The Banjeaurine, also known as Banjourine or Banjorine, was a part of Banjo Orchestras from the 1890s to the 1930s. They have shorter necks than traditional 5-string banjos, and are tuned a 4th higher, in C. There were normally 2 of these instruments in a banjo orchestra.
A banjo manufacturer named Samuel Swaim Stewart, also called S.S., invented the banjeaurine. From Philadelphia, Stewart advertised the banjeaurine and this instrument became a critical part of banjo orchestras. The banjeaurine first hit the music scene in 1885. In banjo orchestras, the banjeaurine was responsible for the majority of the solos in musical pieces. The banjeaurine has a short neck with a scale between 19" and 20", a fretboard extension that is cantilevered over the head, and either 17 or 19 frets. It is a higher pitched version of the conventional 5 string banjo. Most banjorines, especially early ones, have rims that are 12" to 12-1/2" diameter. Later models may have 11" rims, a size which became a standard banjo rim size during the late 1920s. The top of the body is made out of skins, and has an open back without a resonator. The banjeaurine has five strings; one is shorter than the others, called a thumb string. The concept of the banjeaurine is very similar to that of the banjo.
Banjeaurines were most notably constructed by S.S. Stewart, but were offered by most major banjo manufacturers, including Washburn, Fairbanks, Fairbanks & Cole, Cole, Vega, Weyman, Schall, Thompson & Odell, Kraske, Lyon & Healy, and many others.
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