online
  54. ^ Sikh Encyclopedia on Prachin Panth Prakash
  55. ^ thesikhencyclopedia.com
  56. ^ Extracts/Images from Mahima Prakash, Page 895-898
  57. ^ Page 897, Sakhi 1, Mahima Prakash, Sarup Dass Bhalla
  58. ^ Page 896, Sakhi 1, Mahima Prakash, Sarup Dass Bhalla
  59. ^ Page 898, Sakhi 1, Mahima Prakash, Sarup Dass Bhalla