Bar, Montenegro

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Bar
Bar City Centre
Bar City Centre
Flag of Bar
Flag
Coat of arms of Bar
Coat of arms
Bar is located in Montenegro
Bar
Bar
Location of Bar, Montenegro
Coordinates: 42°06′N 19°06′E / 42.10°N 19.10°E / 42.10; 19.10Coordinates: 42°06′N 19°06′E / 42.10°N 19.10°E / 42.10; 19.10
Country Montenegro
Founded 6th century as Antipargal
(assumed)
Settlements 83
Government
 • Mayor Zoran Srzentić (DPS (DPS - SDP)
Area
 • Total 598 km2 (231 sq mi)
Population (2011 census)
 • Total 17,727
 • Density 67.0/km2 (174/sq mi)
 • Municipality 42,068
Demonym Barani
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 85000
Area code +382 30
ISO 3166-2 code ME-02
Car plates BR
Website http://www.bar.me/

Bar (Montenegrin and Serbian Cyrillic: Бар, pronounced [bâr]) is a coastal town in southern Montenegro. It had a population of 40,037 in the 2011 census. Bar is the centre of Bar Municipality, and a major seaport of Montenegro.

Name[edit]

Bar is the shortened version of Antivari, which comes from Bar's opposite (anti-) position across the Adriatic Sea from Bari, Italy.[1] In Italian: Antivari / Antibari; Turkish: Bar; Albanian: Tivari; Greek: Θηβάριον, Thivárion, Αντιβάριον, Antivárion; Latin: Antibarium.

Climate[edit]

Under the Köppen climate classification, Bar has a borderline Mediterranean climate (Csa) and humid subtropical climate (Cfa), since there is only one summer month with less than 40 millimeters (1.6 in) of precipitation.[2] Winters are cool and rainy, with an average high of 12.3 °C (54.1 °F) in January and a low of 4.3 °C (39.7 °F). Summers are warm, drier and sunnier than the winter months. During the summer months, high temperatures average around 27 to 28 °C (81 to 82 °F) and low temperatures average around 18 °C (64 °F). Precipitation is lower during the summer months, though rainfall can still occur, with July averaging only 4.5 days with measurable precipitation. Spring and fall are transitional seasons that feature mild weather but are often wet and unpredictable. There are on average 2523 hours of sunshine per year, ranging from a low of 111.6 hours in December, or 3.6 hours of sunshine per day, to a high of 350.3 hours, or 11.3 hours of sunshine per day in July.[3]

Climate data for Bar, Montenegro
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 12.3
(54.1)
13.0
(55.4)
15.0
(59)
18.0
(64.4)
22.1
(71.8)
25.3
(77.5)
27.8
(82)
27.7
(81.9)
25.1
(77.2)
21.6
(70.9)
17.2
(63)
13.6
(56.5)
19.9
(67.8)
Average low °C (°F) 4.3
(39.7)
5.1
(41.2)
6.8
(44.2)
9.3
(48.7)
13.1
(55.6)
16.4
(61.5)
18.4
(65.1)
18.2
(64.8)
15.8
(60.4)
12.5
(54.5)
9.1
(48.4)
5.7
(42.3)
11.2
(52.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 156
(6.14)
148
(5.83)
130
(5.12)
126
(4.96)
86
(3.39)
56
(2.2)
37
(1.46)
53
(2.09)
107
(4.21)
140
(5.51)
182
(7.17)
170
(6.69)
1,391
(54.77)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12.5 12.7 12.1 11.6 8.7 7.4 4.5 4.8 6.5 9.5 13.7 13.9 117.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 120.9 124.3 170.5 198.0 260.4 297.0 350.3 316.2 249.0 198.4 126.0 111.6 2,522.6
Source: Hydrological and Meteorological Service of Montenegro[3]

Divisions and settlements[edit]

The municipality of Bar is divided into 12 communes (mjesna zajednica), consisting of 83 settlements:

Commune Settlements
Bar I urban part of the town
Bar II Polje, Burtaisi, Čeluga, part of Rene;
Bar III part of Bjeliša, Sokolana, Stara ambulanta, zgrade Prvoborca;
Bar IV Popovići, part of Bjeliša, Ahmetov Brijeg, Vuletića Brijeg, part of Rene and Trsanj
Bar V Sustaš, Zupci, Marovići, Tuđemili
Šušanj Zukotrlica, Novi Pristan, Zeleni Pojas, Ilino, Šušanj, Carevići, Vitići and Paladini
Sutomore Brca, Zelen, Obala Željezničke Kolonije, Mirošica I, Turke, Pobrđe, Gorelac, Miljevci, Sozina, Zankovići, Suvi Potok, Mirošica II, Zgrade, Bjelila, Papani, Haj-Nehaj, Zagrađe, Mišići, Đurmani and Čanj
Stari Bar (Old Bar) Stari Bar, Baukovo, Belveder, Velembusi, Gretva, Brbot, Turčini, Menke, Mikulići, Podgrad, Bartula, Rap, Gornja Poda and Donja Poda, Tomba, Gornje Zaljevo and Donje Zaljevo
Mrko(je)vići Pečurice, Dobra Voda, Grdovići, Pelinkovići, Dabezići, Velje Selo, Kunje, Velja Gorana and Mala Gorana
Krajina Arbneš, Veliki Ostros, Mali Ostros, Martići, Runji, Kostanjica, Bobovište, Ckla, Tejani
Šestan Livari, Gornja i Donja Briska, Gornji Murići, Donji Murići, Besa, Pinčići, Bapsulj, Šestan
Crmnica Virpazar, Orahovo, Bračeni, Mikovići, Zabes, Boljevići, Sotonići, Bukovik, Mačuge, Dupilo, Popratnica, Komarno, Trnovo, Gornji Brčeli, Donji Brčeli, Brijege, Ovtočići, Tomići, Utrg, Godinje, Seoča, Krnjice, Limljani, Gluhi Do

History[edit]

Ancient history[edit]

Local archaeological findings date back to the Neolithic. It is assumed that Bar was mentioned as the reconstructed Roman castle Antipargal in the 6th century and the name Antibarium was quoted for the first time in the 10th century.[citation needed]

Middle Ages[edit]

Slavs overwhelmed the Balkans in the 6th and 7th century. Duklja, a Slavic, or Serbian state, was mentioned in the 10th century. Jovan Vladimir (r. ca. 1000–16), the first known ruler of Duklja whose history is known, had his seat in Skadarska Krajina. Stefan Vojislav (r. 1018–1043), the eponymous founder of the Vojislavljević dynasty, defeated the Byzantines at a hill near the city, and greatly expanded the state to include the other Serbian principalities which were under Byzantine rule. Mihailo I of Duklja (r. 1050–81), Vojislav's son, was also seated here, and upon crowning as king, blessed by the pope, he established the Archdiocese of Antivari. Afterwards, Duklja continued to fight the Byzantines in order to secure independence, and it eventually united into the Serbian Grand Principality, ruled by the Vukanović dynasty (1101–1166), though Bar was mostly under Byzantine rule during this period. In 1183, Stefan Nemanja conquered Bar from the Byzantines, and it stayed in Serbian rule onwards, under the Nemanjić dynasty.

Venetian and Ottoman period[edit]

From 1443 to 1571 the region was under the rule of Republic of Venice, and Bar (called Antivari in Venetian, spoken there until the 18th century) was part of the Albania Veneta. During the Middle Ages, Bar was the centre of the South Adriatic coast, a city–state which had a coat of arms, flag, statute and minted its own coins. The Ottomans captured Bar in 1571 and it remained in their hands until 1878. During this period it still had an archbishop. One of the more famous men to hold this office was Andrija Zmajević.

Modern history[edit]

Bar (Antivari) in 1863.

The Italian scientist and one of the pioneers in wireless telegraphy, Guglielmo Marconi, made a radio connection between Bar and Bari on August 30, 1904, and in 1908 the first railroad in this part of the Balkans was put into operation in 1913.

On July 13, 1941, in Bar’s municipality the uprising against the occupying power began and the first shots were fired in districts of Bar and Cetinje.

Culture[edit]

The oldest written documents and the most important work of medieval Montenegrin literature and history can be found here. The town was the seat of the oldest religious institution of Montenegro, the Bar archbishopric. The Old Olive of Mirovica is claimed to be over 2000 years old, making it one of the oldest olive trees in Europe.

Bari attracts many tourists. With an average of 270 sunny days per year, Bar is one of the Mediterranean’s sunniest towns.

The ruins of Bar Old Town constitute one of the world’s largest fortified archaeological sites.[citation needed] Mount Rumija rises above Bar Old Town. Bar Old Town was not inhabited continually, so many older buildings remain. The Bar Aqueduct was constructed during the 16th century - 17th century.

St. George was a medieval patron of Bar. Great cathedral was built in the 12th century was dedicated to him.

Cultural and historical monuments[edit]

King Nikola's Palace.
A fragment of the town walls of Stari Bar.

One of the oldest monuments in this area and the oldest Christian religious building in Montenegro is the Bar Triconch Church dating to the 6th century, whose remnants are located in the centre of the town. This is where the "Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja" ("Ljetopis popa Dukljanina") was created in the second half of the 12th century. It is the region’s most important medieval work of literature and history. Just a few kilometres away from the town centre, on Ratac peninsula, situated between Bar and Sutomore, there are the remnants of Our Lady of Ratac (Bogorodica Ratačka) monastery complex which belonged to the Benedictine order, and it is presumed to have been established in the 9th century. Near the small seaside town of Sutomore, there is the partially preserved fortress of Nehaj, used by both Venetians and Ottoman Turks. As a Venetian fortified town, Nehaj was first documented in the 16th century as the Fortezza dei Spizi. The Bar municipality also contains beautiful churches and monasteries erected during the time of the Balšić family (14th-15th century) on the islands of Lake Skadar: Beška, Moračnik, Starčevo, etc.

Bar is one of the few towns which can boast several churches representing a rare religious and social phenomenon. Namely, these churches were used by both Christian confessions existing in the region – Orthodox and Catholic.

Of all the cultural and historical monuments in Bar, the 19th-century King Nikola’s palace is the one that attracts the most attention. It was built in 1885 on the seashore. The palace was a present from King Nikola to his daughter Princess Zorka and his son-in-law Prince Petar Karađorđević. It consisted of a large palace, a little palace, a chapel, guardhouses and a winter garden. In 1910 a spacious ballroom was built in the palace. As part of the palace, there is a park with many different species of Mediterranean vegetation, among them a cork tree. In front of the palace, there was a wooden pier, which served as a mooring for boats and yachts. During the period between 1866 and 1916 King Nikola owned ten yachts. One of them, named “Sibil” was bought from novelist Jules Verne, while the last yacht he bought, called “Rumija” was sunk in 1915 by the Austro-Hungarian navy in the area of today’s harbour. Here, one can also find a large flower garden, made of a stainless steel structure of interesting shape, which was given as a present by the Italian king, Emanuel, and which is nowadays used as the restaurant called “Knjaževa bašta” (“The Duke’s Garden”). Nowadays, the palace building complex is used as the Homeland Museum of the City of Bar, as well as for festivals (concerts, exhibitions and literary events).

The Old Olive of Mirovica is a trademark natural feature of Bar. It is believed to be more than 2000 years old and it is one of the oldest olive trees in the world. It was put under State protection in 1957. Numerous legends and traditions are associated with the Old Olive of Mirovica. One of them has it that at one time families that had a dispute would come here to make peace under this olive tree. Thus it earned its name - Mirovica (the root of the name is “mir”, meaning peace).

Flora and Fauna[edit]

Olive tree “Olea europea”, which is over 2000 years old
"Olea europea”, which is over 2000 years old. Full view.

The municipality of Bar has diverse flora and fauna. The type of vegetation that dominates the coastal part of Bar is maquis. Up north, towards the mountain massifs of Sutorman, Lisinje and Rumija, there is a mixture of oak and beech forests. The maquis of Bar’s coastal area comprises the following: oak, holm oak, laurel, myrtle, Spanish broom, oleander, hawthorn, sloe, thorn, butcher’s broom, asparagus etc. Citrus fruits (tangerine, orange, lemon), pomegranate, olive, grapevine and fig are characteristic plant species in Bar. An attraction for the tourists is the old olive tree at Mirovica and Ginkgo Biloba in the park of King Nikola’s palace. In the territory of the municipality of Bar there are various kinds of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, and attractive invertebrates. The most significant part of Bar, in terms of rich ornithofauna, is the Skadar Lake basin. Skadar Lake is inhabited by approximately 270 bird species, among which especially important is the pelican, as an unusual and rare bird. Ostros, Rumija, Lisinj, Sutorman and Sozina are attractive sites rich with plenty of game (rabbit, badger, fox, wolf and boar).

Sea flora and fauna make up one of Bar’s great resources. On the coast, there are various kinds of shells, snails, echinodermata, cephalopoda and crayfish, which have a high quality, healthy meat.

Demographics[edit]

Bar is the administrative centre of Bar Municipality, which includes the town of Sutomore and many more small towns along the coast. The 2011 census put the population of Bar Municipality at 42,048. The city of Bar itself had 17,727 inhabitants.[4]

Population of Bar (city):

  • 1981 - 6,742
  • 1991 - 10,971
  • 2003 - 13,719
  • 2011 - 17,727

Ethnicity in 2011

Ethnicity Number Percentage
Montenegrins 19,553 46.5%
Serbs 10,656 25.34%
Muslims 3,236 7.7%
Albanians 2,515 5.98%
Bosniaks 2,153 5.12%
Croats 254 0.59%
Romani 203 0.48%
Other 318 0.76%
not declared 2,097 4.99%
Total of 42,048

Bar is not only a multiethnic town. It is also a home for three major religions of the world, and they have been living in peace for centuries without any incidents. Orthodox Christianity has a majority in Bar. It has a history dating back to the 11th century, and Bar is the place of birth of Saint Jovan Vladimir who is a very famous and important saint in Montenegro. Also there are a lot of churches and monasteries in the municipality and the most famous are those on Skadar Lake, which is sometimes called the Holy Land of Montenegro. Roman Catholicism had an important rule in the history of Bar. Bar is the home of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bar, which is the archdioese of most of Montenegro and Serbia. It dates back to 1089. With the Ottoman Turks also came Islam. There are a lot of mosques in the municipality but most of them are close to the Old Bar, and in the eastern part of the municipality of Bar. Now in Bar, an Orthodox temple, a Catholic cathedral and an Islamic centre are being built in the same time. Religious determination of Bar according to the 2011 census.

Religion Number Percentage
Eastern Orthodox 24,902 58.15%
Islam 15,472 30.14%
Roman Catholicism 3,043 7.24%
Agnostic 34 0.08%
Atheist 415 0.99%
Other 162 0.39%
Did not declare 1,129 2.69%

Places of Worship[edit]

St Jovan Vladimir church in Bar

The Bar Trichonch Church: The establishment of this church is related to the period of Justinian’s reign (6th century). The height of the preserved church walls amounts to one metre. While carrying out research on the church, fragments of decorative stone plastics and a necropolis were found.

St Tekla Church: It was constructed of broken stone in the 13th century. At first it was an Orthodox church, while later, after becoming a Uniate church, it was also provided with another, Catholic, altar. This church has two altars even today. It is visited by people of both confessions and people of both confessions are buried in its cemetery.

St Roko Church: The remains of St. Roko’s Church are located near Sutomore. The church dates from the 14th century. Although the church only used to have one altar, it served both the Orthodox and Catholic populations. Today, it is in ruins.

St Atanasije Church: This dates from the end of 14th century. Around the church, there are several tombs covered with stone slabs.

St Petka Church: This church was built in the Middle Ages and is constructed of roughly hewn stone.

St Nikola Church: The Archbishopric of the City of Bar is situated in this church. The archbishopric was founded in 1089, which was confirmed by Pope Clement III by sending the Palij (mantle) to the Archbishop of Duklja. Thus, three bishoprics were subjugated to his power (comprising Bar, Kotor, Ulcinj, Svač, Skadar, Drivostu, Pilot), as well as the countries of Serbia, Bosnia and Travunija. The Archbishop was given the title of Primas Serbiae.

Ribnjak Monastery: Ribnjak Monastery is located in the village of Zupci. Ruins of the church, which was, according to legend, founded by Jelena Anžujska (d‘Anjou) Nemanjić were found at the location of the current Ribnjak Monastery. The monastery consists of the church dedicated to the St. Vasilije Ostroški, a baptistry and accommodation building. The upper church, located above Ribnjak Monastery, on the hill called Gradac is dedicated to the Holy Cross. It was constructed after battles for liberation from 1877 to 1878. It is said that King Nikola used to come here in order to follow “operations for the liberation of Bar”. The church, which is located on the hill, was built by two sirdars and a senator of the Principality of Montenegro, at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, as a legacy of the liberation wars. The long tradition of going to Ribnjak on St. Vasilije Ostroški’s Day on May 12, is very interesting for many tourists.

Monastery of the Mother of God of Ratac: Ruins of the Benedictine monastery of the Mother of God of Ratac” date from the 11th century. It is located on the coast at the end of the Cape of Ratac, between Bar and Sutomore. It consisted of three churches and several buildings protected by defence walls and towers. From 1443, it was under Venetian authority. It was destroyed and burnt down by Turks in 1571.

Starčevo Monastery: is located on the island of Starčevo on Skadar Lake. It dates from the period of Đurđe Balšić. It was founded in 1377 by Father Makarije, who lived as an ascetic on the island, so it was called Starčevo (The Old Man’s Monastery) after him. The monastery complex consists of the Church of the Assumption of the Mother of God, an accommodation building, supporting structures and a surrounding wall with a gate and several underpinned terraces. The monastery was a centre of literacy, where many manuscripts were rewritten and many books were bound and decorated. The crypt of the printer Božidar Vuković from Podgorica is located in this monastery. After the reconstruction of a part of the accommodation building and after making it fit for dwelling, Starčevo has become an inhabited and active monastery.

Moračnik Monastery: It is located on the island of Moračnik on Skadar Lake. It was first mentioned in 1417, in the Charter of Balša III. The monastery complex consists of a church dedicated to the Holy Mother of God, an accommodation building, dining room and high tower with four floors, surrounded by a stone wall with a monumental gate.

Beška Monastery: It is located in the middle of the island of Beška on Skadar Lake. The monastery consists of two churches: a larger one, dedicated to St. Đorđe (14th century), the endowment of Đurđe II Stracimirović-Balšić and a smaller one dedicated to the Holy Mother of God (1440), the endowment of Jelena Balšić. Beška Monastery, as well as Starčevo Monastery, was famous for its intensive transcription activities. The Gorička Anthology was written in this monastery. It is a religious, edifying transcript composed by Nikon Jerusalimac.

Monastery of The Virgin of Krajina: is one of the most significant monuments in Montenegro. Ruins of the monastery with the church dedicated to the Assumption of the Mother of God, are located near Ostros, on the shores of Skadar Lake. The church was first mentioned at the end of the 10th century, in “The Chronicle of Priest Dukljan”. The monastery was founded by Duke Vladimir, well known from the legend about his tragic love with the beautiful Kosara, daughter of the Macedonian Tsar Samuilo. For a while, the monastery was the residence of the archbishop of Zeta. At the end of the 16th century, it was completely destroyed. In its vicinity, in the place called Ostros, there is a well from the year 1001, which is still used for supplying water to the inhabitants of local villages.

Gornji Brčeli Monastery: The monastery is located in the village of Brčeli, which is named after the monastery. It was founded at the beginning of the 18th century by Bishop Danilo, as his winter residence. Within the monastery there is the church dedicated to the Shroud of the Mother of God with an iconostasis, the handiwork of Petar Čolanović that dates from 1928. The monastery building and church are encompassed by a high stone wall with a main gate on the southern side. A one-sided belfry with a spinning-wheel mechanism was built on the wall beside the gate, on its eastern side. The old accommodation building was constructed as a typical house in Crmnica, with distinctive arched doorways and terraces. In 1863, a school was established within the monastery, which was later moved to the adjacent monastery of Donji Brčeli.

Donji Brčeli Monastery: It is located in the village called Donji Brčeli, with a church dedicated to St. Nikola. The monastery was constructed in the 15th century. An arched room was constructed under the floor of the chapel and you can enter it through the hole made in the floor of the altar area. It is believed that this room was used as a dungeon during the reign of Šćepan Mali,. Later, Šćepan Mali was murdered and buried in this church. Within the monastery was a school, which had previously been in the Gornji Brčeli Monastery.

Omerbašića Mosque: Is located in the Old Town of Bar. It was constructed in 1662. Its structure is rather simple, with rectangular base, and minaret built next to the south-west wall. At the beginning of the 17th century, Dervish Hasan's domed burial site was built beside the mosque, at the entrance to the complex. The smaller ground floor building was built next to it and was used as a residential building. A public fountain was constructed near the entrance and later, a mosque house for a Muslim priest or imam was built as well. The whole area is surrounded by a stone wall. Of the significant cultural and historical monuments in this area, the following are especially valuable: the Holy Mother's Church (village of Gluhi Do), the Church of St. Jovan and St. Archangel (village of Donja Seoca on the shore of Skadar Lake), the Church of St. Jovan and St. Mihailo (a two-nave church at the community cemetery in the village of Sotonići), the Church of St. Nikola and St. Jovan (a two-nave church next to the road Virpazar-Bar at the village of Boljevići), the Orahovo Monastery (at the village of Orahovo), Grmožur Fortress (an island in Godinje bay at Skadar Lake), the Church of St. Marija (swell Gretva, 300m from Old Bar), the Church of St. Marko (3 km (2 mi) north of Old Bar).

Podgradska Mosque: Built by several prominent citizens, among them Dervish Hasan Said. In the famous explosion of Barutana 1881, it was demolished and the mosque was rebuilt in the 20th century. The minaret was built in 1971, and it was rebuilt in 1991, from contributions of local people. The imams were: Husein Šabić, Husein Spica, Husein Karađuzović Ibrahim Petović, Mujdin Milaimi. Now the imam is Adem Mustafić.

Economy[edit]

Shopping Malls and a part of Solidarity Square

Economic symbols of Bar are the Port of Bar, Belgrade - Bar railway and the Sozina tunnel.

The Port of Bar is the most recognizable feature of the city. With 3,100 m (10,170.60 ft) of seacoast, land area of 800 ha and aquatorium of 200ha, the port is capable of reloading 5 million tons of different goods annually. The port made Bar an entry point for large amount of goods imported into Montenegro, and thus many merchant companies and small-scale traders are based in Bar.

In 1976, the Belgrade - Bar railway was opened, and thus made Adriatic sea easily accessible for tourists, and also provided new markets for the Port of Bar. The railway, along with the Port, made Bar more economically active throughout the year, in contrast to other Montenegrin coastal towns, which mostly rely on tourism during the summer season.

The food industry “Primorka” has been operating in Bar for more than 50 years and it produces olive oil and well known pomegranate juice. There are 95,000 olive trees, about 80,000 citrus trees (lemon, orange, tangerine and grapefruit) in the municipal area .

The centre for subtropical cultures, founded in 1937, is the oldest scientific institution in Montenegro. It conducts research in the field of subtropical cultures and environmental protection.

The future of Bar is considered to be in the development of small and medium sized companies, in the creation of new industrial zones and in pursuing activities for creating the Custom Free Zone.

Tourism[edit]

Besides being Montenegro's main seaport, Bar and its surroundings are also a major tourist destination. Today's Bar is a modern city, built almost entirely after World War II, with modern buildings, wide boulevards and lots of parking space.

Although there are some nice cobble beaches in Bar itself, many tourists choose destinations in other small towns in Bar municipality, notably Sutomore, with its beautiful long sandy beach.

The entire area around Bar is mostly untoutched nature, and is rich in vegetation. The Bar municipality also stretches to the southern shore of Skadar lake and encompasses Krajina region. This entire area is suitable for leisure activities and hiking. Smaller settlements near Bar, such as Dobra Voda, Sutomore and Čanj, are favourite destination for sunbathing, as they incorporate long sandy beaches.

Bar has a wind blowing for the south about 88 days a year, mostly during the winter. The southern wind is very soft and warm, but raises the waves in the sea. The weather temperature is as in July – about 28 °C (82 °F). There are approximately 2160 sunny hours a year. In winter the temperature drops down to 10 °C (50 °F) the lowest.

Beaches[edit]

Bar has over 44 kilometres (27 miles) of sea coast, including more than 20 beaches stretching over 9 kilometres (6 miles). As soon as you enter the area of the Bar municipality from the direction of Petrovac, you reach Čanj, which has a 1,100 metre-long colourful sandy beach. You can take a boat ride from Čanj to the Queen’s Beach (Kraljičina plaža), which can only be reached by sea. It is a true jewel of the Bar Riviera enclosed by a natural wall of sedimentary rocks. Going from Čanj in the direction of Sutomore, you come across the 300 metre-long Maljevik Beach, offering a natural refuge from the hot summer sun in its thick and fragrant pine forest.

For those in search of exciting beaches offering restaurants and bars, Sutomore is the beach of choice. This sandy beach is 1,200 metres long and hosts beach soccer and beach volleyball tournaments throughout the summer.

Near the famous medieval monastery complex of Ratac there is the Red Beach (Crvena plaža), named after the colour of its fine sand. The beach is surrounded by a pine forest and located about a hundred metres from the main road to Bar.

Just before you enter Bar town centre there is the 1,200 metre-long Žukotrlica Beach. It is a gravel beach, surrounded by a pine forest and varied Mediterranean vegetation.

The Town Beach (Gradska plaža) is located in front of the castle of King Nikola and extends over 750 metres. It is made to cater for different tastes – one part of it is covered in fine sand and the other is pebbly. Many tourist facilities, the “Princess” Hotel, sports pitches and King Nikola’s castle with a park hundreds of years old offer entertainment to visitors and complete their enjoyment of the charms of this beach.

Some ten kilometres from Bar in the direction of Ulcinj, there is one of the most visited beaches of Bar – Big Sands (Veliki pijesak). It is 380 metres long and located around 250 metres from the main road. It is surrounded by numerous tourist facilities, restaurants and discothèques.

On the border of the Bar and Ulcinj municipalities, in the village of Bušat, is the location of the Olive Wave (Val maslina) Beach, named after the nearby olive groves. It is a 200 metre-long pebbly beach adhering to the highest ecological and technical standards and it is marked by a blue flag, a symbol of a top-quality beach.

Bar has got not only beaches on the sea, it also has some very beautiful beaches on the Skadar Lake. Like the beach in Murici, which is the most beautiful and biggest on the lake. It is a sandy beach. The other famous one is Pjesacac, which is also a sandy beach and a very nice place for relaxing and enjoying in the sun.

Sport[edit]

Indoor Arena Topolica

Bar is a city with a large young population and has an abundance of talent in a variety of sports. Over fifty sports clubs and associations operate in Bar. There are numerous high quality sports facilities in the hotels and schools. In the centre of town, most of these facilities can be found in the Sports and Recreation Centre. There is a particularly high number of water sports clubs. In addition to the those who specialise purely in sporting activities, many of the local diving clubs are involved with scientific and coastal sea research. The longstanding chess club has even become well known abroad. Many world class chess celebrities have enjoyed visiting Bar and particularly the hospitality of the local chess club. Sports tourism, both connected to the sea and to the lake, is very attractive for numerous teams, both from the within the country and from abroad. Bar hosted the 2010 FIBA Europe Under-16 Championship and the 2010 Men's u18 European Handball Championship.

Transport[edit]

Bar has a ferry line with Italian city of Bari which is operated by Montenegro Lines [1]. Seasonally, ferries go to Ancona, Italy. There is a modern passenger terminal with a duty-free shop, caffies, restaurants.

Bar is well connected with inland Montenegro, as well as with the rest of the Montenegrin coast. The Sozina tunnel, completed in 2006, shortened the road connection with Podgorica to around 50 km (31 mi). Bar will also benefit significantly from the future Beograd - Bar motorway.

Bar is connected to the rest of the coastal towns of Montenegro by the Adriatic motorway, which extends from Ulcinj to Herceg Novi, and on to Croatia.

Bar is also the final station of the Belgrade - Bar railway, which connects Bar with Podgorica, northern Montenegro and Serbia.

Podgorica Airport is some 40 km (25 mi) away, and has regular flights to Belgrade, Budapest, Zürich, Frankfurt, Ljubljana, Paris, Rome and Vienna.

Events[edit]

Summer with stars: In July and August, the Tourist organization Bar organizes the music concerts with singers from Montenegro and former YU republics. The concerts take place at the walk of King Nicola in Bar.

Мotorcycle race in Sutomore: It takes place in the first half of May and September and it gathers the motorists from Montenegro and from all parts of former Yugoslavia.

International athletic meeting: The traditional sport manifestation which takes place on May Day on sport fields of Majarica in Bar.

Sports Games of Crmnica: This manifestation includes competitions in several sport events. It is organised in Virpazar every weekend from mid-July until mid-August.

Gatherings of farmers, vine growers, fruit growers and bee keepers This is an event that promotes the agricultural products of the Skadar Lake region, organised along with the appropriate cultural and entertainment program. It is organised in Virpazar at the beginning of September.

Days of Zagradje: This is an entertainment spectacle that is organised in the settlement of Zagrađe during July and August and which rounds up the tourist offerings of Sutomore.

The Day of Ecology, Tourism and Culture: It is organised in Murići in July and represents an authentic presentation of the tourism of Skadar Lake

Days of the Mrkojević Family: This is an event that is organised in Pečurice, during the last week of July. Along with enjoying various cultural and entertainment programmes, numerous guests can familiarise themselves with the rich culture and tradition of this region.

Bar Guitar Fest: This winter guitar school, with the aim of gathering the most successful guitar players and professors from the country and abroad is organised in Bar every January.

The Olive Festivity: It is organised in the Old Town of Bar. This is a presentation of famous products from this region: olive, olive oil and citrus fruits, combined with an exhibition of traditional costumes and cultural and an entertainment programme.

Festival of Wine and Bleak: It is held in Virpazar every December. It includes various entertainment events, organised in honour of Skadar Lake, its fish and the famous wine of Crmnica.

The Old Olive Tree Gathering: This traditional event has been held since 1987 in the month of November, and it is dedicated to children’s works and works for children. Children are represented by literary and art works with the theme of “Olive, Peace and Friendship’’

Port Cup: This international volleyball tournament for women has been held in Bar, every August since 1992.

Swimming Marathon: It has been held since 1988, in August, as a traditional swimming championship, which includes the 5 km-long distance between Sutomore (Hotel “Sozina”) and Bar (Hotel “Topolica”).

The Chronucle of Bar It has been held in Bar since 1988, during July and August, and represents a multimedia festival with miscellaneous cultural contents: theatre plays, art exhibitions, literary events, concerts. “The Mediterranean Book Fair” became a part of “The Chronicle of Bar” in 2003, as the best illustration and presentation of a region where the first literary Slavic monument “The Genealogy of Bar” was written.

International TV Festival: It has been held since 1995, in the month of November and represents a presentation of television achievements and works of authors from all over the world.

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — sister cities[edit]

Bar is twinned with:

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Adrian Room, Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features and Historic Sites, 2d edition, 2005. ISBN 0786422483
  2. ^ Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606. 
  3. ^ a b "Climatology". Hydrological and Meteorological Service of Montenegro. Retrieved November 13, 2012. 
  4. ^ "2011 Montenegrin Census" (in English and Montenegrin). Monsta. Retrieved 12 July 2011.