Bank of America Tower (New York City)
|Bank of America Tower|
The Bank of America Tower, with its spire, as viewed from the New York Public Library.
|Alternative names||One Bryant Park|
|Location||Sixth Avenue & 42nd Street
New York City, New York
|Architectural||365.8 m (1,200 ft)|
|Roof||287.9 m (945 ft)|
|Top floor||234.5 m (769 ft)|
|Floor count||55 (+3 basement floors) (7 mechanical)|
|Floor area||2,100,000 sq ft (200,000 m2)|
|Design and construction|
|Owner||Bank of America|
Adamson Associates Architects
|Structural engineer||Severud Associates|
|Main contractor||Tishman Construction Corporation|
Bank of America Tower at One Bryant Park is a 1,200 ft (366 m) skyscraper in the Midtown district of Manhattan in New York City, in the United States. It is located on Sixth Avenue, between 42nd and 43rd Streets, opposite Bryant Park.
The US$1 billion project was designed by COOKFOX Architects, to be one of the most efficient and ecologically friendly buildings in the world. It is the third tallest building in New York City, after One World Trade Center and the Empire State Building, and the fifth tallest building in the United States. Construction was completed in 2009.
The tower's architectural spire is 255.5 ft (77.9 m) tall and was placed on December 15, 2007. The building is 55 stories high and contains 2,100,000 square feet (195,096 m2) of office space, three escalators and a total of 52 elevators manufactured by Schindler Group – 50 to serve the offices and one leading to the transit mezzanine below ground. Several buildings were demolished to make way for the tower. Among them was the Hotel Diplomat, a 13-story structure which occupied the site at 108 West 43rd Street since 1911, and Henry Miller's Theatre, which was rebuilt and reopened under its previous location. The building's tenants include Bank of America as the anchor tenant, and the tower's platinum LEED rating and modern column-free office space has helped to entice tenants from all over the city. The Bank of America Tower is considered a worldwide model for green architecture in skyscrapers. The building is sometimes referred to as The BOAT. (Bank Of America Tower)
Environmental features 
The design of the building makes it environmentally friendly, using technologies such as floor-to-ceiling insulated glazing to contain heat and maximize natural light, and an automatic daylight dimming system. The tower also features a greywater system, which captures rainwater for reuse. Bank of America states that the building is made largely of recycled and recyclable materials. Air entering the building is filtered, as is common, but the air exhausted is cleaned as well. Bank of America Tower is the first skyscraper designed to attain a Platinum LEED Certification.
The Bank of America tower is constructed using a concrete manufactured with slag, a byproduct of blast furnaces. The mixture used in the tower concrete is 55% cement and 45% slag. The use of slag cement reduces damage to the environment by decreasing the amount of cement needed for the building, which in turn lowers the amount of carbon dioxide greenhouse gas produced through the normal cement manufacturing process. Each ton of regular cement produced creates about one ton of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Temperature control and the production of some of its energy are accomplished in an environmentally friendly manner for the tower. Insulated glazing reduces thermal loss, lowering energy consumption and increasing transparency. Carbon dioxide sensors signal increased fresh air ventilation when elevated levels of carbon dioxide are detected in the building.
Conditioned air for the occupants is provided by multiple air column units located in the tenant space that deliver 50 °F air into a raised access floor plenum. This underfloor air system provides users with the ability to control their own space temperature as well as improving the ventilation effectiveness. When building churn occurs, workstation moves can be performed more easily with lower cost and less product waste.
The cooling system produces and stores ice during off-peak hours, and allows the ice to melt to help cool the building during peak load, similar to the ice batteries in the 1995 Hotel New Otani in Tokyo, Japan. Ice batteries have been used since absorption chillers first made ice commercially available 150 years ago, before the invention of the electric light bulb.
Water conservation features in the tower include waterless urinals, which are estimated to save 8,000,000 US gal (30,000,000 l) of water per year and reduce CO2 emissions by 144,000 lb (65,000 kg) per year (as calculated with the Pacific Institute water-to-air model). The tower has a 4.6-megawatt cogeneration plant, which provides part of the base-load energy requirements. Onsite power generation reduces the significant electrical transmission losses that are typical of central power production plants.
When comparing building height, only the structural height is used according to rules and regulations of the World Council on Tall Buildings. Currently, the New York Times Building and the Chrysler Building are tied for the position of the third tallest buildings in New York City. With the architectural spire included, the structural height of the Bank of America Tower is 1,200 ft (370 m), making it the second tallest building in New York City (after the Empire State Building).
|One World Trade Center||1,776 ft (541 m)||1,368 ft (417 m)|
|Empire State Building||1,472 ft (449 m)||1,250 ft (380 m)|
|Bank of America Tower||1,200 ft (370 m)||953.5 ft (290.6 m)|
|Chrysler Building||1,046 ft (319 m)||925 ft (282 m)|
|New York Times Building||1,046 ft (319 m)||748 ft (228 m)|
A formal ruling by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat has been released, confirming this.
Construction incidents 
Since 2006, materials fell from the building on two occasions:
- August 12, 2008: A 1,500-pound (680 kg) glass panel fell onto a sidewalk. Two people suffered minor injuries.
- September 17, 2008: A debris container fell, shattered a panel of glass facade, and caused several pieces of glass to fall from the 50th floor to the sidewalk and street (West 42nd and Sixth Avenue) at around 3 p.m. No one was injured.
See also 
- Buildings and architecture of New York City
- List of tallest buildings in New York City
- Tallest buildings in the United States
- "Bank of America Tower - The Skyscraper Center". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.
- Bank of America Tower (New York City) at Emporis
- Bank of America Tower (New York City) at Glass Steel and Stone
- Bank of America Tower (New York City) at SkyscraperPage
- Bank of America Tower (New York City) at Structurae
- C.J. Hughes (5 November 2008). "New Skyscraper Stars in National Geographic Show". Architectural Record (archrecord.construction.com). Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-27.
- Wiki episode list on tv series MegaStructures
- "CTBUH 9th Annual Awards, 2010". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 2007-06-15.
- One Bryant Park. Van Deusen & Associates. Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
- David W. Dunlap (7 November 1993). "An Aging Midtown Hotel That Will Not Go Gently". The New York Times (NYTimes.com). Retrieved 2011-08-10.
- "Bank of America and The Durst Organization Break Ground On the Bank of America Tower at One Bryant Park in New York City" (Press release). Bank of America Corporation. 2004-08-02. Archived from the original on 23 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-19.
- Richard A. Cook with Alice Hartley (2005-06-06). "What is Free?": How Sustainable Architecture Act and Interacts Differently. United Nations. Archived from the original on 28 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-19.
- "EF Technology". U.S. Concrete, Inc. Archived from the original on 5 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- "Ice-cooling System Reduces Environmental Burden". The New Otani News. New Otani Co.,Ltd. 2000-06-28. Archived from the original on 7 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Gearoid Foley, Robert DeVault, Richard Sweetser. "The Future of Absorption Technology in America". U.S. DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Archived from the original on 28 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Pacific Institute. "Water to Air Models". Retrieved 2008-06-13.
- "Times Square Wishes Blog".[dead link]
- "One Bryant Park". New York Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2008-09-11.[dead link]
- Wood, Anthony (2007-05-04). "Existing Height Criteria & Issues". CTBUH Tall Building Height Criteria – International Meeting. Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois: Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. pp. 4. http://www.ctbuh.org/Documents/CTBUH_HeightCriteria_Issues.doc. Retrieved 2007-10-19.
- "Photo of Bank of America Tower: Elevations". Emporis. Cook + Fox Architects, LLP. 2005-09-04. Retrieved 2007-10-19.
- "100 tallest completed buildings in the world". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. 2011-02-03. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
- Hauser, Christine (2008-08-12). "At a Midtown Intersection, Another Sheet of Glass Falls". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
- "Glass Falls 50 Floors From Midtown Building". NY 1. 2008-09-17. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
Further reading 
- Dirk Stichweh: New York Skyscrapers. Prestel Publishing, Munich, 2009, ISBN 3-7913-4054-9
- Bank of America press release on the tower
- The Durst Organization press release on the tower
- COOKFOX Architects
- Bank of America Tower on CTBUH Skyscraper Center
- Wirednewyork.com site photos
- The Site Selection report on the tower
- The Bank of America - Megastructure at One Bryant Park
-  Photo of bank of America tower - Times Square Wishes Blog
- National Geographic Channel - "Man-Made: Ultimate Skyscraper" (Television Episode)