General view of Bar.
|First mentioned||1401 (as Rov castle)|
|Named for||Bari in Italy, Bar in Montenegro|
|• City Head||Oleksiy Dzis|
|• Total||5.95 km2 (2.30 sq mi)|
|• Density||2,890/km2 (7,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
Bar (Ukrainian: Бар; Polish: Bar) is a city located on the Rov River in the Vinnytsia Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Barskyi Raion (district), and is part of the historic region of Podolia. The current estimated population is 16,500 (as of 1 June 2013).
The city was a small trade outpost named Row. In the 16th century, Polish Queen Bona Sforza founded a fortress at the rocky outcropping above the river and named it Bar, after her town of Bari in Italy. In 1540, Polish King Sigismund I the Old granted the nearby town with city rights. The fortress was besieged several times in its history and resisted all assaults. But, during the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648, it was captured by the Cossacks under Maxym Kryvonis and severely damaged. The town was depopulated soon afterwords.
In 1672, Bar was captured by the Ottoman Empire and became a seat of the local administration. On November 12, 1674, the town and the fortress were recaptured by the forces of John III of Poland after four days of siege. But Ottomans recaptured the city in 1675 and retained it until 1686 (nominally until 1699). It was constantly ravaged by Turks and Poles in turn between 1686 and 1699.
On February 29, 1768, the Bar Confederation was started in the fortress. After the Second Partition of Poland, the town fell under Russian Empire rule and was part of Podillia Governorate. Viktor Bunyakovsky, noted as a mathematician of the 19th century, was born in the city in 1804.
Jacobo Timerman was born in Bar in 1923, and became internationally renowned as an editor and journalist in Argentina. His Jewish family emigrated to Argentina in 1928 when he was a child, to escape persecution and pogroms in Ukraine. Timerman used his writing to struggle for press freedom and the rights of the disappeared during the Dirty War. He was kidnapped, tortured and imprisoned by the military dictatorship, before being exiled.
- Bar castle
- "Bar, a town of Russia". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911
- "Bar, Russia". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
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