|Area||11,071 ha (27,360 acres) excluding other islands|
|Length||16 km (9.9 mi)|
|Width||11 km (6.8 mi)|
|Highest elevation||30 m (100 ft)|
|Region||Central Visayas (Region VII)|
|Population||114314 excluding other islands (as of 2010)|
|Density||1,030 /km2 (2,670 /sq mi)|
Bantayan Island is an island located in the Visayan Sea, Philippines. It is situated to the west of the northern end of Cebu Island, across the Tañon Strait. As per the 2010 census, Bantayan has a total population of 136,960.
The island is administratively divided into three municipalities:
- Bantayan, Cebu (the largest municipality, covering the central part)
- Madridejos, Cebu (covering the northern portion)
- Santa Fe, Cebu (covering the eastern portion)
- 1 Island group
- 2 Commerce
- 3 Language
- 4 Transport
- 5 History
- 6 Culture
- 7 Natural environment
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Bantayan is the main and largest island of the Bantayan island group that lies close to the geographical centre of the Philippine Islands archipelago. The island group includes numerous smaller islands, of which the more notable are:[a]
- Biyagayag Islands (Daku and Diot)
- Botique Island (or Botigues, Batquis)
- Botong Island
- Doong Island
- Hilutungan Island (or Hilotongan, Lutungan)
- Hilantagaan Island (or Jicantangan, Cabalauan)
- Lipayran Island
- Moambuc Island (or Maamboc, Moamboc, Kangka Abong, Cangcabong)
- Mambacayao Island (or Mambacayao Daku)
- Panitugan Island (or Banitugan)
- Patao Island (or Polopolo)
- Panangatang Island (or Pintagan)
- Sagasay Islands (or Sagasa, Tagasa)
- Silagon Island
- Hilantagaan Diot (or Silion, Pulo Diyot (little island))
- Yao Islet (or Mambacayao Diot)
In addition, Guintacan Island (or Kinatarkan, Batbatan) to the NE is part of Santa Fe municipality although it is not part of the Bantayan islands group.
About 20 of these islets stretch for about 8 kilometres (5 miles) south and southwest with some being accessible by foot from the main island at low tide. The islands are beside the busy shipping lanes for ships and ferries coming from Mindanao or Cebu City on their way to Manila. The islands are all small and green and low, virtually indistinguishable one from another.
Bantayan islands are considered Cebu’s fishing ground from where boatloads of fish – guinamos (salted fish) and buwad (dried fish) – are transported daily to Cebu City and Negros for consumption and further distribution to as far as Mindanao and Manila. Equally important is the thriving poultry industry with hundreds of thousands of chicken eggs produced daily.
The Bantayan dialect is mostly a mixture of Visayan languages, principally native Cebuano language (Cebu), Hiligaynon language (Negros), Waray-Waray language (Samar), Masbateño language (Masbate) and Ilongo language(Iloilo). However it has words it can call its own such as "kakyop, sara, buwas" (yesterday, today, tomorrow). Kakyop is derived from Waray-waray's Kakulop.
The island can be reached via ferry services from Hagnaya, San Remigio,Cebu to Sta.Fe, and from Estancia, Iloilo and Sagay and Cadiz City, Negros Occidental to Bantayan. Bantayan Airport handles infrequent flights from chartered planes usually arriving from Mactan‑Cebu International Airport.
Goods are shipped through Bantayan municipal dock. There is also a small dock in barangay Baigad capable of handling small pumpboats. However is in a very poor state of repair, and hasn't handled any vessel since 2007. There two lightstations on the island, one within Bantayan municipality and one within Madridejos municipality.[b]
There are almost no physical records nor evidence to indicate when the first people came to Bantayan, nor their places of origin. Some believe they can be traced back to Panay, others believe that the bulk of them were of Cebuano origin, and still others say they came from Leyte and Bohol.
Writing in 1588, Domingo de Salazar reported: "The island of Bantayan is small and densely populated. It has more than eight hundred tributarios, most of them Christians. The Augustinians who had them in charge have abandoned them also, and they are now without instruction. This island is twenty leagues from Zubu."(p41)
Religious were established in the island of Bantayan, located between the island of Panay and that of Sugbú,[d] but farther from that of Panay. However, if one wishes to go to the island of Sugbú without sailing in the open sea, he may coast from islet to islet, although the distance across is not greater than one or one and one-half leguas.[e] These Bantayan islets are numerous, and are all low and very small. The largest is the above-named one. When Ours acquired it, it had many inhabitants, all of very pleasing appearance, and tall and well-built. But now it is almost depopulated by the ceaseless invasions from Mindanao and Jológ.
He goes on to say:
This island has a village called Hilingigay, which it is said was the source of all the Bisayan Indians who have peopled these shores, and whose language resembles that of Hilingigay.
We can deduce connections between Bantayan and all those places from the mixed dialects spoken by the people, and their ancient culture such as cloth weaving, dance and architecture. In addition certain old-established Hispanic family names are associated with certain locations:
- Rubio, Arcenaz, Alvarez
- Rodriguez, Ancaja, Mansueto, Villacruz
- Villacin, Villaflor, Otega, Carabio
- Hubahib, Garcia, Caquilla
The majority of the old inhabitants, however, agree that they are a mixture of all these, a product of different blood and cultures.
There is little documentary evidence of life and culture before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores. What we know of them is gathered from handed-down accounts.
The early people were said to be timid. They didn’t travel and knew little of places away from their homes. They wore little clothing because the climate didn’t need it. The abundance of fish, wild games, wild fruits and tuber like BA-AY, HAGMANG (wild yam), BAILACOG, and KIOT, made the people do little more than make clearings on which to plant corn, camote (sweet potato) and other vegetables. Large and small trees grew and spread, shading the ground all year round with their heavy foliage. Vines and creepers climbed the trees hanging from bough to bough; cultivation of open land was difficult.
The Spanish period
During the period 1565–1898 the Philippines was a Spanish colony, part of the Spanish East Indies.
The parish church was established in 1580 – as an encomienda of the heir of Don Pedro de Gamboa some time in 1591, Bantayan's population totalled 683 tributes representing 6732 persons.(p132)
Derivation of name
During the time of 22nd Governor-General Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera,[f] the Visayans were continually harassed by the Moros who came on raids to capture slaves. Consequently, tall stone walls and watchtowers were built in different parts of the archipelago, for refuge and protection from Moro aggression.
Popular folklore says that these watchtowers were known locally as "Bantayan sa Hari", meaning "Watchtowers of the King", and they served as look-outs for incoming vintas (Moro pirate vessels). In the course of their vigil, it became common to say, "Bantayan! Bantayan!", meaning, "Keep watch! Keep watch!", and that was how this island-group got its name.
In all there were 18 watchtowers built on the Bantayan islands. Most have not survived, although relics can be seen to this day.[g]
That at Madridejos is in fair condition, that at Santa Fe less so. There is a particularly fine example on Doong island.
In his "Statement of the Annual Incomes and Sources of Profit of His Majesty in These Philipinas Islands" for the year 1608, Pedro de Caldierva de Mariaca declares the tributes (tax) from Bantayan and Bohol combined amount to 2400 gold pesos.(p246)[h]
Don José Basco y Vargas was Governor-General of the Philippines from July 1778 until September 1787. During his period in office, he pioneered many projects for the encouragement of agriculture and industries. However many small industries in the islands were completely abandoned because the people were forced to work on building roads, public buildings and churches. Those enforcing were called politas.[i]
The abundance of fish, favourable climate and virgin soil then greatly determined the occupation of the people. These geographical factors became strong stimuli for the people to be fishermen, farmers and sailors. Much later, the small clearings were expanded to fields.
The old Spanish roads connecting Santa Fe, Bantayan, and Madridejos were constructed chiefly through the services of labour and partly supported by the tribute funds.
When the Spaniards came to Bantayan, the people already had some form of religious convictions and worship, such as animism, shamanism, evocation and magic. They easily conceived the idea of evil spirits, good spirits, witches and ghosts. In order to please these imaginary creatures people often resorted to charms, vows, sacrifices and self-harm. It was a common belief among the illiterate people of the past that cholera and other fatal diseases were caused by poison which an evil spirit had put into the wells and that the people could be saved from the dreaded disease only by chanting prayer and holding processions.
The cooperation between the church and the state did not last very long. Quarrels between the church and the state ensued. There was struggle for political power, from the Governor-General down to the alcalde mayors on one hand and from the archbishop to the friars on the other. Because of this, projects for improvements were all paralysed.
The American period
On 4 January 1899, following the defeat of Spain in the Spanish–American War, a new government was born to the Philippines. With instructions from President McKinley, General Otis who commanded the US Army in the Philippines declared that the American sovereignty must be recognized without condition. This was the beginning of the American period.
This island-group did not taken any active part in the revolution against Spain or America. However, after the Filipino–American War, a reactionary group was organized, headed by Patorete of Santa Fe, then still a barrio of Bantayan. Their announced purpose was to resist the invaders, but the armed goons carried a campaign of terror burning the northern part of Santa Fe, plundering and forcing Capitan Miroy and Aguido Batabalonos to join them. This resulted in great fear and tension among the inhabitants.
The condition of the barrios, after the overthrow and immediately preceding the arrival of the Americans, in general, was very far from satisfactory. Sanitation was entirely a stranger; barrio life was dreadful. There were few signs of improvement among the people since their primitive ancestors.
The subdivision of the province of Cebu was developed utilizing the method introduced by Spain. A new provincial law had been enacted in 1895 and necessary appointments were then made. At that time, Bantayan was already organized as pueblo. Santa Fe was organized as such in 1911 and Madridejos in 1917. These pueblos were given a new corporate form under the Municipal Council chosen by a limited native electorate. For the local head of the administration, the title Presidente took the place of the former Gobernadorcillo or Capitan[j]
Committed to the task of administering the newly organized municipal governments were the first presidentes of the three towns comprising the island-group namely: Gregorio Escario for Bantayan, Vicente Bacolod for Madridejos and Casimiro Batiancila for Santa Fe. Political parties were formally organized since the early days of the American regime. Partido Liberal came towards the end of 1900. Pascual Poblete founded the Partido Independista in 1902.
During the administration of Governor-General Luke E. Wright (1904–1906), the public road policy was inaugurated. Little by little the stage trails were changed to roads of more durable construction. Late in 1913 the construction of Santa Fe – Bantayan road began and in 1918 the Bantayan – Madridejos road followed; both were completed in 1924.
Then and now, fishing and farming were important industries of the people, but from the year 1903 to 1925, weaving of piña cloth and the gathering of maguey (agave) fibre were very lucrative pursuits of the people. Over the years demand for these products weakened and died out. At about the same, hand embroidery termed as "spare time industry" came in. A good number of women adopted it and were actively engaged in it for some years. The local output was quite significant. In 1923, because of weak and unsettled market conditions, particularly in Manila, the business gradually disappeared.
Gregorio Zaide described the Philippine national characteristic as "pliant, like bamboo, bending in the wind without breaking". This might explain the war-time actions of the then mayor Isidro Escario, who had himself rowed out to meet a fleet of Japanese warships where he treated with them: Bantayan was not invaded and the war basically passed it by.
Years ago, poultry raising was mainly a backyard affair. Today it has grown into a large scale and highly specialized industry. Big poultry farms are located near the national and feeder roads. In excess of one million chickens are kept in yards and specially constructed barns with more than half a million eggs gathered every day. These eggs are exported to Cebu, Manila, and Mindanao and other towns and cities in the Visayas. This industry, along with copra making, tubâ gathering and fishing, has helped Bantayan solve its unemployment problem.
Public high schools on Bantayan are located in the municipalities of Bantayan, Santa Fe and Madridejos as well as on Doong island. There are also private high schools and tertiary colleges such as Bantayan Southern Institute and Salazar College
As is common through the Philippines, 'sport' is synonymous with cock-fighting. It is an unusual sport in that the winner dies as well as the loser. Large sums are bet on the outcome of a fight which usually lasts little more than one minute.
The birds themselves can look magnificent for their few brief moments of stardom, with purple-black plumage and a gold ruff.
There are several sports centres (cockpits) on the island. Smaller puroks just have an open-air arena.
|1580||The Augustinians established the Parish of Bantayan as a convent under the patronage of La Asuncion de Nuestra Señora (The Ascension of Our Lady), a mission-station of the friars in the Visayas and thus the first parish in Cebu province and one of the few parishes still in existence which were once a part of the Archdiocese of Mexico.|
|1603||The Augustinians relinquished the administration of the church to the secular clergy. During the time of Bishop Pedro de Arce, Daan Bantayan (also Daanbantayan) and the nearby villages located in northern Cebu were placed under the administration of the parish,[k] followed by the island of Maripipi.|
|1628||The biggest Moro attack took place when a fleet of vintas attacked, killing or abducting more than 800 natives mostly from the village of Hilingigay, now Barangay Suba, and burning down the church.[l] Juan de Medina wrote that the priest and a few Spanish residents tried to defend but had to run and hide after running out of ammunition.|
|1754||Moro raid left the church and community in ashes.|
|1778||The old Spanish roads linking Santa Fe, Bantayan and Madridejos were constructed through forced labour.[i]|
|1790–1796||Severe famine after crop failure. Not even a grain of corn could be had but the people subsisted upon amorseko (crab grass) [m] which continuously grew on the nipa walls of their houses.|
|1860||The first casa real was constructed (now Municipal Hall).|
|1864||Following the Education Decree of 1863, the first Spanish school (for boys) was established under the direct supervision of the curate where religious instruction was instilled.|
|1880–1890||Smallpox epidemic devastated the island|
|1894||The entire barrio of Ticad was razed to the ground by fire. Only the stumps of the posts could be seen above the ground.|
|1906||The first bicycle came to Bantayan, owned by Leon Villacrusis. It was imported from Manila. The first bicycle imported from Japan was owned by Dr. Mabugat.[o]|
|1908||Smallpox epidemic, eventually controlled by complete vaccination.|
|1910||The first motorized boat, MV Carmela, was owned by Yap Tico.[p] It served the Bantayan–Cebu route. It also brought merchandise to and from Bantayan until it was destroyed by the typhoon of 1912.|
|1912||Typhoon, which took hundreds of lives in addition to work animals and agricultural crops that were destroyed.|
|1913||Construction of the present Bantayan–Santa Fe road began.|
|1915||As a result of Public Act 1801, [q] the main building of Bantayan Central School was built.|
|1918||Construction of the Bantayan–Madridejos road began.|
|1923||The first car came to Bantayan island – a second-hand Dodge owned by Kapitan Casimiro Batiancila of Santa Fe.|
|1924||The whole road construction project linking Santa Fe, Bantayan and Madridejos ended.|
|1927||Bantayan Postal Office was opened within the Municipal Building.|
|1935||Beer was first distributed in Bantayan.|
|1961||Oil explorers came to Bantayan to dig the first oil well somewhere within Patao and Kabac.(rows 207 ff)|
|1973||Fire broke out which destroyed almost the whole section of Suba, razed the entire public market and rendered more than 700 families homeless.|
|1978||Death of Isidro R. Escario, who had been mayor of Bantayan since 1937 apart from the war. His funeral procession and wake drew thousands: people were seen queueing one kilometre away from the wake.|
|1997||Death of Antonio Ilustrisimo (born Bantayan 1904). He was a Master of Kali Ilustrisimo – his own development of the eskrima he learned from his father.|
|1999||Overloaded ferry MV Asia South Korea en route Cebu–Iloilo City strikes submerged rocks about 8 nautical miles (15 kilometres; 9 miles) west of Bantayan island and sinks in heavy seas with loss of 56 lives.[s]|
|2010||Lipayran island hit by tornado - 15 shanties destroyed and seven damaged|
|2013||Super Typhoon Haiyan, locally known as Yolanda. Damaged nearly the entire island.|
The dominant uncultivated vegetation is Ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala). Cultivated crops include coconut, cassava, banana, sugarcane, corn and mango.
The common wolf snake can be found on the island.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
The climate is typically equatorial – temperature range over the year is less than three degrees Celsius, and annual rainfall exceeds 1,500 millimetres (59 in). January to April inclusive are less wet than the other months. This supports at least two rice crops per year.
The principal crops are:[t]
|Corn||400||775 tonnes (763 tons)|
|Mango||47.53 (1214 trees)||455 tonnes (448 tons)|
|•||Eastern Reef-Egret (Pacific Reef-Egret)||Egretta sacra [u]|
|•||Chinese Egret||Egretta eulophotes[v]|
|•||Little Heron (Striated Heron)||Butorides striata [u]|
|•||Grey Plover||Pluvialis squatarola [u]|
|•||Greater Sand-Plover||Charadrius leschenaultii[u]|
|•||Whimbrel||Numenius phaeopus [u]|
|•||Ruddy Turnstone||Arenaria interpres [u]|
|•||Godwit sp||Limosa sp [w]|
|•||Lesser Frigatebird||Fregata ariel [u]|
|•||Pied Harrier||Circus melanoleucos [u]|
|•||Black-chinned Fruit Dove||Ptilinopus leclancheri [u]|
|•||Island Collared Dove||Streptopelia bitorquata [u]|
|•||Island Swiftlet||Collocalia vanikorensis [u]|
|•||White-collared Kingfisher||Halcyon chloris [u]|
The coast of Bantayan and its islands mostly alternates between mangal and palm trees. Because of the shallow slope on the shelf, the intertidal area can be quite extended, leading to rocky and muddy shallows at low tide. This means that places with a sandy shore - a beach - are infrequent. Good beaches can be found in the south-east corner around Santa Fe, and in the north-west at Patao and Madridejos. Even these though are not cleaned, and depending on the currents there can be considerable amounts of flotsam and jetsam on the beach and in the sea.
Of the approximately 500 varieties of coral known worldwide, about 400 are found in the Philippines. However their future is seriously threatened – mainly due to destructive fishing techniques, such as blast fishing and cyanide fishing, which indiscriminately destroy much of the ecosystem, including the coral reefs. In addition, global warming and ocean acidification also contribute significantly to worldwide loss. Globally coral sees 50%–70% threatened or lost; southeast Asian coral reefs are in even worse condition, and it is estimated in the Philippines the figure under threat is greater than 90%, with less than 1% in good condition. Until now proper compliance of international laws has been poor, although it is starting to be taken seriously. Meanwhile other efforts are under way in Bantayan to accelerate the regrowth, using coral farms.
Mangroves are salt-tolerant, woody, seed-bearing plants that are found in tropical and subtropical areas where they are subject to periodic tidal inundation. The Philippines has over 40 species of mangroves and is one of the most biodiverse regions in the world as there are only about 70 species of mangroves worldwide. The mangrove ecosystem is a very diverse one and is home to many birds, fish, mammals, crustaceans and other animals.
Mangroves provide an important nursery for fish, shellfish and other organisms. It is estimated that each hectare of mangrove can provide food for 1,000 kg of marine organisms. With this abundance of food for fish present in the mangroves, each hectare of mangal yields 283.5 metric tons of fish per year. Mangroves also provide other important functions such as preventing soil erosion and protecting shoreline from typhoons and strong waves. Mangroves provide many other products and services such as medicines, alcohol, housing materials and are an area for research and tourism.
However even with all of these known benefits the state of mangroves within the Philippines is very dim. In the early 1900s there were approximately 500,000 hectares of mangroves but today there are only about 120,000 hectares. Many of the mangrove areas were destroyed to make way for fishponds and reclamation areas. They were used indiscriminately for housing – both building materials and reclamation – and were disturbed by siltation and pollution.
Now that the true benefit of these ecosystems is known there is protection and rehabilitation of these important ecosystems. It is now illegal to cut down mangroves for any purpose and local governments and community organizations have taken active roles in planting and managing mangrove plantations. There is hope that in the future mangroves will return to the healthy status that they once held in the past.
There are many starfish to be seen in the intertidal area. Their detrivorous diet helps keep the water clean. Further out though, the crown-of-thorns starfish is a considerable threat to the coral reef, because of its voracious hunger for the coral.
- Islands have several names, according to speaker's language. First name shown is as it appears on the NAMRIA topographical map. Some of the smallest islands are not named on map.
- LS Bantayan
- just off the shore of Bantigue barangay. Currently[update] it is not operational.
- LS Madridejos
- off shore at the Kota promontory.
-  full translation into English in (pp. 259–260)
- Sugbú = Cebu
- The legua was not well defined, but is about 4 nautical miles (4.6 miles; 7.4 kilometres) ± 5%
- In office June 1635 – August 1644
- Construction of watchtowers was not limited to Bantayan Island. Watchtowers were built in many locations in Cebu vulnerable to Moro raids, as well as in other parts of the Visayas, such as Southern Leyte, Northern Samar and Bohol.
See for example:
- A gold peso weighed 1 Troy ounce (31.1 grams) so at 2012 prices (1 oz T gold ≈ $1750) that makes the tribute about $4.2 mn. See also Blair & Robertson vol 3(p177)
- As well as paying tribute, all male Filipinos from 18 to 50 were obliged to render forced labour called polo, for 40 days of the year, reduced in 1884 to 15 days. It took various forms, such as building of roads and bridges; construction of public buildings and churches; cutting timber in forests; working in shipyards; and serving in Spanish military expeditions. A person who rendered polo was called a polista. The members of the principalia were exempt from polo: in addition rich Filipinos could pay a falla to avoid forced labour – about seven pesos annually. Local officials (former and current governadorcillos, cabezas de barangay etc.) and schoolteachers were exempt by law because of their service to the state. Thus the only ones who rendered forced labour were those poor Filipinos lacking social, economic or political prestige in the community. This served to reinforce notions of the indignity of labour in the minds of the Hispanicised Filipinos: labour became the badge of plebeianism.
- During the Spanish administration, each pueblo was under an Administrador Civil styled Gobernadorcillo (later Capitan Municipal), assisted by a Teniente Mayor, a Teniente Segundo, a Teniente Tercero, a Teniente del Barrio and a Cabeza de Barangay
- The town plan of Daanbantayan somewhat echoes the butterfly shape of Bantayan Island itself
- "Accordingly, in the past year of 1600 they came with a fleet of many vessels to the Pintados provinces, which are subject to your Majesty; and in the region known as Bantayan they burned the village and the church, killed many, and took captive more than eight hundred persons"(pp235–238)
- Formal description at Kew  Description with photographs 
- The 1902–1904 cholera epidemic claimed 200,000 lives in the Philippines.
- The Mabugat family at that time substantially owned Mambacayao Island
F. M. Yap Tico & Co. Ltd. Headquarters Manila, Philippines Key people
- Lim Tuan (Manager)
- Importer of Rice
- Insurance agent
Yap Tico was a Chinese-owned trading company based in Manila. Although its nominal principal business was the import of rice, as an insurance company and general financial agency it featured in many civil law suits, most notably throughout the 1910s and 1920s, some of which set case law precedents, Lizarraga Hermanos vs. Yap Tico for example.
- popularly known as the Gabaldon Act after its original author, Assemblyman Isauro Gabaldon.
- The eye of the storm passed directly overhead around 0:00am on 24 November 1968. It didn't become a real Class‑1 typhoon until two days later.
- 2001 data 
- Philippines 2012 Municipality Statistics
- 2010 Census of Population and Housing – Central Visayas
- National Planning and Resource Information Authority (March 1995) (Digitised map). [Topographic Index Map 1:50,000 NTMS (National Topographic Map Series)] (Map). 1:50,000. Cartography by SPOT satellite imagery 1990 (Panchromatic) & 1987 (Multispectral) by SSC Satellitbild / S‑117 topographic maps by NAMRIA based on aerial photography (1 ed.). Fort Bonifacio, Manila. Section and . Topographic Index Map 1:50,000. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Philippine Coast Guard – LIGHTSTATIONS – CENTRAL EASTERN VISAYAS
- BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1905). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898. Volume 07 of 55 (1588–1591). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-0554340470. OCLC 769944907. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the close of the nineteenth century."
- de MEDINA, Fray Juan (1893) . Historia de los sucesos de la orden de n. gran P. S. Agustin de estas islas Filipinas: desde que se descubrieron y se poblaron por los españoles, con las noticias memorables / compuesta por el venerable Fray Juan de Medina [History of the Augustinian Order in the Filipinas Islands] (scan) (in Spanish). Manila: Chofréy y Comp. OCLC 11769618. "Page numbers 487–488 used twice"
- BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1905). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898. Volume 23 of 55 (1629–1630). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE;. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-1153716369. OCLC 769945716. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the close of the nineteenth century."
- BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1903). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898. Volume 08 of 55 (1591–1593). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-0554340630. OCLC 769944908. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the close of the nineteenth century."
- CABIGAS, Estan (21 September 2009), Cebu’s lonely sentinels of the sea (Photographic essay), langyaw
- BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1904). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898. Volume 14 of 55 (1606–1609). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE; additional translations by Henry B. Lathrop, Robert W. Haight. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-0554346076. OCLC 769945705. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the close of the nineteenth century."
- BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1903). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803. Volume 03 of 55 (1569–1576). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-0554247144. OCLC 769945702. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century."
- ZAIDE, Gregorio F (1937). Catholicism in the Philippines. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Press.
- ZAIDE, Gregorio F (1937). Early Philippine History and Culture. Manila: Oriental Printing.
- Filipino–American War 1899–1902
- ZAIDE, Gregorio F (1968). The United Nations and our Republic (revised ed.). Quezon City: Bede's Publishing House.
- ALDANA, Benigno V (1949). The Educational System of the Philippines. Manila: University Publishing Co. OCLC 8985344.
- CATAPANG, Rev Vincent R (1926). The Development of the Present Status of Education in the Philippine Islands. Boston: The Stratford Co. OCLC 2605052.
- FRESNOZA, Florencio P (1950). Essentials of the Philippine Educational System. Manila: Abiva Publishing House. OCLC 80529874.
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