Technically, it is not a textile. Depending on the region of the Philippines, the mat is made of buri, (palm), pandan or sea grass leaves. The leaves are dried, usually dyed, then cut into strips and woven into mats, which may be plain or intricate.
The Samals of Sulu usually make their mats out of buri leaves. Often, dyed strips of buri are woven to produce a design.
Another region in the Philippines which is famous for intricately designed mats is Basey, Samar. Unlike Sulu, the banig in Basey are made up of tikog leaves. The leaves are dyed with different strong colors to make beautiful, colorful and unique designs.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 Process
- 3 History
- 4 Mats of the Philippines
- 5 Festivals
- 6 Usage
- 7 External links
- 8 References
Banig or brown mat is a traditional handwoven mat commonly used for sleeping. Banig weaving is a genuine treasure handed down as a tradition or a trade from one generation to another as it is widely practiced in the country. Its ingenuity is very much employed in its creation and the designs may vary from the practices of those from other regions.
In the northernmost part of Antique Province, 146 kilometers away from the capital town San Jose de Buenavista is the quiet and rustic town of Libertad. The municipality is a mountain and coastal town that is abundantly surrounded by the bariw plant (Pandanus copelandii: Pandaceae family) which is a versatile material in mat weaving.
The town of Libertad has pioneered in banig weaving which has become one of the main sources of livelihood of the townsfolk. The banig produced in this town is being sought in the local and foreign markets because of its unique and intricate weave.
The art and beauty of banig weaving lie in the intricacy of folding over the strips of the material that will yield a wonderful design of interlace folds and entails a sequential order of steps to create geometric patterns and rhythm.
An arduous and very tedious process, banig weaving is some sort of a spell implied with hard work, determination and patience from the manugbanig (a person who weaves banig). They simply cut the bariw leaves using sanggot (an arc-shaped cutting tool) and a long slender bamboo pole to reach the leaves of high-grown bariw plant, the process locally known as the pagsasa.
The paghapnig (bundling) and pagriras (stripping off) are the next steps in the pre-weaving preparations. They gather and bundle the slashed leaves for stripping off thorns along the edges and into the middle ridge. By removing the ridge, the leaf is divided into two. Each leaf is piled separately until the bundle is stripped off with thorns. The leaves will be tightly tied up in bundle so that each piece will not curl up as it dries.
The Pagbulad or sun or air drying phase follows. Sun drying of bariw leaves under direct sunlight gives it a shiny brown tone and strengthens the fiber. Air-dried leaves are durable compared to the sun-dried one. Air-dried leaves create blackish spots or molds that destroy the natural luster of brown mats; however, the molds fall off easily during weaving.
The pagpalpag or the hammering phase is gradually done by beating the bariw leaves against a flat stone until they become soft and pliable with the use of a wooden club known as sampok. In some cases, bariw leaves are softened with an improvised roller log made of tree or coconut trunk that works like a rolling pin.
Paglikid is a process of keeping the softness of the bariw leaves and prevents the leaf strips from becoming stiff and crisp. The leaf is rolled one after the other in a round form; tightly rolling the leaf sustains its softness and elasticity. The unwinding of the linikid to straighten the spiraled bariw leaves is called pagbuntay.
Then follows the pagkulhad or the shredding of bariw leaves into a desired strand through the kurulhadan or splicer; a wooden-based shredder. Pagkyupis is the preparatory process to the weaving proper. Generally, bariw strands are folded into halves. Every kyupis consists of four strands, folded together in pairs; horizontally and vertically, with the glossy brown color in the outer surface.
Taytay is the framework of the entire mat. During this step, the size and the length of the mat is already assured. The width dimensions will be determined by weaving at the sides forward, making the edge-line on both sides of the mat known as sapay. Hurip is the folding of the remaining strands on the sides or edge-line to keep the weave tightly locked in place. The process also refers to the repairing of worn-out and damaged mat during weaving or due to continued use.
Gutab is the final stage in mat weaving. It is done by eliminating and cutting unwanted strands in the mat, including the excess strands after the hurip has been done.
Solid, Jointless Reed
The people in Basey had been weaving mats long before the Spaniards came, it was said. The tradition went on with almost all, if not all, of the womenfolk here learning the art of weaving at an early age. The weavers are locally known as "paraglara."
The raw material used in mat weaving in Basey comes from a reed plant locally known as tikog (Fimbristylis utilis), which belongs to the family Cuperaceae and has solid, jointless and usually triangular stems.
The reed plant thrives well in densely forested areas and grows even in the rice fields. Fully grown tikog reaches up to three meters. Its width ranges from the finest at 1.5 mm. up to 6 mm. The weavers of Basey use the finer tikog.
The tikog stems are first cut according to the desired length and then dried under the sun. Some of these stems are dyed with the desired color and again dried. Then these are flattened just before they are woven into mats.
A Tradition Lives On
Mat weaving is an old cottage industry of Basey, with many of its villages engaged in the craft. In Barangay Bacubac, some three kilometers northwest of the town proper, old women spend the day weaving banig inside their nipa huts, while their husbands prepare the tikog materials they will use.
In Barangay Basiao, the last village of Basey to the southeast, which is located about 20 kilometers from the town proper, some of the womenfolk spend the day weaving mats under a canopy-like stone formation.
The place is actually a part of a small cave located along the national highway, just across the coastal village. The women explain that they prefer to work in this place because the cool atmosphere makes the tikog less brittle, thus making it easier for them to weave sleeping mats.
Elsewhere in Basey, many women are busy weaving mats that they would later sell in town to augment the income of their spouses. Others sell their mats to entrepreneurs who would bring the product to be sold in Tacloban City, which is about 30 kilometers away.
Mats of the Philippines
In the warm and humid tropics, various cultures have devised ways and means to making living more tolerable, if not comfortable. The Philippines is no exemption and nowhere is this solution as obvious as in the Filipino use of variety of materials for making sleeping mats. Various species of reeds profusely grow in swampy areas, as well as a number of palm species, and rattan. These materials remain cool in the heat of the day, are smooth to touch, and porous enough to let ventilation through. Throughout the country one encounters a variety of mat making traditions using indigenously grown materials and embellishing these creations with highly imaginative designs.
A closer look at our mat tradition will attest to the artistry and the superb skills required to accomplish the intricacy evident in this woven works of art. There is only a limited data existing on the subject. With the rapid social changes going on the subject, there is a need to define what these traditions are. Fortunately, many of these traditions are still very much alive and it appears that it will remain relevant traditions for as long as the tropical weather endures.
The Badjao and Samal mat, design-wise, is undisputedly the most interesting tradition in the whole country. They are the most concentrated in the Tawi-Tawi province in the Sulu archipelago. The Badjao are traditionally boat-dwelling. They drop anchor wherever there is more fruitful fishing ground. Often mistakenly classed as a Muslim group, they subscribe to a system of belief that links them significantly to the sea.
The Samal, on the other hand, which occupies the bigger island in Tawi-Tawi, is Muslims and are generally engaged in trade and agriculture. Both groups speak mutually intelligible language and carry on a symbiotic trading partnership. These varying orientation would spell a difference in both the technology and design concept in their respective mat making tradition.
The most commonly used material is the pandanus plant which grows abundantly in the limestone-based island of Tawi-Tawi. The pandanus grow wild and untended in the shores and sandy beaches. The techniques for preparing the pandan and weaving the mats are generally similar throughout Sulu. In 1962, an American Peace Corps volunteer named David Szanton and who had since then had become an anthropologist and is currently head of the International Programs at the University of California at Berkeley made a survey of the area and describe the process of mat making as follows:
- "First, the thick pandan leaves are cut and center rib are removed. The two halves are separated then rolled in a coil, about one foot in diameter. Tied and held at the bottom of a pot by a rock, the coil is cooked by the boiling water, removing some of the color. The coil is then dried in the sun, opened and the leaves flattened with stick. They are drawn through a small metal bladed tool, which cut each leaf into four or five narrow strips. Edge strips are discarded and other are bundled loosely and left to bleach further in the sun before being resoaked in cold water for about 12 hours. By that time they have been sun-dried and softened with the stick once again, the natural color has almost completely faded and dying can begin."
The dyes used are chemical dyes. The colors used are greens, orange, red, violet, blue, yellow. After dyeing they are placed in shade to dry and again gently beaten to further soften the material. These preparation usually takes about a week, while the weaving can take from two to five weeks.
The mats woven by these two groups could be distinguish from each other by their design and use of colors. The small mats have four general patterns namely, 1) Stripes, 2) multi-colored square, 3) a checkered pattern of white and other colors and, 4) a zigzag pattern. The Samal mats are muted in colors and are softer to the touch. This is achieve by the repeated beating during the preparatory phase. The slightly glossy effect on the surface is achieved by diluting the dye with some coconut oil. These later techniques in the preparation is not done by the Badjao. As a result their mats are not as pliable and a bit stiff when newly woven.
Among the Badjao exuberance of color used as well as highly spontaneous geometric and other stylized symbols set in apart from the Samal mats. The recurrent motifs that surface in the Badjao mat are in the form of stylized crab design, a series of wave-like or boat forms, patterns created by moving water, and some other marine life forms. The boldness stem from the use of colors that starkly contrast with the background.
After finishing the weaving of the mat, another undyed plain mat is woven and is used to line the back of the main mat. The lining usually extends some two or three inches beyond the border of the main mat which is sewn securely to the backing. This gives it a framed look, and insures durability for the mat.
There are a couple of islands in the Tawi-Tawi which are known for their mat making, The island of Laminusa produces mats commercially that are sold over the archipelago. The pliability and fineness in the weaving is what sets the Laminusa mats apart. These outstanding skills have been recognized nationally when one of the Laminusa weavers garnered the Manlilikha ng Bayan Award (National Folk Artsist) in 1990.
The other island known for its mat is Unggus Matata in the Tandubas island group. But the weavers in this island only make mats for themselves and do not sell them commercially. Visitors who had seen samples of Unggus Matata mats swear they are superior to the Laminusa ones. But the inaccessibility of the islands does not make it easy to validate this claim. Judging from what is produced in Tawi-Tawi, the Philippines can claim to produce the handsomest mat in the whole of Asia, if not the world. The samples seen at the museum in Kuala Lumpur are also produced by the migrating Badjao who had settled not only in mainland Malaysia but in Eastern Malaysia as well.
Recent reports of extensive quantities of mats of unusual design surfacing in the markets in Kota Kinabalu in Sabah come from resident Badjao who had permanently taken up residence in Sabah. Some 10,000 Badjao who eluded marauding sea pirates in Sulu had quietly slipped out of the country and are found in the coastal areas of North Borneo. Their mobility could be attested by the fact that some Badjao are settled in the reclaimed area along Roxas Boulevard fronting Manila Bay.
The Tausug of Jolo have always been known for their weaving skills particularly of their silk sashes, shoulder cloth or their male head dress called pis siyabit. Some of the design in the textile are often transposed to woven mat since geometric design technically translate easily from the loom weaving to mat weaving. The design, again like the Samal, are characterized by linearity and geometry. The coastal settlements of Patikul and Maimbung are mat-making towns. Recent importation of machine-made rugs and carpets has replaced mats particularly inside the mosque. But just the same, the tradition is still very much alive.
The Mindanao Muslims which consist mainly of Maranao of Lanao and the Maguindanaon of Cotabato share a common tradition of mat making. These two groups, which geographically adjoin each other and speak a mutually intelligible language, nurture a sophisticated tradition of weaving not only in mats but in textiles, basketry and others woven containers as well. Mainly known for their colorful malong, the women also weave for household use. Most of these are generally used for sleeping but some plain looking ones are also woven and used to dry palay and other grains. Some extra large ones are donated for use to line the floor of the mosque.
The material for the mat comes from sesed (Fimbristykis miliacea L.), a rush plant that grows in swampy areas in both Lanao and Cotabato.
The basak area on the eastern side of Lake Lanao, which is well watered and where the sesed grows in abundance has led to the commercial marketing of this raw material. Neatly tight in bundles, the sesed could be bought at market stalls in the Marawi market. A similar phenomena is also noted in Cotabato. The flood plains of the Rio Grande also nurture an abundance of sesed.
The sesed is harvested and cut into lengths of about thirty inches long. They are dried under the sun for a day just to remove some of the water content but retaining its pliability. Overdying will make the sesed brittle and break in the process of weaving. They are boiled in chemical dyes of green, maroon, yellow, and blue. The natural color of the sesed is also used for contrast.
The most unique feature of the mat from this area is the round-shaped mat woven by the Maranao. It is not very clear whether the round-shaped mat, which is the only such shaped mat produced throughout the country, is a recent development or has always been a traditional procedure. The shape may have been traditionally determined by other items in the material culture like the tabak or the round brass holder that serves as the low table used for eating or serving guests group people in the round.
The round mat often features spiral forms stemming from the center. It also comes in a series of colored concentric forms with each subsequent color band bigger than the inner preceding band. The square mats on the other hand generally feature irregular arrangements of geometric forms set off in different colors. There is hardly any correspondence in the motif found in the cloth as compared with those in the mats.
The appearance of the woven carpets from the Middle East which coincide with the intensification of the Islamization process in southern Philippines, and characterized by massive groups of pilgrims to Mecca, had slowly eased out the mats particularly from the mosque, and more use of carpets is noted. It is, however, only in Lanao that this easing out the use of the traditional mat is observed.
Tboli of Highland Mindanao
The Tboli people, viewed today, conveys the most relatively preserved material culture among the ethnic minorities in the country. In the late 1960s, they convey a downhill trend in terms of preserving their culture. The cultural pressures from the larger society as well as the Christian missionary efforts in the area has worked towards the increasing obliteration of their traditional way of life. But a major transformation started to take place in the early '70s which further intensified in the succeeding years. The major catalyst in the revitalization of the culture is the entry of the PANAMIN Foundation, which supported and greatly encouraged the revitalization of their culture by marketing traditional products from the area.
As a result, a visit to Lake Sebu in Southern Cotabato on a market day finds one in the midst of a very well preserved culture with everybody garbed traditionally complete with personal adornment seldom seen among traditional people in the country today. In the outlying areas, little has changed through the years.
The typical Tboli house has a raised dais section strictly used for sleeping. This area is generally lined with mats woven out of a locally grown reed. The reed closely resembles stripped bamboo, having a glossy outer covering which is generally resistant to dirt and fluid. The mats are generally uncolored and comes in its natural shade. But occasionally one comes across a few dyed mats. These mats are very durable. Knowing the orientation of the Tboli in protecting their traditional material culture, one could expect that the use of the mat in the area will persist for a long time.
The lush and extensive rainforest of Palawan Island that shelter the rattan vine still growing wild and in profusion makes it the perfect choice for the raw materials for the Palawan mat. The Tagbanua group which still write in a pre-Hispanic paleographic script, painstakingly align and piece together rattan strips to form their mats. The ends are carefully edged by closely weaving it with smaller rattan strips. The technology for making the Palawan mat make it the most durable of all the mats made in the country. A similar tradition is found among the Dyak people of Sarawak in Borneo, as well as the Samal of Tawi-Tawi with the latter group using such a mat as a wall decoration rather than for sleeping.
The Samar mat could indisputably claim to be the most extensively used in the country. One could find the Samar mat in the markets in Mindanao as well as in Luzon, not to mention the many islands of the Visayas. This popularity basically stems from its attractive colors as well as its highly affordable prices.
The center of mat making in the province of Samar is the town of Basey, just across the San Juanico Bridge from Tacloban. The raw material is the tikog, a grass that grows profusely in swampy places. The process is very much similar to the Maranao and the limited color use make these two traditions resemble each other in color tones. But their design differ markedly.
The Basey mat maker basically has a border design and a central motif which often is a stylized rendition of flowers such as sampaguita, gumamela, rose, or some orchid. Most of the time, the motif is always done in a contrasting color or just plain natural tikog color. The more complicated ones come in multicolored tones and correspondingly cost more. Once in a while, a mat showing the excellent likeness of a major and highly recognizable public figure, whether local or foreign, would appear. One particular practitioner in the area do this "portrait mat" - a highly specialized artistic skill which is difficult to pass on down the younger generation.
The technique for creating the design on the Basey mat could be termed as embroidery since the design is inserted after the basic plain background mat has been fully woven. The design therefore is superficial to the basic mat, just an overlay of contrasting color.
While the designing on the Basey mat is generally conventional and one comes across a design repeatedly, one particular household in Basey has ventured into new design concepts inspired by suggestions made by outsiders. Although imitative and derivative in nature, it is a sign of a growing awareness of a more open approach in designing but still using the same technique as they have always done traditionally.
The only other notable tradition in the Visayan area is the bamban mat of Iloilo. Made from the bambam reed, this otherwise less pliable mat compensates by having a natural slightly glossy finish. Always done in its natural color, the bamban mat is still extensively used throughout rural Iloilo.
The island of Romblon has a unique tradition of mat making notable for its highly delicate lace-like edges. These mats from the buri palm are used traditionally as the liner for the wedding dance performed by the newly married couple. During the dance, the couple's respective relatives vie with each other on who can throw more coins to the couple or pin paper money on their clothes. The dance stops as soon as the money throwing is finished.
The doily-like mats are not ordinarily used. Aside from the wedding dance it is only used when one has very important guests.
In Bolonao, Pangasinan the same buri material is used for mat making; a double-layered mat with one side using a plaid colored design while the reverse is kept plain.
In the Bohol area, another species of palm that has a thicker leaf is used for mat making. The Bicolanos call it karagamoy. It comes in two shades: the natural straw color and a deep brown shade achieved by soaking the material for a number of days in sea water which makes it impervious to insect attacks.
The rono reed grows abundantly in the steep hillside of the mountains of the Cordilleras. It is used in many ways such as roofing materials, fencing material, and basketry. It is also used when lashed together as a sleeping mat to line the earthen floor in the traditional Bontoc or Ifugao house. The rono is a pencil-sized reed and most people would not find it comfortable to sleep on due to its uneveness. A softer material made of bark strips that are sewn in overlays would be prepared. But making the bark strips mat takes a long time. Sometimes it is used as a mat and sometimes it could be used as a blanket to protect one's self from the highland chill.
The range of materials and design evident in the many traditions of mat making in the Philippines indicate the many adaptive approaches each culture has made relative to its environment. Each group has utilized materials that locally grow and is readily available. That they continue to use the same materials attest to the balance that they have achieved in dealing with their resources.
In terms of design, the Sulu situation deserves some comments. It is generally known that among the three ethnic groups in Sulu, the Tausug occupies a preeminent position socially; the Badjao occupies the lowest status, while the Samal occupies a status somewhere in between the two groups. The Tausug has been known for its intricate weaving in silk traditionally. The Badjao and Samal do not weave on the loom but weave mats instead. Is it a case of "cultural specialization" where a culture has to have a distinct material for its notable skills, and by extension, its sense of pride? One can only guess the answer.
The lack and limited amount of documentary research materials in most of these traditions point to an area of concern, which future researchers can focus on.
Basey, Samar's Banigan-Kawayan Festival
The Kawayan-Banigan Festival Parade is a yearly dance parade of pageantry and colorful mats, winding through the town key streets, reliving the two main source of livelihood of Basaynons – bamboo and mat weaving - through their music, dance and drama. It is celebrated every September 28 & 29.
This festival became famous when hundred of community folks paraded a one-meter wide mat and claimed now as the world’s longest mat in Fiesta feat in year 2000. Since then, the town, which has weaving as its prime industry, comes to life when it celebrates outlandishly the feast of St. Michael, its patron saint.
The highlight of the feast is the Banigan-Kawayan Festival, where the women of Basey weave a variety of intricately designed mats from sedge grass locally known as tikog (Fimbristylis miliacea). This tradition was handed down from many generations, and up to now.
Libertad, Antique's Banigan Festival
Libertad’s rich culture is showcased in a yearly Banigan Festival. The festival started 8 years ago by then Mayor Mary Jean Te. Banigan derived from the word banig (mat) the main product of the municipality. The festival’s concept is based on the importance of banig (bariw) weaving as major means of livelihood of the Libertadnons. The celebration involves various activities highlighted by the Mardi gras and esteemed Lin-ay kang Libertad, a beauty pageant which showcases the beauty, intelligence and character of Libertadnon young ladies. One of the most awaited contest’s categories of the pageant is the banig gown competition. Banigan Festival is celebrated every March 14-16.
Banig products has since gained importance prompting local officials and Libertadnons to establish the Banigan Festival to promote banig (bariw brown mats) and sub-products of banig as their One-town-One Product (OTOP). The festival also aims to encourage the banig weavers that the banig they produced could possibly turn into a highly valuable item that can be known not only in the province but also in the international market.
The Banigan festival is very popular for its banig weaving demonstration to visitors and tourists. Varieties of hats, bags, slippers and gowns made of banig are also exhibited during the festival. The celebration is also a tribute to the town's mat weavers who have preserved the priceless tradition of their forefathers.
Thus, this traditional craft remains viable and continues to flourish in the wider market, but its sustainability depends on the willingness of the skillful young generation to keep alive the tradition that is the stamp of the real Antiqueno's ingenuity, diligence and dexterity.
Badian, Cebu's Banig Festival
In celebration of Badian’s Annual Fiesta, the Banig Festival showcases the town's various handicrafts, cultures, and delicacies, focusing specifically on the native handwoven mats known as “banig.” This festival, which is observed every July 3, includes street dancing with costumes made using banig material, a trade fair showcasing the banig and other native products, and a banig-making contest.
Barangay Sapal, San Lorenzo, Guimaras' Banigan Festival
The provincial government of Guimaras showcases the various municipal and barangay celebrations during its Manggahan Festival every April 5.
The island-province boasts of at least 21 annual local celebrations ranging from municipal level fair of ‘Asinan Festival’ to the more prominent ‘Ang Pagtaltal Sa Balaan Bukid.’
Guimaras, aside from its main mango produce, also celebrates 10 barangay-level festivals. These are the Banigan Festival, Bayuhan Festival, Kadagatan Festival, Karosahan Festival, Layagan Festival, Rosas Sa Baybayon Festival, Sarangola Festival, Sibiran Festival, Pangasi Festival, and Niyogyogan Festival.
Banigan Festival focuses on the use of ‘banig’ or dried pandan leaves as mats and various handicrafts. It is celebrated every April 15 at Barangay Sapal, in the municipality of San Lorenzo.
San Juan, Ilocos Sur's Buri Festival
Also known as century plant, buri (Corypha elata Roxb.), is a palm from which three kinds of fibers (i.e., buri, raffia, and buntal) are obtained. It is locally known as silag. The buri palm has large fan-shaped leaves with stout petioles ranging from two to three meters in length. The palm reaches a height of 20 to 40 meters and its trunk has a diameter of one to 1.5 meters.
Buri is San Juan's official product registered under the One Town One Product (OTOP) program of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo.
On January 3, 2006 during the holding of the First Buri Festival, thousands of Ilocanos queued along the streets with the 2.4-kilometer long and one-meter wide buri mat. Residents consider it “a symbol of their undying love for the cottage industry that they proudly call their own.”
Though short of the earlier target of weaving a four-kilometer buri mat, they were still able to surpass the country’s unpublished world record on longest mat woven in Basey town in Samar Province six years ago.
On September 20, 2000, hundreds of people paraded a more than one-kilometer long mat as a highlight of Basey town's Banigan-Kawayan Festival. The one-meter wide mat was woven for several weeks. However, the feat was not submitted as an entry to the Guinness Book of World Records.
San Juan Mayor Benjamin Sarmiento said that they failed to achieve their target of a four-kilometer long mat because street dancers and parade revelers used up a great deal of the raw materials for their costumes.
Sarmiento said that weaving the mats started early on the second semester of the year by all local industry weavers in the town. Each weaver was assigned to weave a five-meter long with more than a meter width mat. The mats were then connected by sewing them from both sides.
San Juan Councilor Proceso Ochosa said that the First Buri Festival was meant to promote the buri industry in the local and world markets. “The launching of the longest mat is the highlight of our buri festival this year and would be staged annually with the inspiration to get the distinction of having woven the world’s longest mat and promote buri to the world market.”
They also want San Juan to be named "The Buri Capital of the Philippines” Ochosa added.
Buri palm trees are abundant in Baranggays (villages) Cacandongan, Darao, Malammin, Caronoan, Camanggaan, Immayos Norte and Barbar. Of the 32 baranggays in San Juan, half of them are engaged in the buri industry.
It's more fun in the Philippines (2012-present)
MORE FUN. This is the tourism campaign line for international audience.
HASHTAG FUN. This is the tourism campaign line for domestic use.
The two logos feature a pixelized version of a "banig" or a handwoven mat traditionally used for sleeping and sitting. Within the pixels is the Philippine map embedded in yellow.
The "banig" shows off the artistry and the superb skills of the native weavers -- a hint that the creative process in this campaign harnesses the Filipino's innate skills.
- Banig tribo.org
- Banig: A Weave of Cultural Significance ph.news.yahoo.com
- 'Banig' gets to be more than a mat to sleep on business.inquirer.net
- Banig: the Art of Mat Making ncca.gov.ph
- Festivals in the Philippines ncca.gov.ph
- Calendar of Festivities tourism.gov.ph
- Ancient town in Samar gears up for its 415th Grand Fiesta samarnews.com
- Basey aims to beat own record for the longest mat (banig) woven samarnews.com
- "Basey’s Banig Festival 2008". gerryruiz photoblog. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- Libertad antique.gov.ph
- Calendar of Festivities tourism.gov.ph
- "Badian". Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Manggahan Festival 2012: It’s more fun eating mangoes at Guimaras!". Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Guimaras Manggahan Festival 2010 showcases local celebrations". Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "At First Buri Festival Ilocano Weavers Parade World’s Longest Buri Mat". Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- New tourism campaign out: Philippines is 'fun' rappler.com