Baoding

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For the county in Hainan whose name is also romanised as Paoting in Chinese Postal Map Romanisation, see Baoting.
Baoding
保定市
Prefecture-level city
Back street in old Baoding
Back street in old Baoding
Location of Baoding City jurisdiction in Hebei
Location of Baoding City jurisdiction in Hebei
Baoding is located in Hebei
Baoding
Baoding
Location of the city centre in Hebei
Coordinates: 38°52′N 115°28′E / 38.867°N 115.467°E / 38.867; 115.467Coordinates: 38°52′N 115°28′E / 38.867°N 115.467°E / 38.867; 115.467
Country China
Province Hebei
County-level divisions 3 districts
4 county-level cities
18 counties
Township-level divisions 28 subdistricts
142 towns
170 townships
3 ethnic townships
Area[1]
 • Prefecture-level city 22,185 km2 (8,566 sq mi)
 • Urban 365 km2 (141 sq mi)
Elevation 25 m (83 ft)
Highest elevation 2,286 m (7,500 ft)
Lowest elevation 7 m (23 ft)
Population (2010 census)[1]
 • Prefecture-level city 11,194,379
 • Density 504.59/km2 (1,306.9/sq mi)
 • Urban 1,028,000
 • Urban density 2,800/km2 (7,300/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,665,360
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 071000
Area code(s) 0312
Licecse plate prefixex F
Website bd.gov.cn

Baoding (Chinese Postal Map Romanisation: Paoting; Chinese: 保定; pinyin: Bǎodìng) is a city of Hebei province, China, bordering the national capital Beijing, which lies 140 kilometres (87 mi) to the northeast. The population of Baoding City, which has an area of 22,185 square kilometres (8,566 sq mi), is 11,194,379, out of which 1,028,000 reside in the urban districts (2010 census) which comprise an area of 365 km2 (141 sq mi).[1] Baoding is among 13 Chinese cities with a population of over 10 million, ranking seventh.[2]

History[edit]

Baoding is a city with a history dating back to the Western Han Dynasty. It was destroyed by the Mongols in the 13th century, but after the Mongols established the Yuan Dynasty, it was rebuilt. It acquired the name "Baoding" during the Yuan dynasty — the name is roughly interpreted as "protecting the capital", referring to the city's proximity to Beijing. Baoding served for many years as the capital of Zhili, and was a significant centre of culture in the Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty. During the Boxer rebellion, Boxer rebels killed a Turk, two Swiss, and an Italian in Baoding.[3] After Zhili province was abolished in 1928 Baoding became the capital of the newly formed Hebei province. During World War II, the city was the site of a headquarters for Japanese occupation forces. In 1958, the role of provincial capital was assumed by Tianjin, which had lost its status as a provincial level municipality, but when Tianjin was elevated again in 1966, Baoding regained its position. In 1970, however, the rapidly growing city of Shijiazhuang became capital instead.

Geography[edit]

Baoding is located in the west-central portion of Hebei province and lies on the North China Plain, with the Taihang Mountains to the west. Bordering prefecture-level cities in the province are Zhangjiakou to the north, Langfang and Cangzhou to the east, and Shijiazhuang and Hengshui to the south. Baoding also borders Beijing to the northeast and Shanxi to the west.

Elevations in Baoding's administrative area decrease from northwest to southeast. The western parts are dominated by mountains and hills that are generally more than 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) tall; this area includes parts of Laishui, Yi, Mancheng, Shunping, Tang and Fuping Counties as well as the entirety of Laiyuan County, occupying 30.6% of the prefecture's area.[1] The highest peak is Mount Waitou (歪头山), with an elevation of 2,286 metres (7,500 ft).[1] Moving southeast from this area, one encounters low-lying mountains and hills, taking up 18.9% of the prefecture's area.[1] Further to the east lies generally flat terrain of 30 to 100 metres (98 to 330 ft) elevation. Here the primary rivers are the Juma, Yishui (易水), Cao (漕河), Longquan (龙泉河), Tang (唐河), and Sha Rivers. Baiyangdian Lake, the largest natural lake in northern China, can be found nearby.

Climate[edit]

Baoding has a continental, monsoon-influenced semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk),[4] characterised by hot, humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and generally cold, windy, very dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone. Spring can bear witness to sandstorms blowing in from the Mongolian steppe, accompanied by rapidly warming, but generally dry, conditions. Autumn is similar to spring in temperature and lack of rainfall. The annual rainfall, about 60% of which falls in July and August alone, is highly variable and not reliable. In the city itself, this amount has averaged to a meagre 513 millimetres (20.2 in) per annum. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.2 °C (26.2 °F) in January to 26.8 °C (80.2 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 12.9 °C (55.2 °F). There are 2,500 to 2,900 hours of bright sunshine annually, and the frost-free period lasts 165−210 days.

Climate data for Baoding (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2.5
(36.5)
5.8
(42.4)
12.6
(54.7)
21.3
(70.3)
27.0
(80.6)
31.7
(89.1)
31.7
(89.1)
30.1
(86.2)
26.5
(79.7)
20.0
(68)
10.8
(51.4)
4.1
(39.4)
18.7
(65.6)
Average low °C (°F) −7.7
(18.1)
−4.7
(23.5)
1.3
(34.3)
8.8
(47.8)
14.5
(58.1)
19.6
(67.3)
22.6
(72.7)
21.4
(70.5)
15.7
(60.3)
8.7
(47.7)
0.8
(33.4)
−5.2
(22.6)
8.0
(46.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 2.0
(0.079)
4.8
(0.189)
8.0
(0.315)
17.1
(0.673)
32.6
(1.283)
64.0
(2.52)
172.2
(6.78)
133.7
(5.264)
43.1
(1.697)
21.4
(0.843)
10.5
(0.413)
3.1
(0.122)
512.5
(20.178)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.6 2.0 3.1 4.2 5.7 7.7 11.7 11.3 6.9 4.9 3.3 1.6 64.0
Source: Weather China

Air pollution[edit]

As air pollution in China is at an all-time high, several Hebei cities are among one of the most polluted cities and has one of the worst air quality in China. Reporting on China's airpocalypse has been accompanied by what seems like a monochromatic slideshow of the country's several cities smothered in thick smog. According to a survey made by "Global voices China" in February 2013, 7 cities in Hebei including Xingtai, Shijiazhuang, Baoding, Handan, Langfang, Hengshui and Tangshan, are among China's 10 most polluted cities.[5]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Baoding prefecture-level city consists of 3 municipal districts, 4 county-level cities, 18 counties:

Map
Baoding mcp.png
# ISO 3166-2[6] English name Simp. Chinese Trad. Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[7] Seat Postal code Divisions[8]
Subdistricts Towns Townships Ethnic townships Residential communities (居委会) Villages (村委会)
N/A 130600 Baoding 保定市 保定市 Bǎodìng Shì 22185 Xinshi District 071000 28 142 170 3 389 6209
1 130602 Xinshi District 新市区 新市區 Xīnshì Qū 190 Xianfeng Subdistrict (先锋街道) 071000 5 6 80 79
2 130603 Beishi District 北市区 北市區 Běishì Qū 75 Wusi Road Subdistrict (五四路街道) 071000 5 3 49 60
3 130604 Nanshi District 南市区 南市區 Nánshì Qū 100 Lianmeng Subdistrict (联盟街道) 071000 5 4 42 61
4 130682 Dingzhou City 定州市 定州市 Dìngzhōu Shì 1274 Nanchengqu Subdistrict (南城区街道) 073000 3 17 5 1 31 486
5 130681 Zhuozhou City 涿州市 涿州市 Zhuōzhōu Shì 742 Shuangta Subdistrict (双塔街道) 072700 3 6 5 39 404
6 130683 Anguo City 安国市 安國市 Ānguó Shì 486 Qizhouyaoshi Subdistrict (祁州药市街道) 071200 1 6 4 6 198
7 130684 Gaobeidian City 高碑店市 高碑店市 Gāobēidiàn Shì 682 Xinghua Road Subdistrict (兴华路街道) 074000 5 6 4 19 442
8 130621 Mancheng County 满城县 滿城縣 Mǎnchéng Xiàn 629 Huiyang Subdistrict (惠阳街道) 072100 1 5 7 6 204
9 130622 Qingyuan County 清苑县 清苑縣 Qīngyuán Xiàn 867 Qingyuan (清苑镇) 071100 8 10 6 266
10 130633 Yi County 易县 易縣 Yì Xiàn 2534 Yizhou (易州镇) 074200 9 18 1 7 469
11 130625 Xushui County 徐水县 徐水縣 Xúshuǐ Xiàn 723 Ansu (安肃镇) 072500 7 7 15 304
12 130630 Laiyuan County 涞源县 淶源縣 Láiyuán Xiàn 2448 Laiyuan (涞源镇) 074300 7 10 8 285
13 130626 Dingxing County 定兴县 定興縣 Dìngxīng Xiàn 714 Dingxing (定兴镇) 072600 5 11 8 274
14 130636 Shunping County 顺平县 順平縣 Shùnpíng Xiàn 708 Puyang (蒲阳镇) 072200 5 5 4 237
15 130627 Tang County 唐县 唐縣 Táng Xiàn 1417 Renhou (仁厚镇) 072300 7 13 8 345
16 130631 Wangdu County 望都县 望都縣 Wàngdū Xiàn 320 Wangdu (望都镇) 072400 2 6 7 143
17 130623 Laishui County 涞水县 淶水縣 Láishuǐ Xiàn 1658 Laishui (涞水镇) 074100 7 8 1 6 284
18 130628 Gaoyang County 高阳县 高陽縣 Gāoyáng Xiàn 496 Gaoyang (高阳镇) 071500 4 5 11 170
19 130632 Anxin County 安新县 安新縣 Ānxīn Xiàn 724 Anxin (安新镇) 071600 9 3 5 207
20 130638 Xiong County 雄县 雄縣 Xióng Xiàn 524 Xiongzhou (雄州镇) 071800 6 3 7 223
21 130629 Rongcheng County 容城县 容城縣 Róngchéng Xiàn 314 Rongcheng (容城镇) 071700 5 3 4 127
22 130634 Quyang County 曲阳县 曲陽縣 Qūyáng Xiàn 1084 Hengzhou (恒州镇) 073100 5 13 6 367
23 130624 Fuping County 阜平县 阜平縣 Fùpíng Xiàn 2495 Fuping (阜平镇) 073200 5 8 5 209
24 130637 Boye County 博野县 博野縣 Bóyě Xiàn 331 Boye (博野镇) 071300 3 4 4 133
25 130635 Li County 蠡县 蠡縣 Lǐ Xiàn 652 Liwu (蠡吾镇) 071400 8 5 6 232
Note: Baoding New High Technology Product Development Zone (保定高新技术产业开发区) includes Damafang Township (大马坊乡) of Xinshi District and Jiantai Township (贤台乡) of Mancheng County; the Baigou New City (白沟新城) includes Baigou Town (白沟镇) of Gaobeidian City.

Demographics[edit]

Baoding City Demographics
Division name



Residence population[9] (November 2010) Hukou population[10]
(end of 2010)
Total Ratio (%) Population density (persons/km2)
Baoding City 11,194,379 100 504.55 11610199
Xinshi District 482,768 4.31 2540.88 459038
Beishi District 387,339 3.46 5164.52 322205
Nanshi District 287,784 2.57 2877.84 279725
Mancheng County 387,307 3.46 615.75 411417
Qingyuan County 631,659 5.64 728.56 648645
Laishui County 339,063 3.03 204.50 352993
Fuping County 205,299 1.83 82.28 223846
Xushui County 563,030 5.03 778.74 586104
Dingxing County 517,873 4.63 725.31 585913
Tang County 529,066 4.73 373.37 590575
Gaoyang County 345,160 3.08 695.89 340163
Rongcheng County 258,179 2.31 822.23 265389
Laiyuan County 260,678 2.33 106.49 283537
Wangdu County 250,014 2.23 781.29 265525
Anxin County 437,378 3.91 604.11 440817
Yi County 537,564 4.80 212.14 570806
Quyang County 588,559 5.26 542.95 610065
Li County 505,574 4.52 775.42 532322
Shunping County 295,764 2.64 417.75 317484
Boye County 245,504 2.19 741.70 268941
Xiong County 359,506 3.21 686.08 375470
Zhuozhou City 603,535 5.39 813.39 645542
Dingzhou City 1,165,182 10.41 914.59 1214852
Anguo City 370,314 3.31 761.96 409834
Gaobeidian City 640,280 5.72 938.83 608991
Note: The 58,709 people residing in Baoding High Technology Product Development Zone and the 124,274 in the Baigou New City are not listed separately.

According to the 2010 Census, the residence population stood at 11,194,379, an increase of 605,100 (5.71%) from 2000. The male-female ratio was 101.94:100. Children aged up to 14 numbered 1,915,800 (17.11% of the population), citizens 15 to 64 numbered 8,370,600 (74.78%), and 65+ numbered 908,000 (8.11%). The urban area of Baoding has a population of around 1,006,000 (2009). The overwhelming majority of the population is Han Chinese. The language of Baoding is Mandarin Chinese — specifically, the Baoding dialect of Ji-Lu Mandarin. Despite Baoding's proximity to Beijing, the Chinese spoken in Baoding is not particularly close to the Beijing dialect — rather, it is more closely related to Tianjin dialect.

Economy[edit]

Baoding is located in the centre of the Bohai Rim economic area which includes Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang. One of the largest employers in Baoding is China Lucky Film, the largest photosensitive materials and magnetic recording media manufacturer in China.[11] And, Yingli group, 2010 World Cup sponsor, has its headquarters in Baoding, who is the Global Top 10 solar panel manufacturer. More renowned companies include ZhongHang HuiTeng Windpower Equipment Co., Ltd (Wind Turbine), Baoding Tianwei Group Co., Ltd (Transformer) and Great Wall Motor.

  • Baoding High-tech Industrial Development Zone [1]

Renewable energy[edit]

Baoding city has one of China's biggest plants which manufacture blades used in wind turbine generators, catering mainly to the domestic market. Tianwei Wind Power Technology is one of the three main plants in Baoding that produces wind turbine generators. It wheeled out its first 20 turbines in 2008, and it will produce 150 units in 2009 and another 500 in 2010.

Transport[edit]

Baoding has good connections to other cities, being located on one of the main routes in and out of Beijing. The Jingshi Expressway connects the two cities, and Baoding is also the western terminus of the Baojin Expressway linking Baoding with Tianjin, which is one out of two nearest ports (Huanghua is the other one). The Jingguang Railway provides frequent services to Beijing West Railway Station. On 30 December 2012, a new railway station was opened in Baoding, old train station was closed for passengers.[12]

Military[edit]

Baoding is headquarters of the 38th Mechanized Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies that comprise the Beijing Military Region responsible for defending the PRC capital.

Culture[edit]

A courtyard in the mansion of the governor of Zhili
Another street of Baoding

Perhaps the best-known item to supposedly originate in Baoding are Baoding Balls, which can be used to relax your keyboard hand and strengthen your wrist. The most famous local specialty food is the Donkey Burger (驴肉火烧).

Anxin County is home to the Quantou Village Music Association (圈头村音乐会), a well known traditional music group performing on guan (oboes), sheng (mouth organs), and percussion. The village of Quantou is located on an island in Lake Baiyangdian.

The city's streets follow a rough grid pattern, although this is less obvious in the older part of the city. The traditional main street of old Baoding is Yuhua Road, running from the city's centre to its eastern edge — most of Baoding's historic buildings are located in this area, along with some of its larger shopping centres. Other major streets include Dongfeng Road and Chaoyang Avenue. There is a ring road around the city.

Baoding is home to Hebei University, North China Electric Power University with other 3 universities and 12 colleges.

Historic Sites[edit]

Baoding's ancient lotus gardens

Baoding contains a number of notable historic sites. In the city proper, there can be found a historic provincial governor's mansion and an ancient lotus garden. In the hills to the northwest of the city, near the suburb of Mancheng, there are the Mancheng Han Tombs, where Prince Liu Sheng and his wife Dou Wan were buried.

The greater Baoding administrative area has 16 designated state-level cultural relics:

  1. Yan State Capital Relics (475BC-221BC, Yixian County)
  2. Great Wall at Zijinguan Pass (1368–1644, Yixian County and Laiyuan County)
  3. Lao Morality Classic Tablet (618-907, Yixian County)
  4. Western Qing Tombs (1730–1915, Yixian County)
  5. Geyuan Temple (916-1125, Laiyuan County)
  6. Ciyun Pavillion (1306, Dingxing County)
  7. Yicihui Stone Pillar (550-577, Dingxing County)
  8. Kaiyuan Temple (960-1127, Dingzhou County)
  9. Kaishan Temple (618-907, Gaobeidian County)
  10. Dingzhou Porcelain Kiln Relic (960-1127, Quyang County)
  11. Beiyue Temple (386-543, Quyang County)
  12. Jin-cha-ji Border Region Headquarters Ruins (1938, Fuping County)
  13. Ranzhuang Underground Tunnel (1937–1945, Qingyuan County)
  14. Mancheng Han Tombs (154BC-113BC, Mancheng County)
  15. Zhili Provincial Governor Office (1730–1911, Baoding)
  16. Historical Site of the Baoding Military Academy (1902–1923)

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "概况" (in Simplified Chinese). Baoding People's Government. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-20. 
  2. ^ "最新中国城市人口数量排名(根据2010年第六次人口普查)". www.elivecity.cn. 2012. Retrieved 2014-05-28. 
  3. ^ Preston 2000, p. 58.
  4. ^ Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633-1644. ISSN 1027-5606.
  5. ^ Bildner, Eli (February 27, 2013). "Interactive Maps of China’s Most–and Least–Polluted Places". Global Voices China. http://newsmotion.org. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  6. ^ 国家统计局统计用区划代码
  7. ^ 《保定经济统计年鉴2011》
  8. ^ 《中国民政统计年鉴2012》
  9. ^ 《保定市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报》
  10. ^ 《中华人民共和国全国分县市人口统计资料2010》
  11. ^ http://oice.hbu.edu.cn/OldWeb/e_baoding.htm
  12. ^ "Baoding new railway station" (in Russian). Retrieved 2013-01-03. 
  13. ^ "Interactive City Directory". Sister Cities International. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 

External links[edit]