The bandurria is a plectrum chordophone from Spain, similar to the cittern and the mandolin, primarily used in Spanish folk music. It bears a close resemblance to the Portuguese guitarra (a guitarra Portuguesa).
Prior to the 18th century, the bandurria had with a round back, similar or related to the mandore. It had become a flat-backed instrument by the 18th century, with five double courses of strings, tuned in fourths. The original bandurrias of the Medieval period had three strings. During the Renaissance they gained a fourth string. During the Baroque period the bandurria had 10 strings (5 pairs). The modern bandurria has 12 strings (6 pairs). The strings are tuned in unison pairs, going up in fourths from the low G#. The lowest four strings are a major-third above those of a standard guitar and the highest two strings are a fourth above a standard guitar, i.e. G♯, c♯, f♯, b, e and a.
Philippine Bandurria 
The Philippine harp bandurria is a 14-string bandurria used in many Philippine folkloric songs, with 16 frets and shorter neck than the 18 string bandurria. This instrument probably evolved in the Philippines during the Spanish period, from 1521 to 1898. The Filipino bandurria is used in an orchestra of plucked string instruments called rondalla.
South American Bandurrias 
There are also many different varieties of Bandurria in South America, especially Peru and Bolivia. They have 4 courses, unlike the traditional Spanish 6 courses. The 4 courses are double, triple or quadruple, and the tuning is guitar-like, rather than the fourths tuning used on the Spanish type.
See also 
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- Tyler, James; Sparks, Paul (1992). The Early Mandolin. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-19-816302-9.
- The Stringed Instrument Database
- http://www.atlasofpluckedinstruments.com/south_america.htm#peru South American bandurrias
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