Banknotes of the New Zealand dollar

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This article concerns the banknotes of the New Zealand dollar.

History[edit]

Banknotes of the New Zealand dollar have all been issued by the Reserve Bank. Consequently the numbering of RB banknote issues commences from the pre-dollar pound issues. So the first dollar issue is the Third Issue of banknotes by the Reserve Bank.

First and Second issues: Pre-dollar[edit]

Main article: New Zealand pound

Prior to 10 July 1967, the New Zealand pound, using the £sd system, was the main currency of New Zealand. Since 1934, banknotes of the New Zealand pound were issued by the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, and came in denominations of 10s, £1, £5, £10, and £50.

Third issue: 1967 - 1981[edit]

Decimalisation of the New Zealand currency occurred on 10 July 1967, when the New Zealand pound was replaced by the New Zealand dollar at a rate of one pound to two dollars (10 shillings to a dollar). On the same day, new decimal banknotes were introduced to replace the existing pound banknotes, in denominations of $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, and $100.

These first decimal banknotes all featured a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, the Queen of New Zealand, on the obverse. The reverse featured a native New Zealand bird and a native New Zealand plant. The colour scheme on all but the $5 note (which was an entirely new denomination, worth £2 10s) remained the same on equivalent pound and dollar notes to ease the transition (e.g. £10 and $20 were both green).

Fourth issue: 1981 - 1991[edit]

The second issue of New Zealand dollar banknotes occurred in 1981, when the Reserve Bank changed the printer from De La Rue to Bradbury, Wilkinson & Co. The new notes had a different design from the first decimal currency issue. The portrait of Queen Elizabeth II was updated, and she now faced forward, rather than to the left. It was based upon a photograph by Peter Grugeon, with the Queen wearing Grand Duchess Vladimir's tiara and Queen Victoria's golden jubilee necklace.[1]

The $50 note was introduced in 1983 to fill the long gap between the $20 and the $100 notes. $1 and $2 notes were discontinued in 1991 and replaced by gold-coloured coins. Requests for a donation (koha) eg for admission often now say gold coin please.

Fifth issue: 1991 - 1999[edit]

In 1991, the existing $1 and $2 notes were withdrawn ($1 and $2 coins had been introduced in the previous year) and all the other banknotes were redesigned. The new series featured notable New Zealanders on the obverse, with the exception of the $20 note, which still featured the Queen, while the reverse sides were redesigned to incorporate a natural New Zealand scene, with a native New Zealand bird in the foreground. The Queen replaced Captain Cook as the image for the watermark.

A notable feature of the new series was the inclusion of the portrait of Sir Edmund Hillary on the obverse of the $5 note. Hillary was one of the few living non-heads of state to ever feature on a banknote in the world, and this remained true until his death on 11 January 2008.

The banknote redesign was needed because when the Reserve Bank governor Don Brash told the existing printer that the bank proposed to put the printing of banknotes (its largest cost) out to tender, the firm said that they owned the copyright on the plates. "Apparently, when we went to decimal currency in 1967, somebody in the Treasury or the Reserve Bank had signed away the copyright of the New Zealand banknotes to a company in Whangarei, in perpetuity". So the only way out of a hopeless bargaining position was to redesign the banknotes. The Whangarei firm was a subsidiary of a British company, and after going out to tender the same Whangarei company won, but this time the price per note was substantially less.[2]

Sixth issue: 1999 - present[edit]

In 1999, New Zealand changed from paper banknotes to polymer banknotes. The change increased the life of the banknotes fourfold, and also allowed new and improved security features to prevent counterfeiting. The overall design of the notes remained unchanged albeit for slight modifications for the new security features.

In 2000, a commemorative $10 note was issued for the new millennium.

Seventh issue: 2015[edit]

In July 2011, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand announced a new issue of banknotes will be released for circulation from 2015. The new issue will use the same basic designs as the fifth and sixth note issues, but the overall look will be refreshed and the security features will be upgraded. [3][4]

Current banknotes[edit]

These banknotes are in regular circulation as of October 2014.

Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of issue
Obverse Reverse Watermark
$5 135 × 66 mm Orange Edmund Hillary
Aoraki/Mount Cook
Ferguson TE20 tractor
Campbell Island scene
Hoiho (Yellow-eyed Penguin)
Ross Lily
Pleurophyllum speciosum(Campbell Island Daisy)
Bull kelp
Queen Elizabeth II 1999
$10 140 × 68 mm Blue Kate Sheppard
White camellia flowers
River scene
Whio (Blue Duck)
Parahebe catarractae
Blechnum fern
$20 145 × 70 mm Green Elizabeth II, Queen of New Zealand
New Zealand Parliament Buildings
New Zealand alpine scene
Karearea (New Zealand falcon)
Marlborough rock daisy
Flowering red tussock
Mount Tapuaenuku
$50 150 × 72 mm Purple Sir Apirana Ngata
Porourangi Meeting House
Conifer broadleaf forest scene
Kōkako (Blue wattled crow)
Supplejack (kareao)
Sky-blue mushroom
$100 155 × 74 mm Red Lord Rutherford of Nelson
Nobel Prize medal
Beech forest scene
Mohua (Yellowhead)
Red Beech
South Island lichen moth
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre.

Past banknotes[edit]

Due to changes in printer, designs, and base material, there have been several designs on New Zealand banknotes. With the exception of the demonetised $1 and $2 notes, all decimal notes are still legal tender, although it is rare to see them in regular circulation.

Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Issue Withdrawal
$1 140 × 70 mm Brown Queen Elizabeth II Piwakawaka (New Zealand fantail)
New Zealand clematis
Captain James Cook 10 July 1967 1991
NZ One Dollar bill.png 1981
$2 145 × 72.5 mm Mauve Titipounamu (Rifleman)
Mistletoe
10 July 1967
NZ Dollar Two bill.png 1981
[1] $5 150 × 75 mm Orange Tui
Kowhai
10 July 1967 still legal tender
NZ Dollar Five.png 1981
135 × 66 mm (as today) (as today) (as today) 1992 Paper version of today's note
[2] $10 155 × 77.5 mm Blue Queen Elizabeth II Kea
Mount Cook lily
Captain James Cook 10 July 1967
1981
140 × 68 mm (as today) (as today) (as today) 1992 Paper version of today's note
NZ 1967 twenty dollar obverse.jpg $20 160 × 80 mm Green Queen Elizabeth II Kereru (wood pigeon)
Miro
Captain James Cook 10 July 1967
1981
145 × 70 mm (as today) (as today) (as today) 1992 Paper version of today's note
$50 160 × 80 mm Orange/Mango Queen Elizabeth II Morepork (ruru)
Pōhutukawa
Captain James Cook 1983
150 × 72 mm Purple (as today) (as today) (as today) 1992 Paper version of today's note
[3] $100 160 × 80 mm Crimson Queen Elizabeth II Takahe
Pekapeka (mountain daisy)
Captain James Cook 10 July 1967
1981
155 × 74 mm Red (as today) (as today) (as today) 1992 Paper version of today's note

Commemorative banknotes[edit]

In October 1999, a commemorative $10 note was issued for the new millennium. The note demonstrated the security features that were possible with polymer banknotes, which were being introduced into general circulation at the time.

Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description [5] Date of issue
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark
$10 140 × 68 mm Blue The Journey - Socially and Technologically
A Māori waka to represent the Māori migration to New Zealand around 1000 AD; binary digits and satellite dish to represent the digital age
The Kiwi Spirit - A Sense of Adventure
Several images representing the Kiwi lifestyle
A Māori carved face October 1999

Security features[edit]

New Zealand's banknotes incorporate many security features to prevent counterfeiting. The use of polymer makes the current series of banknotes very difficult and expensive to counterfeit due to the vast array of security features.

Some of the security features are:

  • There are two transparent windows in the note. The transparent window on the centre right side (when looking at the obverse) is oval-shaped and contains the denomination of the currency (5, 10, 20, etc.) embossed in the transparent section. The transparent window on the left hand side is in the shape of a curved fern leaf.
  • There is a curved fern leaf directly above the transparent fern on both sides of the note. When held up to a light source, the fern on one side should match perfectly with the fern on the other side.
  • When the note is held up to a light source, a watermark image of Queen Elizabeth II should be seen in the area to the left (when looking at the obverse) of the transparent oval.
  • When running your finger across the note, you should be able to feel the raised printing.
  • Tiny micro-printed letters, reading “RBNZ”, should be visible with a magnifying glass in the bottom right of the note (in the band between the person and the denomination).
  • The images on the note should appear sharp and well defined, not fuzzy and washed out.
  • The serial number of the note should be printed both horizontally and vertically on the note, and both numbers should be the same.
  • Under ultra-violet light, the note should appear dull, except for a patch on the front showing the denomination of the note that glows under UV light.
  • The note should feel plastic, not paper.
  • The note should be very difficult to tear without the aid of scissors. However, once a rip is initiated, the note should tear very easily.
  • The first two numerals of the serial number represent the year of printing (e.g. note AA05000001 was printed in 2005). The Reserve Bank Governor's signature in the top left corner should match the governor in office at time of printing - Donald T Brash for notes printed 1999 (99) to 2002 (02), Alan Bollard for notes printed 2003 (03) to 2012 (12), and Graeme Wheeler from 2013 (13) onwards.

Damaged notes[edit]

The Reserve Bank accepts all New Zealand currency for payment at face value. This applies to all demonetised or withdrawn currency, however such currency need not be accepted by money changers as this is no longer legal tender. All decimal notes are legal tender except $1 and $2 notes as these have been withdrawn.

Damaged notes are still usable so long as they are recognisable. In particular, the legibility of the note's serial numbers is important. The Reserve Bank website notes that as a rule of thumb if there is more than half a bank note they will pay its full value. In practise banks may pay a quarter of the value for every visible denomination figure on the note, of which there are four. For instance, if a $5 note is ripped in half vertically, two "5" symbols will still be visible on each half, and the amount exchanged will $2.50 for each. To receive payment people can return in the note to any commercial bank or the Reserve Bank in Wellington.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Linzmayer, Owen (2012). "New Zealand". The Banknote Book. San Francisco, CA: www.BanknoteNews.com. 
  2. ^ Goldsmith, Paul (2005). Brash: A Biography. Auckland: Penguin. pp. 208–9. ISBN 0143019678. 
  3. ^ Rutherford, Hamish (21 July 2011). "NZ bank notes to be 'refreshed'". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  4. ^ "New banknotes from 2014: Bollard". The New Zealand Herald. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  5. ^ "Commemorative $10 Bank Note: An Explanation of Design". Reserve Bank of New Zealand. 1999-09-15. Archived from the original on 24 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-27. 
  6. ^ Notes & coins frequently asked questions