Bandung

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Bandung
Kota Bandung
From top, clockwise: Gedung Sate, Great Mosque of Bandung, night skyline of the city, Pasoepati Bridge, Merdeka Building
From top, clockwise: Gedung Sate, Great Mosque of Bandung, night skyline of the city, Pasoepati Bridge, Merdeka Building
Flag of
Flag
Official seal of
Seal
Nickname(s): Kota Kembang (City of Flowers), Paris Timur (Paris of the East)
Motto: Gemah Ripah Wibawa Mukti
Bandung is located in Indonesia
Bandung
Location of Bandung in Indonesia
Coordinates: 6°54′53.08″S 107°36′35.32″E / 6.9147444°S 107.6098111°E / -6.9147444; 107.6098111Coordinates: 6°54′53.08″S 107°36′35.32″E / 6.9147444°S 107.6098111°E / -6.9147444; 107.6098111
Country Indonesia
Province West Java
Founded 1488
City status 25 September 1810
Government
 • Mayor Ridwan Kamil[1]
Area
 • City 167.67 km2 (64.74 sq mi)
 • Metro 2,216.6 km2 (855.8 sq mi)
Elevation 768 m (2,520 ft)
Population (2014 official estimate)
 • City 2,575,478
 • Density 15,000/km2 (40,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 7,414,560
 • Metro density 3,300/km2 (8,700/sq mi)
Demonym Bandungite
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Area code(s) (+62) 22
License plate D
Website www.bandung.go.id

Bandung (/ˈbændʊŋ/ or /ˈbɑːndʊŋ/) (Indonesian: Kota Bandung) is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia, the country's third largest city by population, and second largest metropolitan area in Indonesia[citation needed] with a sprawling urban population of 8.6 million in 2011. Located 768 metres (2,520 ft) above sea level, approximately 140 kilometres (87 miles) south east of Jakarta, Bandung has cooler temperatures year-round than most other Indonesian cities. The city lies on a river basin surrounded by volcanic mountains. This topography provides a good natural defense system, which was the primary reason for the Dutch East Indies government's plan to move the colony capital from Batavia to Bandung.

The Dutch colonials first established tea plantations around the mountains in the eighteenth century, and a road was constructed to connect the plantation area to the capital (180 kilometres (112 miles) to the northwest). The Dutch inhabitants of the city demanded establishment of a municipality (gemeente), which was granted in 1906, and Bandung gradually developed itself into a resort city for plantation owners. Luxurious hotels, restaurants, cafes and European boutiques were opened, hence the city was nicknamed Parijs van Java (Dutch: "The Paris of Java").

Since Indonesia achieved independence in 1945, the city has experienced rapid development and urbanisation, transforming Bandung from idyllic town into a dense 16,500 people/km2 metropolitan area, a living space for over 2.5 million people. Natural resources have been exploited excessively, particularly by conversion of protected upland area into highland villas and real estate. Although the city has encountered many problems (ranging from waste disposal, floods to complicated traffic system, etc.), Bandung still attracts immigrants and weekend travelers.

Geography[edit]

Mount Tangkuban Perahu

Bandung, the capital of West Java province, located about 180 kilometres (110 mi) southeast of Jakarta, is the third largest city in Indonesia. Its elevation is 768 metres (2,520 ft) above sea level and is surrounded by up to 2,400 m (7,874 ft) high Late Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic terrain.[2] The 400 km2 flat of central Bandung plain is situated in the middle of 2,340.88 km2 wide of the Bandung Basin; the basin comprises Bandung, the Cimahi city, part of Bandung Regency, part of West Bandung Regency, and part of Sumedang Regency.[3] The basin's main river is the Citarum; one of its branches, the Cikapundung, divides Bandung from north to south before it merges with Citarum again in Dayeuhkolot. The Bandung Basin is an important source of water for drinking water, irrigation and fisheries, and its 6,147 million m³ of groundwater is a major reservoir for the city.[3]

The northern part of the city is more hilly than the rest; the distinguished truncated flat-peak shape of the Tangkuban Perahu volcano (Tangkuban Perahu literally means 'upside-down boat') can be seen from the city to the north. Long-term volcanic activity has created fertile andisol soil in the north, suitable for intensive rice, fruit, tea, tobacco and coffee plantations. In the south and east, alluvial soils deposited by the Cikapundung river are mostly found.

Geological data shows that the Bandung Basin is located on an ancient volcano, known as Mount Sunda, erected up to 3,000–4,000 metres (9,850–13,100 ft) during the Pleistocene age.[4] Two large-scale eruptions took place; the first formed the basin and the other (est. 55,000 Before Present) blocked the Citarum river, turning the basin into a lake known as "the Great Prehistoric Lake of Bandung".[5] The lake drained away; the reason for which is the subject of ongoing debate among geologists.[6][7]

Climate[edit]

The city of Bandung has a tropical highland rainforest monsoon climate. Due to its elevation, the climate in Bandung is cooler than most Indonesian cities and is classified as humid; the average temperature is 23.6 °C (74.5 °F) throughout the year.[8] The average annual rainfall ranges from 1,000 millimetres in the central and southeast regions to 3,500 millimetres in the north of the city.[3] The wet season conforms with other Indonesian regions, around November to April. Despite its high elevation, no snow was recorded, due to its tropical location, even though lowest temperature recorded is 4.44 °C (40.0 °F)

History[edit]

Main article: History of Bandung
The Dago Waterfall near Bandung, date 1920-1932
Jalan Braga circa 1935-1938
Jalan Pasupati

The official name of the city was Bandoeng during the days of Dutch East Indies.

The earliest reference to the city dates back to 1488, although archaeological findings suggest a type of Homo erectus species had long previously lived on the banks of the Cikapundung River and around the old lake of Bandung.[9] During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC) opened plantations in the Bandung area. In 1786, a supply road connecting Batavia (now Jakarta), Bogor, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang and Cirebon was constructed. In 1809, Napoleon Bonaparte, French Emperor and conqueror of much of Europe including the Netherlands and its colonies, (before his ultimate downfall at Waterloo in 1815) ordered the Dutch Indies Governor H.W. Daendels to improve the defensive systems of Java to protect against the British in India. Daendels built a road, stretching approximately 1,000 km (620 mi) from the west to the east coast of Java, passing through Bandung.[10][11] In 1810, the road was laid down in Bandung and was named De Groote Postweg (or the 'main post road'), the present-day site of Asia-Afrika Street. Under Daendels' orders, R.A. Wiranatakusumah II, the chief administration of the Bandung regency at that time, moved its office from Krapyak, in the south, to a place near a pair of holy city wells (sumur Bandung), the present-day site of the city square (alun-alun). He built his dalem (palace), masjid agung (the grand mosque) and pendopo (public-official meeting place) in the classical orientation.[12] The pendopo faces Tangkuban Perahu mountain, which was believed to have a mystical ambience.

In 1880, the first major railroad between Batavia and Bandung was completed,[13] boosting light industry in Bandung. Chinese from outside the city flocked in, to help run facilities, services and selling vendor machines. The area around the train station is still recognisable as the old Chinatown district. In 1906, Bandung was given the status of gemeente (municipality) and then twenty years later stadsgemeente (city municipality).

In the beginning of the 1920s, the Dutch East Indies government made plans to move the capital of Dutch East Indies from Batavia to Bandung. Accordingly, during this decade, the Dutch colonial government started building military barracks, the central government building (Gouvernments Bedrijven, the present-day Gedung Sate) and other government buildings. However, this plan, was cut short by World War II, after which the Dutch were not able to re-establish their colony.

The fertile area of the Parahyangan Mountains surrounding Bandung supports productive tea plantations. In the nineteenth century, Franz Junghuhn introduced the cinchona (kina) plant.[14] With its cooler elevated landscape, surrounded by major plantations, Bandung became an exclusive European resort area.[15] Rich plantation owners visited the city on weekends, attracting ladies and business people from the capital, Batavia. Braga Street grew into a promenade street with cafes, restaurants and boutique shops. Two art-deco style hotels, Savoy Homann and Preanger, were built in the vicinity of the Concordia Society, a club house for the wealthy with a large ballroom and a theatre.[13] The nickname "Parijs van Java" was given to the city.

Gedung Merdeka during the Asian-African Conference in 1955

After the Indonesian Independence in 1945, Bandung was determined as the capital of West Java province. During the 1945-1949 independence struggle against the Dutch when they wanted to reclaim their colonies, Bandung was one of the heaviest battle places. At the end of World War II nearly no Dutch troops were in Java. Before restoring Dutch sovereignty, the British took a military hold on Java's major cities. The British military commander set an ultimatum for the Indonesian combatants in Bandung to leave the city. In response, on 24 March 1946, much of the southern part of Bandung was deliberately set alight as the combatants left; an event known as the Bandung Lautan Api or 'Bandung Sea of Flame'.[16]

In 1955, the first Asian-African Conference - also known as the Bandung Conference - was held in Bandung by President Soekarno, attended by head of states representing twenty-nine countries and colonies from Asia and Africa.[17] The conference venue was at the Gedung Merdeka, the former Concordia Society building. The conference announced 10 points of declaration on world peace promotion and oppositions against colonialism, known as the Declaration of Bandung, which followed by wave of nationalism movements around the globe and remapped the world politics.[18] The conference was also the first international conference of people of color in the history of mankind.[19] Richard Wright in his book, The Color Curtain, captured the epic meanings of the conference for people of color around the world.[19]

In 2005, the concurrent Asian-African Conference also taking partly in Bandung, bringing world figures such as President of Indonesia Susilo B. Yudhoyono, President of China Hu Jintao, Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh, President of South Africa Thabo Mbeki, President of Nigeria Obasanjo, and countless other luminaries.[20]

In 1987, the city boundary was expanded with the Greater Bandung (Bandung Raya) plan; a relocation of higher concentration development outside the city in an attempt to dilute some of population in the old city. During its development, however, the city core is often uprooted, old faces are torn down, lot sizes regrouped, and what was idyllic residence is bustling chain supermarkets and rich banks.[15]

Administration[edit]

Sate Building, Bandung

The city area in 1906 was 19.22 square kilometres (7.42 square miles) and by 1987 it was 167.2965 km2.[8] The city administration is divided into 26 subdistricts (kecamatan) and 139 villages (kelurahan). A mayor (walikota) leads the city administration. Since 2008, the city residents directly voted for a mayor, while previously mayors were nominated and selected by the city council members or known as the Regional People's Representative Council (DPRD). As of 2003, the total number of city administration personnel is 20,163.[8]

Administrative districts[edit]

Bandung is divided into 30 districts[21] (kecamatan), listed below with their populations at the 2010 Census:[22]

Cityscape[edit]

View toward south

Demographics[edit]

In 2005 the population of Bandung was 2,290,464, with a density of 13,693/km2 (35,465/sq mi).[23] The May 2010 census count result is 2,393,688 people,[24] and the latest official estimate (for 2014) is 2,575,478 - making Bandung the third largest city in Indonesia.

Most of Bandung's population are of Sundanese descent. Javanese people are the largest minority; they mostly come from the nearby province and the eastern part of Java. Other minorities include Minangkabau people, Chinese Indonesians, Bataks, Korean Indonesians and Indian Indonesians.

Main sights[edit]

Institut Teknologi Bandung. Ceremonial Hall by architect Henri Maclaine-Pont

Bandung is home to numerous examples of Dutch colonial architecture; most notably the tropical Art Deco architectural style. Henri Maclaine-Pont was among the first Dutch architects to recognise the importance of combining each architectural style with local cultural traditions. He stressed that modern architecture should interact with local history and native elements.[25] In 1920, Pont planned and designed buildings for the first technical university in the Dutch East Indies, Technische Hogeschool te Bandung (the present-day Institut Teknologi Bandung), after which he was named as a professor in architecture at the university. A striking local Sundanese roof style is clearly seen adorning the top of the campus' ceremonial hall, embedded in his artwork.[25]

The architectural design by Albert Aalbers in 1939 is one of the most significant examples of the Art Deco style for which Bandung is renowned

In the same year, another Dutch architect J Gerber designed Gouverments Bedrijven (Government Companies) in line with the colonial government plan to move the capital from Batavia to Bandung. The building is an example of a harmonious mixture between West and East architectural styles, particularly the Italian Renaissance style of arch structures in the wings and pendopo-like structures commonly found in Java in the middle section. The building is known as Gedung Sate, named after the distinguished small satay-shaped structure on the roof, and is today used as the head office of West Java provincial government and West Java's house of representative.

The modern and native architectural blending was followed by several Dutch architects that have shaped the city landmarks. In the 1930s, Bandung was known also as the city of architecture laboratory because of the many Dutch architects who experimented with new architectural designs. Albert Aalbers added the expressionist architecture style to the Art Deco by designing the DENIS bank (1936) and renovated the Savoy Homann Hotel (1939). C.P.W. Schoemaker was one of architects who strongly added native elements in his artworks, including the Villa Isola (1932), Hotel Preanger (1929), the regional military headquarter (1918), Gedung Merdeka (1921) and ITB Rectorate Building (1925).[25]

Culture[edit]

Bandung is considered a major & significant cultural hub in Indonesia. Most people in the surrounding province of West Java are Sundanese. Sundanese language is spoken as the first language and is commonly used as informal language for communication in streets, school, campus, work and markets, while Indonesian—Indonesia's national language and a lingua franca among its many ethnic units—is used as a second language and the language of government, businesses, and instruction at schools.

Tourism[edit]

Denim store, Cihampelas Street

Bandung is a popular weekend destination of residents of Jakarta. The cooler climate of the highland plantation area, the varieties of food, the cheaper fashion shops located in factory outlets and distros, golf courses, and the zoo, are some of the attractions of the city.[26] Bandung is also a popular shopping destination for the good value of its textile and fashion products among Malaysians and Singaporeans.[27]

In the 1990s, local designers opened denim clothing stores along Cihampelas Street which transformed into a "jeans street". The city attracts people from other big cities to buy local fashion wares, as they are cheaper than branded items.[28] Beside at Cihampelas Street, many factory outlets also opened at Riau Street, Setiabudi Street, and Djuanda Street (known as Dago). Textile factories on the outskirts of Bandung have opened factory outlets on site selling what is marketed as sisa export (rejected or over-produced export quality items).[29] Bandung Supermal, Bandung Indah Plaza, Ciwalk[clarification needed] (abbreviation of Cihampelas Walk) and Paris van Java are popular shopping centres in Bandung.

Significant tourist sites near Bandung include the Tangkuban Prahu volcano crater to the north, the striking Kawah Putih volcano lake, and Patenggang Lake, a lake surrounded by tea plantations about 50 kilometres (31 miles) to the south of the city.

To see Bandung Basin clearly which is surrounding by the mountains, we can see from Bongkor protected forest area (kawasan hutan lindung), Saung Daweung, Arcamanik, in slope of West Manglayang Mountain. People known the area as Caringin Tilu with entry from Padasuka, Cicaheum to the north. The forest is located in 1,500 above mean sea level with pine trees managed by government corporation id:Perhutani and can be accessed in 30 minutes drive from downtown.[30][31]

Sports[edit]

Bandung is the home town of the Persib Bandung football team. the most successful Indonesian football team in Asian competition as well as in the Indonesia Super League. Another team, Pelita Bandung Raya Football Club, the team also plays in the Indonesia Super League and Persikab, is based in the neighbouring town of Soreang, the capital city of Bandung Regency. It shares its home base stadium with Persikab at Si Jalak Harupat stadium in Soreang and Pro Duta. Other popular sports in Bandung include badminton. The roads leading up to Lembang and Dago are popular routes for mountain cycling during the weekend. In the hillside around Bandung, there are several golf courses.

Media[edit]

Bandung has several local daily newspapers, including Pikiran Rakyat, Galamedia and Tribun Jabar. Several local television station operate in Bandung, such as Trans 7,Trans TV, NET., tvOne, RCTI, SCTV, Indosiar, ANTV, MNCTV, Global TV, Metro TV, RTV Bandung (a Rajawali Televisi Network), Kompas TV Jawa Barat (a Kompas TV Network), and TVRI. Many radio stations broadcast from Bandung.

Bandung has been featured in the 9th and 10th leg of the American reality series of The Amazing Race 23, popularising the city to many viewers especially Americans.

Transportation[edit]

Bandung can be accessed through highways from Jakarta. An intercity toll highway called Cipularang toll road, connecting Jakarta, Karawang, Purwakarta, Padalarang and Bandung, has recently been completed in May 2005. It is currently the fastest way to go to Bandung from the capital. Driving time is about 1.5 hours on average. There are 3 other options: the Puncak route (Jakarta-Cianjur/Sukabumi-Bandung), Purwakarta route (Jakarta-Cikampek-Purwakarta-Cikalong Wetan-Padalarang-Cimahi-Bandung) and the Subang route (Jakarta-Cikampek-Subang-Lembang-Bandung). From eastern part of the cities (Cirebon, Tasikmalaya and Central Java province), Bandung can be accessed through the main provincial road. Indonesian National Route 3 links Bandung towards Cilegon and Ketapang (Banyuwangi).

The Pasupati bridge recently opened to the public, relieving traffic jams in the city for east-west transport. The 2.8 kilometres (1.7 miles) cable-stayed bridge lies through the valley of Cikapundung. It is 30 to 60 metres wide and after extensive delays, its construction finally completed in June 2005, following financial investment from Kuwait.[32] The bridge is part of Bandung's comprehensive inner-city highways plan.

Taxis are widely available. The primary means of public transportation is by minibus, called angkot (from angkutan=transportation and kota=city). They serve certain routes throughout the city, operated privately and cheap, but these city shuttles are not usually known for being comfortable.[33] To find exact angkot routes, information are available through the drivers or at terminals. City-owned buses, called DAMRI, operate on larger, relatively long routes. Bandung has 2 intercity bus terminals: Leuwipanjang, serving buses from the west, and Cicaheum, serving buses from the east. Both are full and will be replaced by a new terminal at Gedebage on 15 hectares land, while the old terminals will be functioned as inner city terminals. The location of the new terminal will be next to the Gedebage railway station on 15 hectares area too, both are near of Gedebage container dry port.[34]

Bandung Husein Sastranegara International Airport serves direct domestic flights to Batam, Pekanbaru, Medan, Bandar Lampung, Surabaya, Yogyakarta, Denpasar, Semarang, Banjarmasin, Makassar, and also international services from Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. The airport is located nearby the Dirgantara aerospace complex and Dirgantara Fairground.

Bandung has two large railway stations, i.e. Bandung and Kiaracondong Stations. Other smaller stations are Cimindi, Andir, Ciroyom, Cikudapateuh, and Gedebage Stations (only for freight service). Railway connects Bandung to Cianjur, Jakarta, Purwakarta, Bekasi, Karawang and Cikampek to the west, and Surabaya, Yogyakarta and Solo to the east. It is also the major means of transportation for people living in suburb areas of Cimahi, Padalarang, Rancaekek, Cicalengka and Cileunyi. In 2012 Bandung Commuter Train phase-1 will be built to connect Padalarang, Cimahi, Bandung and Cicalengka. 13 Trans Metro Bandung corridors will serve as feeders. The phase-2 will connect Cicalengka to Jatinangor.[35]

32 shelters of Trans Metro Bandung (similar to TransJakarta) along Soekarno-Hatta street will be finished on August 2011 with cost of Rp13.1 billion ($1.54 million). Additional 30 buses will join the current operation of 10 buses, after all shelters have been finished.[36]

Since 21 June 2011 Damri operator has launched 2 buses with route Cibiru-Kebon Kelapa vice versa special for women passengers only with women drivers. It accommodated the certain religion needs.[37]

In 5 August 2011 Jusuf Kalla has announced that he would like to build a monorail in Bandung with value about Rp.4 trillion ($470 million).[38]

As of April 2012, the cable car project 'Bandung Skybridge' to connect Pasteur (Cihampelas) to Sabuga (Taman Sari) is at 90 percent of completion awaiting legal authorisation to operate. When approved, it will be operational within a year.[39] To ease Cihampelas traffic jam, a skywalk for walking only from Cihampelas to Tamansari will be built soon and predicted will be activated in 2014. Vehicles can be parked at Tamansari.[40]

Science and education[edit]

There are hundreds of public and private schools in Bandung. Like in other Indonesian cities, Bandung has several state-funded and administered State Junior High Schools (SMP Negeri) and State High Schools (SMA Negeri). At least sixteen universities—three of which are state-owned—and 45 professional schools are scattered across the city. Education from social sciences, technology until tourism education can be found in one of those universities.

Among the several universities located in Bandung, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Bandung Institute of Technology), Universitas Padjadjaran (Padjadjaran University), Parahyangan Catholic University, Universitas Islam Bandung, (Bandung Islam University), Universitas Kristen Maranatha (Maranatha Christian University), Universitas Islam Nusantara (Nusantara Islamic Of University), Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (Indonesia University of Education), Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Gunung Djati (Sunan Gunung Djati Islamic State University), Institut Teknologi Telkom (Telkom Institute of Technology), and Politeknik Manufaktur Negeri Bandung (Bandung State Polytechnic for Manufacturing) are considered among the best universities in their respective fields of specialty in Indonesia. Established 1920, Institut Teknologi Bandung is Indonesia's oldest and most prestigious technical university. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (formerly IKIP Bandung, established in 1954) is one of the first institutions of higher education established after Indonesian independence and is currently a leading education university in the country. Universitas Padjadjaran (established in 1956) is considered to be one of the best universities in the country in the fields of medical, law, communication, and economic studies.

In the north of Bandung, Bosscha Observatory is the only observatory in Indonesia. Construction of the observatory began in 1923 and was completed in 1928. In 1922, the first international publication from Bosscha Observatory was published and in 1959, the observatory was included as a part of the department of astronomy in the Institut Teknologi Bandung (Bandung Institute of Technology).

Economy[edit]

A tea plantation in Ciwidey, Bandung in Indonesia

Bandung economy is mainly built upon tourism, manufacturing, textile/apparel, education institutions, technology, retail, services, plantation/agriculture, financial, pharmaceutical, food, among others.[20]

Bandung has nearly 50 higher educational institutions and is among the most popular destination for education in Indonesia. Creative-based culture has shaped the basis of Bandung economy. The once quiet residential district of Dago has become an important business and entertainment centre. Chic cafes and restaurants are spreading out along Dago Street. In the early 1990s Cihampelas Street became a popular clothing store location.

A distro sells stylish non-trademarked products, made by local designers. Books, indie label records, magazines, fashion products and other accessories are typical distro products. After their products receive large teenagers attention, these local designers make their own clothing company. Now, there are more than 200 local brand names in Bandung. Distro distances itself from factory outlets in term of its philosophy. Distros arise from individual designers and young entrepreneurs, while factory outlet products are from garment factories.[41]

Bandung administration has agreed to substantially develop seven industrial and trade areas, which are the speciality of Bandung:[42]

  • Binongjati Knitting Industrial and Trade Center
  • Cigondewah Textile Trade Center
  • Cihampelas Jeans Trade Center
  • Suci (T and Oblong) Shirt Industrial Center
  • Cibaduyut Shoes Industrial Center
  • Cibuntu Tofu and Tempeh Industrial Center
  • Sukamulya Sukajadi Doll Industrial Center

Environmental issues[edit]

The north of the city serves as a water reservoir for Bandung's two million people, however, the area has seen much residential development. Several attempts to reserve this area have been made, including the creation of reserves, such as the Juanda National Park and Puncrut, but the development continues. The real danger has come in the form of several floodings in Bandung's south.[43]

In the middle of 2006, Bandung faced another environmental disaster, as the city's land fill site was reevaluated after a garbage slide in 2005 (which buried the village, Kampung Gajah, beneath it, killing over a hundred people).[44] Collection of 8,000 m3/day domestic garbage piled up, causing severe air pollution by local burning, spreading of diseases, and water contamination. The provincial government has failed in its attempts to solve the garbage issues.[45][46]

Notable people[edit]

See more at Category:People from Bandung

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Bandung has sister relationships with a number of towns worldwide:

Awards[edit]

  • 1997: Adipura Award  – for the achievement of the cleanest city in Indonesia.

The Adipura consists of a trophy and an award.

  • 2014: One of one hundred beautiful city in the World.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Quick Count Bandung, Ridwan Kamil Sabet 45,88%". 23 June 2013. 
  2. ^ W.A. van der Kaars and M.A.C. Dam (1995). "A 135,000-year record of vegetational and climatic change from the Bandung area, West-Java, Indonesia". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 117 (1–2): 55–72. doi:10.1016/0031-0182(94)00121-N. 
  3. ^ a b c Setiawan Wangsaatmaja, Arief D. Sutadian and Maria A.N. Prasetiati. "Sustainable Groundwater Management in Asian Cities". Institute for Global Environmental Strategies. Archived from the original on 2 September 2006. Retrieved 21 August 2006.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  4. ^ M.N. Kartadinata, M. Okuno, T. Nakamura and T. Kobayashi (2002). "Eruptive History of Tangkuban Perahu Volcano, West Java, Indonesia: A Preliminary Report" (PDF). Journal of Geography 111 (3): 404–409. doi:10.5026/jgeography.111.3_404. Archived from the original on 23 August 2006. Retrieved 21 August 2006. 
  5. ^ Dam, M.A.C. (1994). "The Late Quaternary Evolution of the Bandung Basin, West Java, Indonesia". Ph.D. Thesis. Universiteit van Amsterdam. 
  6. ^ van Bemmelen, R.W. (1949). The Geology of Indonesia, Vol. 1A, General Geology. 
  7. ^ "Sangiangtikoro is not The Leaking Point of The Old Bandung Lake" (in Indonesian). Pikiran Rakyat. 27 October 2005. Retrieved 20 July 2006. [dead link]
  8. ^ a b c "Bandung Dalam Angka (Bandung in Numbers)" (Press release) (in Indonesian). Bureau of Statistics. 2003. Retrieved 15 January 2007. 
  9. ^ B. Brahmantyo, E. Yulianto and Sudjatmiko (2001). "On the geomorphological development of Pawon Cave, west of Bandung, and the evidence finding of prehistoric dwelling cave". JTM. Archived from the original on 8 April 2008. Retrieved 21 August 2008. 
  10. ^ "Pramoedya sheds light on dark side of Daendels highway". The Jakarta Post. 8 January 2006. 
  11. ^ Peter .J.M Nas; Pratiwo (2001). "Java and De Groote Postweg, La Grande Route, The High Military Road" (PDF). University of Leiden. Retrieved 22 June 2009. 
  12. ^ Kunto, Haryanto (1984). Wajah Bandung Tempoe Doeloe. Granesia. 
  13. ^ a b Soemardi, Ahmad R.; Radjawali, I (2004). "The eleventh International Planning History Conference 2004" (PDF). Retrieved 21 August 2006.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  14. ^ "If Only Junghuhn Knows How Cinchona in Indonesia Becomes..." (in Indonesian). Pikiran Rakyat. 7 June 2004. Archived from the original on 17 May 2006. Retrieved 21 August 2006. 
  15. ^ a b "An Extremely Brief Urban History of Bandung". Institute of Indonesian Architectural Historian. Archived from the original on 16 July 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2006. 
  16. ^ Sitaresmi, Ratnayu. "Social History of Bandung Lautan Api (Bandung Sea of Fire) 24 March 1946" (PDF). Retrieved 22 August 2008. [dead link]
  17. ^ Jamie Mackie, 'Bandung 1955: Non-Alignment and Afro-Asian Solidarity', Singapore, Editions Didier Millet, ISBN 981-4155-49-7
  18. ^ Jason Parker (2006). "Cold War II: The Eisenhower Administration, the Bandung Conference, and the Reperiodization of the Postwar Era". Diplomatic History 30 (5): 867–892. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.2006.00582.x. 
  19. ^ a b Richard Wright (1995). The Color Curtain: A Report on the Bandung Conference. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 0-87805-748-X. 
  20. ^ a b Discover Bandung
  21. ^ : DATA KECAMATAN DI LINGKUNGAN PEMERINTAH KOTA BANDUNG: Berdasarkan PERDA 2008
  22. ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  23. ^ Profil Daerah Jawa Barat
  24. ^ http://www.tempointeraktif.com/hg/bandung/2010/09/01/brk,20100901-275625,id.html TempoInteraktif: Bandung Kota Terpadat di Jawa Barat
  25. ^ a b c W. Wangsadinata and T.K. Djajasudarma (1995). "INDOBEX Conf. on Building Construction Technology for the Future: Construction Technology for Highrises & Intelligence Buildings" (PDF). Jakarta. Retrieved 18 January 2007.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  26. ^ Java Experience http://travel.ciao.co.uk/Java_Experience_5297272_5
  27. ^ Malaysians flock to Bandung to shop
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External links[edit]