Bande Nawaz

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Sufi philosophy
Hazarat Syedena Khwaja Muhammad Hussaini Gesu Daraz Ya Banda Nawaz Al Chishti Nizami RTA title = Banda Nawāz and Gaisu Daraz,
Gulbarga-Dargah-maingate.JPG
Born (1321-07-13)13 July 1321
Died 1 November 1422(1422-11-01) (aged 101)
Era Islamic golden age
Jurisprudence Sunni
Main interest(s) Sufism

Syed Muhammad Hussaini, commonly known as Hazrat Khwaja Banda Nawaz Gaisu Daraz (Urdu: خواجہ بندہ نواز گیسو دراز‎) (13 July 1321 – 1 November 1422), was a famous Sufi saint from India of the Chishti Order, who advocated understanding, tolerance and harmony among various religious groups.

Gaisu Daraz was a murid (disciple) of the noted Sufi saint of Delhi, Hazrat Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi. After the death of Chiragh Dehlavi, Gaisu Daraz took on the mantle of the successor (khalifa). When he moved to Daulatabad around 1398, owing to the attack of Timur on Delhi, he took the Chishti Order to South India.[1] He finally settled down in Gulbarga, at the invitation of Bahamani Sultan, Taj ud-Din Firuz Shah.[2]

Biography[edit]

Dargah entrance

Banda Nawaz was born to Syed Muhammad Hussaini in Delhi in 1321. At the age of four, his family shifted to Daulatabad in Deccan (now in Maharashtra). In 1397, he went to Gulbarga, Deccan (presently in Karnataka) at the invitation of Sultan Taj ud-Din Firuz Shah.

At the age of fifteen, he returned to Delhi for his education and training by Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi. He was also a very enthusiastic student of Hazrat Kethli, Hazrat Tajuddin Bahadur and Qazi Abdul Muqtadir. After teaching at various places such as Delhi, Mewath, Gwalior, Chander, Aircha, Chatra, Chanderi, Miandhar, Baroda, Khambayat and Gulbarga in 1397 and died in Gulbarga in the year November 1422.

His name as well as patronymic was Abul-Fatah and Gaisu Daraz was his title. Among the scholars and theologians he was Sheikh Abul-Fatah Sadr Uddin Muhammad Dehlavi but people called him Khwaja Banda Nawaz Gaisu Daraaz.

Parentage[edit]

He was the descendant of Hazrat Ali (R.A). His forefathers resided in Hirat. One of them came to Delhi and settled down here. Hazrat Sheikh Muhammad was born here on 4, Rajab, 721 Hijri. His father Hazrat Syed Yousaf was a holy figure and devoted to Hazrat Nizam Uddin Aulia.

Sultan Muhammad-bin Tughlaq once transferred his capital to Daulatabad (Devgiri) and along with him went many scholars, theologians, and mystics. His parents also migrated to the place. He was four years at the time Malik-ul-Umar Hazrat Syed Ibrahim Mustafa, his maternal uncle, was the governor of Daulatabad.

Childhood and early education[edit]

His father always stressed the importance of education. From his childhood he was inclined towards religion and spent time in meditation and prayer. His father died when he was ten and his maternal grandfather assumed responsibility for his education and training and taught him initial books but he took lessons on Misbah and Qadoori from another teacher.

In Delhi[edit]

On the death of his fatheelhi. He was fifteen at the time. He had heard a lot about Hazrat Nizam Uddin Auliya and Hazrat Nasir Uddin Roshan Chiragh Dehlavi from his father and maternal grand father and grew devoted to them. One day he went to say his prayer in the Jama-Majid of Sultan Qutub Uddin, there he saw Hazrat Sheikh Nasir Uddin Mahmud Chiragh Dehlavi and pledged obedience to him on 16, Rajab. Under the guidance of Hazrat Nasir Uddin Chiragh Dehlavi he engaged himself in prayers and meditation and so much enjoyed them that lie forbade studies and requested his teacher to allow him to do so. Hazrat Nasir Uddin denied him permission and instructed him to study with attention Usool-e-Bizoori, Risals Shamsia, Kashaf, Misbah so he restarted the studies under the guidance of renowned teachers.

Title Gesu-Daraaz[edit]

One day he with other disciples lifted the palanquin bearing Hazrat Nasir Uddin. His long hair stuck into the foot of the palki and pained him severely but he did not disentangle them for love and respect to the teacher. When Hazrat Nasir Uddin learned of the episode, he was overjoyed and recited the Persian couplet:

"Har ki murid Syed gesu daraaz shud Vallah khilaf-e-nest ki Uoo ishq baaz shud." ("Syed Gesu Daraaz has pledged his obedience; there is nothing wrong in it because he has deeply fallen in love.")

He thus gained the title "Gesu-Daraaz".

In Afghanistan and Balochistan[edit]

Syed preached Islam in Afghanistan and Balochistan too. In Afghanistan he married a Pathan woman of the Kakar tribe and had Four sons, Storee (Ustarana), Wardag, Hazrat Syed Masood Ali Shah (Mashwani) and Hunny.Gandapur living in the area of layyah(Punjab Pakistan), Daamaan (Dera Ismail Khan) are descendants of Storee(ustarana), and brothers of Ustrana and HummaR. From the lineage of Ali Ibne Abitalib a popular prince or governor from Persia (Iran) Syed Kalan Gesu Daraz who was devoted to mysticism as per local sayings around 800 ce who was the son of syed qaf the fourth generation from the Islamic scholar and imam jafare sadiq was very popular here at that time too which matched with the title Gesu Daraz Awwal of the Bande Nawaz Gesu Daraz.

In Gulbarga[edit]

Having lived for over forty years in Delhi, he moved to Gulbarga at the age of around 76. Firoz Shah Bahmani ruled over the Deccan during this period. He gave him much respect. For a long time he was engaged in religious discourses, sermons, and spiritual training of the people.

Death[edit]

Bande Nawaz attained an age of 101 years, died on 16 Ziqa'ad 825 Hijri in Gulbarga and was buried there. His tomb is a place of Ziyaarat,

Quotes[edit]

  • If a Salik prays or meditates for fame, he is an atheist.
  • If one prays or meditates out of fear, he is a cheat and a hypocrite.
  • So long as a man disengages himself from all the worldly things, he would not step into the road of misconduct.
  • Divide the night into three periods: in the first period say Darud and recitation; in the second sleep and in the third call His name and meditate.
  • The Salik should be careful in food it should be legitimate.
  • The Salik should abstain from the company of the worldly people.[2]

Works[edit]

Bande Nawaz authored about 195 books in Arabic, Persian and Urdu.[2] His magnum opus, Tafseer Multaqat, was compiled into one book very recently.[when?] He also composed a book on the Prophet of Islam titled Miraj-al Ashiqin for the instruction of the masses in Dakhni, a South Indian branch of the Urdu language. He was the first Sufi to use this vernacular which was elaborated upon by many other Sufi saints of South India in later centuries.[3] He wrote many treatises on the works on Ibn Arabi and Suhrawardi, which made the works of these scholars accessible to Indian scholars and played a major role in influencing later mystical thought.[citation needed] Other books authored are Qaseeda Amali and Adaab-al-Mureedein.

Books[edit]

  • Tafseer-e-Qu'Orane-e-Majeed
  • Multaqit
  • Havashi Kashaf
  • Shairah-e-Mashareq
  • Shairah Fiqah-e-Akbar
  • Shairah Adab-Ul-Murideen
  • Shairah Ta-arruf
  • Risala Sirat-Ul-Nabi
  • Tarjuma Mashareq
  • Ma-Arif
  • Tarjuma Awarif
  • Sharah Fasoosul Hukm
  • Tarjuma Risala Qerya
  • Hawa Asahi Quwwat-Ul-Qalb

Urs[edit]

People from various walks of life, irrespective of caste and creed, assemble even today to celebrate the urs (death anniversary) which takes place on the 15, 16 and 17-day of Zul-Qa'dah of Muslim calendar at the famous Bande Nawaz dargah in Gulbarga every year. Several hundred thousand devotees from near and far, irrespective of religion and beliefs, gather to seek blessings.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jihad in the East: A Crescent Over Delhi The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict Between Islam and Christianity, by M. J. Akbar. Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0-415-28470-8. Page 111.
  2. ^ a b c d Urs-e-Sharief of Khwaja Bande Nawaz in Gulbarga from tomorrow "The Hindu", 27 November 2007.
  3. ^ Mystical Dimensions of Islam By Annemarie Schimmel, Pg 351

Bibliography[edit]

  • Askari, Syed Hasan, Tazkira-i Murshidi—Rare Malfuz of the 15th-Century Sufi Saint of Gulbarga. Proceedings of the Indian Historical Records Commission (1952).
  • Hussaini, Syed Shah Khusro, Gisudaraz on Wahdat al-Wujud. Studies in Islam 19 (1982), pp. 233–45.
  • Hussaini, Syed Shah Khusro, The Life, Works and Teachings of Khwajah Bandahnawaz Gisudiraz. Gulbarga: Sayyid Muhammad Gisudiraz Research Academy, 1986.
  • Hussaini, Syed Shah Khusro, Sayyid Muhammad al-Husayni Gisu Daraz: On Sufism Delhi: Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli, 1985.
  • Hussaini, Syed Shah Khusro, Shuhud vs. Wujud: A Study of Gisudiraz Islamic Culture 59 (1985), pp. 323–39.
  • Siddiqi, Mohd. Sulaiman, Syed Mohd. al-Husaini Gisudaraz Islamic Culture 52 (1978), pp. 173–84.

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