The Trinity Square (Trojičné námestie) in Banská Štiavnica
|Elevation||600 m (1,969 ft)|
|Area||46.378 km2 (18 sq mi)|
|Density||230 / km2 (596 / sq mi)|
|- summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||969 01|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Name||Historic Town of Banská Štiavnica and the Technical Monuments in its Vicinity|
|Region||Europe and North America|
|Wikimedia Commons: Banská Štiavnica|
Banská Štiavnica ( pronunciation (help·info); German: Schemnitz, Hungarian: Selmecbánya - often the short form is used: Selmec; Turkish: Şelmec Ban'a) is a town in central Slovakia, in the middle of an immense caldera created by the collapse of an ancient volcano. For its size, the caldera is known as Štiavnica Mountains. Banská Štiavnica has a population of more than 10,000. It is a completely preserved medieval town. Because of their historical value, the town and its surroundings were proclaimed by the UNESCO to be a World Heritage Site on December 11, 1993.
The fate of Banská Štiavnica has been closely linked to the exploitation of its abundant resources of silver ore. According to evidence from excavations, the site was settled during the Neolithic period.
The first mining settlement was founded by Celts in the 3rd century BC. It was probably occupied by the Celtic Cotini tribe. Roman authors mentioned mining activities of the Cotini, who had lived in present-day central Slovakia until they were deported to Pannonia within the Marcomannic Wars by Rome. The site was also settled by early Slavs and a Slavic fortified settlement was situated here in the 10th and 11th century. The site was called “terra banensium” (the land of miners) as early as in 1156. Domestic population gave to the settlement in the valley name „Štiavnica“ (the acidic stream), the settlement above on the hill Ligotavá hora (Glanzenberg – The shiny mountain) they called „Bana“ (the mine). In 1255 it is for the first time documented the single common name „Schebnyzbana“. The domestic Slavic population was joined by skilled German settlers who started arriving in the 13th century. They adopted domestic name into German name "Schemnitz". Banská Štiavnica gained the status of a royal town in 1238, as one of the first towns in the Kingdom of Hungary.
In the High and Late Middle Ages, the town was the main producer of silver and gold in the Kingdom of Hungary. During the Ottoman Wars, the Turks made concerted efforts to conquer rich mining towns in Upper Hungary (Banská Štiavnica, Banská Bystrica, and Kremnica). This new threat led Banská Štiavnica to build powerful fortifications, including two castles, in the 16th century. As one of the most important centers of Protestant Reformation in the country, the town belonged to the Protestant "League of Seven Mining Towns" together with Banská Belá, Banská Bystrica, Kremnica, Ľubietová, Nová Baňa, and Pukanec.
The town was also a foremost center of innovation in mining industry. In 1627, gunpowder was used here for the first time in the world in a mine. To drain water from the flooded mines, a sophisticated system of water reservoirs and channels, known as tajchy, was designed and built by the local scientists Jozef Karol Hell, Maximilian Hell, and Samuel Mikovíny in the 18th century. Tajchy not only saved the mines from being closed, but also provided energy for the early industrialization.
In 1735, the first mining school in the Kingdom of Hungary was founded there by Samuel Mikovíny. Beginning in 1763, the Hofkammer in Vienna, with support from Queen Maria Theresa, transformed the school into the Academy of Mining. In 1807, a Forestry Institute was "established under the decision of Emperor Franz I"; in 1848 the school was renamed the Academy of Mining and Forestry, 'the first technical university in the world'. In 1919, after the creation of Czechoslovakia, the Academy was moved to Sopron in Hungary. The student traditions of the Academy are still living in its successors, the University of Miskolc, and colleges in Sopron, Székesfehérvár, and Dunaújváros.
In 1782, Banská Štiavnica was the third biggest town in the Kingdom of Hungary (with 23,192 or incl. suburbs 40,000 inhabitants), after Pozsony (today Bratislava) and Debrecen. But the town’s development was too closely linked to the mining activity which had been progressively declining since the second half of the 19th century. Nowadays, Banská Štiavnica is an important center of recreation and tourism, benefiting from its rich historical heritage.
The heart of the town is the historical Trinity Square (Slovak: Trojičné námestie) dominated by a monumental plague column. The square is used for frequent cultural events and there is also a mineralogical museum. Two castles, the so-called “old” one (Slovak: Starý zámok) and “new” one (Slovak: Nový zámok), have been transformed into museums.
The open air mining museum offers a two kilometers long underground excursion in mines dated to the 17th century. Another ancient mine open to the public (Slovak: Glanzenberg) is even older. This mine, situated just under the center of the town, has attracted numerous famous visitors, from Emperor Joseph II to Prince Albert of Monaco.
The town is surrounded by ancient artificial mining water reservoirs called tajchy. Sixty reservoirs were built in the 15th through 18th centuries in order to provide energy for the booming mining industry. They are connected by a more than 100-kilometres long network of channels. These extraordinary historical monuments are now used mainly for recreation.
Banská Štiavnica has a population of 10,674 (as of December 31, 2005). According to the 2001 census, 93.9% of inhabitants were Slovaks and 2% Roma people. Many people are descendants of the Carpathian Germans, who played a very important role in the medieval history of the town. The religious makeup was 65% Roman Catholics, 18.9% people with no religious affiliation, and 7.6% Lutherans.
- Ulrika Babiaková, (Slovak) astronomer
- Jozef Karol Hell,(Hungarian) inventor and mining engineer
- Maximilian Hell, (Hungarian) astronomer
- Dezo Hoffmann, (Hungarian) photographer
- Anton Hykisch, (Slovak) writer, diplomat and politician
- Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin, (Austrian) scientist
- Andrej Kmeť, (Slovak) scientist
- Domokos Kosáry, (Hungarian) historian
- Ľudovít Lačný, (Slovak) chess problem composer
- Master MS (Sebestyén), (Hungarian) painter
- Samuel Mikovíny, (Hungarian) mathematician, engineer, and cartographer
- Alexander Pituk, (Hungarian) chess problem composer
- Emília Vášáryová, (Slovak) movie and stage actress
- Magda Vášáryová, (Slovak) actress and diplomat
Twin towns — Sister cities
Banská Štiavnica is twinned with:
The records for genealogical research are available at the state archive, "Statny Archiv in Banska Bystrica, Slovakia"
- Roman Catholic church records (births/marriages/deaths): 1627-1892 (parish A)
- Lutheran church records (births/marriages/deaths): 1594-1925 (parish A)
- Banská Štiavnica / history / middleage
- Memorial plaque, Academy of Mining and Forestry.
- "Slovakia in the UNESCO Treasury - Banská Štiavnica". Cestaunesco.sk. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- Municipal Statistics from the Statistical Office of the Slovak republic
- Bozsoki, Agnes. "Partnervárosok Névsora Partner és Testvérvárosok Névsora" [Partner and Twin Cities List]. City of Székesfehérvár (in Hungarian). Archived from the original on 2012-12-08. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Banská Štiavnica.|
- Official website of Banská Štiavnica
- Map of Banská Štiavnica
- Tourist information about Banská Štiavnica
- History of Banská Štiavnica
- Banská Štiavnica Photo Gallery
- The Calvary Mount of Banská Štiavnica
- Surnames of living people in Banska Stiavnica