Bani Assad

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The Bani Assad or Banu Assad (Arabic: بني أسد/ بنو أسد) (Arabic for "Sons of Lion") is an Arab tribe in Iraq. They are Adnanite Arabs, powerful and one of the most famous tribes. They are widely respected by many Arab tribes, respected by Shia Muslims because they have buried the body of Husayn ibn Ali, his family (Ahl al-Bayt) and companions with the help of Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, the son of Husayn, and many martyrs from the Battle of Karbala are from the tribe. Today, many members of the tribe live in the Iraqi cities of Basra, Najaf, Kufa, Karbala, Nasiriyah, Amarah, Kut, Hillah, Diyala and Baghdad. There are people from the Bani Assad in Kuwait, Lebanon, Yemen and even India who have all migrated from Iraq. There are also members of Bani Assad tribe in Ahvaz in the Khuzestan of Iran located with neighboring tribes of Banu Tamim, Bani Malik, Banu Kaab and other notable Arab tribes.

Lineage[edit]

The Bani Assad are the patreneal lneage from a man named Asad ben (meaning: son of) Khuzaimah ben Mudrikah ben Elias ben Mudar ben Nezar ben Ma'ad ben Adnan ...ben Nebaioth ben Ismâ`îl (Ishmael) ben Ibrahim (Abraham).

The Assad tribe that exists today are from Mudar (Mudarites), said to be cousins of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad who share with them the same ancestor Khuzaimah son of Mudrikah son of Elias son of Mudar.[1]

Legacy of the Bani Assad[edit]

The Bani Assad have been complimented by Muhammad as only few Arab tribes have been. The Bani Assad spread and developed the Arabic language since the 1st or the 2nd century.

In the 6th century a royal chief of the Kindah tribe named Hojr was killed by the Bani Assad. A contemporary of Imru' al-Qais, the illustrious Arabian mu'allaqat poet 'Abid ben al-Abras belonged to the Bani Assad and was fond of vaunting Hojr's murder. In the Namara inscription, Nasrid king of al-HiraImru' lQays ibn Amru claimed he killed two chiefs from Bani Assad, which is mentioned in Ibn Ishaq where their nephew said a poem about her two uncles the Asadites "One came early to tell me of the death of the two best of Asad, 'Amr b. Mas'tid and the dependable chief (alsamad)".[2][3][4]

Bani Assad had their own Talbiyah of the prilgrimmage to Mecca before Islam.[5]

Religion[edit]

It has been noted from historians that before Muhammad, the Bani Assad used to practice the religion of Abraham who believed in one God. The tribe embraced Islam in the 7th century during the beginning of Muhammad's life. After moving to Kufa in Iraq, they sided with Ali (`Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib). They are among the first Arab tribes to be Shia of Ali. They also sided with Husayn ibn Ali at the Battle of Karbala. The entire Bani Assad tribe is Shia Muslim, with most living in Iraq and Ahvaz, usually belonging to the Twelver or Ja'fariyah sect. Additionally, there are small Twelver minorities in Hadhramaut and a large Zaidi community in northwestern Yemen and southwestern Arabia, and a some in Southern Lebanon, Tyre, Chehour as familys: El Haj, Mazyad, Fares, Darwich, Machlab and Abdallah.

Migration to Iraq[edit]

The Bani Assad migrated to Iraq in the 7th century and settled in Kufa. They have settled near the banks of the Euphrates river near Kufa and Karbala and have also settled in Basra and in Ahvaz, sharing land with the Banu Tamim. The Bani Assad sided with Ali in the Battle of the Camel. Many companions of Muhammad and Ali are from the Bani Assad. The Bani Assad tribe sided with the son of Ali, Husayn, in the Battle of Karbala, which took place on Muharram 10th, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE) in Karbala, Iraq.[6] Many martyrs from the Bani Assad clan died with Husayn in the Battle of Karbala.

The Al-Mazeedi state of the Bani Assad[edit]

Main article: Al-Mazeedi

In 998, 'Ali ben Mazyad, leader of the Bani Assad tribe, established a virtually independent Al-Mazeedi state in the Kufa area of Iraq. Backed by a powerful tribal army, the Al-Mazeedis enjoyed great influence in the area for a century and a half. They acquired titles and subsidies from the Buyids in return for military services. Their most lasting achievement was the founding of Hilla, one of the main cities in Iraq, which became their capital in 1012. The originator of the Al-Mazeedi name was a scholar, hadith narrator and chemist called Mazyad ben Mikhled al Sadaqa. Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani commented about the rulers of the Al-Mazeedi State, saying:

They were Arabs, belonging to the Bani Mazyad from the Powerful Bani Assad Tribe. They established themselves with the strength of their swords on the banks of Euphrates. They were the refuge of those who were in need of it, the shelter for the expectants, the helpers of those who sought help and supporters of the weak. People with expectation were attracted towards them and scholars found money with them. What they did in spending on good purpose is too well known and talks of their generosity too common. Sadaqa shook with pride when he listened to poetry and set aside for the poet a special part of his generosity. He made them free from poverty. He accepted them in his audience. He was all ears to listen to the requests of people and very generous in giving them what they needed.

Members of the Bani Assad clan outside of Iraq[edit]

Mansour Moosa Al-Mazeedi played an important role in developing the Constitution of Kuwait issued on January 29, 1963 as part of Al Majles Al Ta'sesy or Founding Parliament.[7]

The Al Mazeedi family are Shia in Iraq, dramatically increasing the influence of Shiite minorities in Arabia. And there are also Al Mazeedi Shia families in Kuwait as well as Sunni. Recently it was discovered that some Al-Mazeedi family members migrated to Yemen a few hundred years ago and settled in the region of Hadhramaut. Their tribal name is Al-Mazyad or Bani Assad, their surnames or their family names is Assadi, Al-Assadi, or Al-Mazeedi, some (about 1,000) were also found in Oman and in India, primarily in the state of Karnataka with ancestral concentration in a place called Tokur, they are Sunnis.

Fatalities from the Bani Assad clan in the Battle of Karbala[edit]

Uns ben Hars Asadi, Habib ibn Muzahir (commander of the left flank) Moslem ben Ausaja Asadi, Qais ben Masher Asadi, Abu Samama Umru ben Abdellah, oreer Hamdani, Hanala ibn Asad, Abis Shakri, Abdul Rahman Rahbi, Saif ibn Hars, Amer ben Abdellah Hamdani.

Burials[edit]

On the 13th of Muharram, three days after the massacre, members of the Bani Assad in Karbala had the honor of burying the bodies of Husayn, his family and their companions. The Bani Assad tribe is widely respected by other Shia Arab tribes. Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, the 4th Twelver Shia Imam, helped the Bani Assad tribe to bury the martyred bodies and helped them to identify the bodies of Husayn ibn Ali, his father, and the Ahl al-Bayt and their companions.

Clans[edit]

All clans are related which goes back to the same tribe or ancestor of Assad.

  • Bani Assad
  • Al-Khayoon tribe (clans of Khayoon):
    • Al-Hassan
    • Al-Jayyid
    • Al-Janaah
    • Al-Sheikh
  • Bani Askari tribe (clans of Askari)
    • Al-Abdul Ameer
    • Al-A'beed
    • Al-Sheikh Ali
    • Al-Sh'haab
  • Al-Wanis tribe (clans of Wanis)
    • Al-Freeh
    • Al-Khaitan
    • Al-Badir
    • Al-Ghaithan
    • Al-Jasim
    • Al-Sh'haf
    • Al-Tarshaan
    • Al-Hamad
    • Al-Khamees
  • Al-Abbas tribe (clans of Abbas)
    • Al-bo Sodah
    • Al-bo Sidyo
    • Al-bo Zahroon
  • Al-Haddad tribe (clans of Haddad)
    • Al-Rasheeda
    • Al-Mas'ood
    • Al-Sajiyah
    • Al-Shneen
    • Al-Awaad
    • Al-Hjool
    • Al-Hlool
  • Al-Aneesa (Anisa) tribe (clans of Aneesa)
    • Al-Sahr
    • Al-Ataab
    • Al-Sweenij
  • Al-Abdallah tribe (clans of Abdallah)
    • Al-Sawaad
    • Al-Finjaan
    • Al-bo Ayaash
    • Al-Hajj Sari
    • Al-Makhyour
    • Al-Oweeti
    • Al-Hjemeen
    • Al-Rofah (Raufah)
    • Al-Sawari
    • Al-Dilfeen
    • Al-Khazaam
    • Al-Saleh Khalawi Jabr
    • Al-Rahi
    • Al-Sidyo
  • Al-Mawajid tribe (clans of mawajid)
    • Al-Eisa
    • Al-Hwaichim (Huwaijim)
    • Al-Hajji
    • Al-Ta'ama Nasir
    • Al-Shjreeji
  • Al-Khalisi tribe (clans of Khalisi)
    • Al-bo Mahdi
    • Al-bo Ali
    • Al-Sabayigh
  • Al-Khatir tribe (clans of Khatir)
    • Al-Aziz
    • Al-Sheikh Mohammed
    • Al-Sheikh La'eebi Jabir
    • Al-Bazoon
    • Al-Jam'iyat
    • Al-Bdeer
    • Al Abeidallah
    • Al-Khazzam
    • Al-bu Sedwear
    • Al-Sawari
    • Al-Sari
    • Al-Bu Makhyour
    • Bani Mushrif (includes many clans)
    • Al-Hilal
    • Al-Mazeedi (includes clans)
    • Bani Kahel (includes clans)
    • Al-Nawashi
    • Al-Hul
    • Al Reyoufa
    • Al-Bu Hmael
    • Al-Terrhiyoun
    • Al-Kammouna
    • Al-Shibeebi
    • Al-Hmaed
    • Al-Baghdadi
    • Al Ghamaas
    • Al-Jaza'iri
  • There are Sayyids who have joined the Bani Assad tribe, in southern Iraq many centuries ago
  • There are more tribes and clans of Bani Assad

Population[edit]

Currently, very large numbers of the Bani Assad live in Iraq in Basra, Najaf, Nasiriyah, Karbala, Hilla, Amara, Diyala, Salah-e-Deen and Baghdad. Bani Assad are one of the 5 biggest tribes in Iraq. 65% of the 1.2 million population of Karbala are Bani Assad and 40% of Hilla and large numbers in Najaf, Kufa, Basra and Nasariyah. There significant population of Bani Assad in Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Yemen and Ahwaz in Iran (Arabs of Iran).

Leading personalities[edit]

  • Tulayha
  • Habib ben Mozahir el Asadi
  • Uns ben Hars el Asadi
  • Saif ben Hars (brother of Uns ben Hars)
  • Moslem ben Ausaja al Asadi
  • Qais ben Masher el Asadi
  • Qobeisa ben Jabir el Asadi
  • Abu Samama Umru ben 'Abdellah
  • oreer Hamdani
  • Hanala ben Asad
  • Abis Shakri
  • Abdul Rahman Rahbi
  • Amer ben 'Abdellah Hamdani
  • 'Ali ben Mazyad
  • Kumait ben Zaid Al-Assadi (poet of Ahlul Bait)
  • Mutair Al-Assadi
  • Al-Hilli Al-Assadi
  • Al-Shibeebi Al-Assadi
  • Al-Khalisi Al-Assadi
  • Umru bin Malik Al-Assadi (Abu Al-Heejaa) who planned the city of Kufa
  • Sa'eed bin Jabeer Al-Assadi (had great knowledge of the Arabic language)
  • Aban bin Taghlib Al-Kuffi Al-Assadi (the first person to publish a book with the meaning of the Quran and still used by many scholars and students today)
  • Saleem bin Qais Al-Hilali Al-Assadi (philosopher and scholar)
  • Ali bin Muhammed bin Ubaid bin Zubair Al-Assadi (known as the son of Kufa from the Arabs and known for the Arabic Language)
  • Yahya bin Qasim Abu Baseer Al-Assadi (known for being one of the first scholars of Fiqh and philosophy)
  • Salman bin Mahraan (Al-Aamash) Al-Assadi (the first Imam/Reader of The Quraan)
  • Atweh Mazyad El-Hajj is a local leader and revolutionary from Chehour, Lebanon was killed by the Ahmed al-Jazzar the Ottoman ruler of Acre and the Galilee
  • There are many more scholars and famous personalities.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ibn Ishaq; Guillaume (1955). The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Isḥāq’s sīrat. London. p. 3. ISBN 0195778286. "The Lineage of Muhammad, Asad and Muhammad have same grandfather Khuzaimah" 
  2. ^ Ibn Ishaq; Guillaume (1955). The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Isḥāq’s sīrat. London. p. 736, 120,568,720,305,557,756. ISBN 0195778286. 
  3. ^ Watt, Montgomry. Muhammad at Medina. pp. 30,36,79,88. ISBN 9780199064731. Archived from the original on 2000. "Qatan battle page 30, Mecca battle 36,79, Tulayha 88" 
  4. ^ Shahid (1989). Byzantium and the Arabs in the 5th century. Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 0884021521. 
  5. ^ Marx, edited by Angelika Neuwirth, Nicolai Sinai, Michael (2010). The Qur'an in context historical and literary investigations into the Qur'anic milieu. Leiden: Brill. p. 302. ISBN 9789047430322. Archived from the original on 2010. 
  6. ^ Karbala: Chain of events Section - The Battle
  7. ^ Amiri Diwan, The Efforts of the Constituent Assembly, State of Kuwait 2006