Bar, Ukraine

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Bar
Бар
City
General view of Bar.
General view of Bar.
Flag of Bar
Flag
Coat of arms of Bar
Coat of arms
Bar is located in Ukraine
Bar
Bar
Coordinates: 49°04′30″N 27°40′34″E / 49.07500°N 27.67611°E / 49.07500; 27.67611
Country  Ukraine
Oblast Flag of Vinnytsia Oblast.svg Vinnytsia Oblast
Raion Bar Raion
First mentioned 1401 (as Rov castle)
Magdeburg law 1540
City rights 1938
Named for Bari in Italy
Government
 • City Head Oleksiy Dzis
Area
 • Total 5.95 km2 (2.30 sq mi)
Population (2013)
 • Total 16,442
 • Density 2,890/km2 (7,500/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 23000-23005
Area code(s) +380-4341
Sister cities Kwidzyn
Website http://www.bar-city.com.ua/

IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Bar.ogg

Bar (UK: Listeni/ˈbær/; US: Listeni/ˈbɛər/), officially the City of Bar (Ukrainian: Бар; Polish: Bar) is a town located on the Rov River in the Vinnytsia Oblast (province) of central Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Bar Raion (district), and is part of the historic region of Podolia. Population: 16,442 (2013 population estimate)[1].

History[edit]

Roman Catholic church, 1811

The city was a small trade outpost named the Row from the 13th to 15th centuries, and it was described as the Rov for the first time in 1401 (from other information sources in 1425). Therefore, the city is 600 years old, and it celebrated the 600 years foundation anniversary in 2001.[2]

In the 16th century the Polish Queen Bona Sforza founded a fortress on the rocky outcrop above the river and named it Bar in 1537, after her hometown of Bari in Italy.

Old Picture of the Old Fortress, St. Pokrovsky Monastery and St. Anna Rome Catholic Cathedral in Town of Bar, Vinnytsia Region, State of Ukraine

In 1540 the Polish King Sigismund I the Old granted the nearby town city rights. The fortress was besieged several times in its history and resisted all assaults. But during the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648 it was captured by the Cossacks led by Maxym Kryvonis and severely damaged. The town was depopulated soon afterwards.

In 1672 the Town of Bar was captured by the Ottoman Empire and became a seat of the local administration. On November 12, 1674, the town and the fortress were recaptured by the forces of John III of Poland after four days of siege. But the Ottomans recaptured the city in 1675 and retained it until 1686 (nominally until 1699). It was constantly ravaged by Turks and Poles in turn between 1686 and 1699.

On February 29, 1768, the Bar Confederation was started in the fortress. After the Second Partition of Poland, the town fell under Russian Empire rule and was part of Podolia Governorate.

After 1922, the Town of Bar was part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Since 1991, following the fall of the Soviet Union, it has been part of independent Ukraine.

The Town of Bar was comprehensively described in the MSc thesis by Mikhail Grushevsky: Bar Community: Historical Outlines in the 15th to 18th centuries. The international conference on the Town of Bar history will be held in Bar on September 26, 2014,.[3] There is the Mikhail Grushevsky monument in Bar.

Old Picture with the General View on Town of Bar, Vinnytsia Region, State of Ukraine
Old Picture of the St. Anna Rome Catholic Cathedral in Town of Bar, Vinnytsia Region, State of Ukraine

The main dates in the history of Bar are listed below:

Climate[edit]

Bar has a soft continental European climate.

Climate data for Bar, Ukraine
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.6
(52.9)
17.3
(63.1)
22.3
(72.1)
29.4
(84.9)
32.2
(90)
35.0
(95)
37.8
(100)
36.5
(97.7)
31.5
(88.7)
28.6
(83.5)
19.9
(67.8)
15.4
(59.7)
37.8
(100)
Average high °C (°F) −1.4
(29.5)
−0.3
(31.5)
5.2
(41.4)
13.4
(56.1)
20.1
(68.2)
22.7
(72.9)
24.8
(76.6)
24.3
(75.7)
18.7
(65.7)
12.4
(54.3)
4.7
(40.5)
−0.4
(31.3)
12.0
(53.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −5.1
(22.8)
−3.3
(26.1)
1.2
(34.2)
8.3
(46.9)
14.5
(58.1)
17.4
(63.3)
19.2
(66.6)
18.6
(65.5)
13.4
(56.1)
7.8
(46)
1.7
(35.1)
−2.8
(27)
7.7
(45.9)
Average low °C (°F) −6.7
(19.9)
−6.1
(21)
−2.2
(28)
3.7
(38.7)
9.1
(48.4)
12.3
(54.1)
14.1
(57.4)
13.4
(56.1)
8.9
(48)
4.0
(39.2)
−0.8
(30.6)
−5.2
(22.6)
3.7
(38.7)
Record low °C (°F) −35.5
(−31.9)
−33.6
(−28.5)
−24.2
(−11.6)
−12.7
(9.1)
−2.8
(27)
2.5
(36.5)
5.2
(41.4)
1.5
(34.7)
−4.5
(23.9)
−11.4
(11.5)
−24.6
(−12.3)
−27.2
(−17)
−35.5
(−31.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 29
(1.14)
28
(1.1)
30
(1.18)
45
(1.77)
50
(1.97)
94
(3.7)
83
(3.27)
66
(2.6)
64
(2.52)
30
(1.18)
37
(1.46)
35
(1.38)
591
(23.27)
Avg. rainy days 7 6 9 13 14 15 15 11 12 11 12 9 134
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.9 70.6 114.7 171.0 248.0 255.0 266.6 260.4 195.0 133.3 57.0 40.3 1,870.8
Source #1: Gismeteo.[4]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory.[5]

Cityscape[edit]

Panoramic View of Bar, Ukraine

Religion[edit]

Bar has a lot of religion traditions. It is a center of the Ukrainian culture[6] and an attractive tourist destination with a large number of the old Ukrainian cathedrals and the new churches such as:

St. Uspenskaya Orthodox Church in Bar, Ukraine

1. The St. Uspenskaya Orthodox Church, built by Tymofiy Matkovsky in 1755–1757 at the same place, where the St. Trinity Orthodox Church was founded in 1700.[7][8][9][10]

The St. Uspensky Orthodox Cathedral is considered as one of the most remarkable architectural achievements and one of the oldest buildings in Bar, Ukraine, which has changed, reflecting the historical developments in Ukraine over the centuries.

The St. Trinity Orthodox Church was founded in the early 17th century. The first written memories about the St. Uspensky Orthodox Church, which was created at the Trinity Orthodox Church place, are related to 1719. The interesting fact is that the new architectural design of the St. Uspensky Orthodox Cathedral was developed, and then, the actual cathedral was constructed, using the stone, in 1755 – 1757. As it is described in the historical documents in 1771 and 1783, the St. Uspensky Orthodox Cathedral had a high altar with the Savior icon and the two other altars.

Vasily Matkovs’ky was a priest at the St. Uspensky Orthodox Church in Bar, Ukraine on that time. In 1795–1809, Ioan Sinits’ky became a priest at the St. Uspensky Orthodox Church in Bar, Ukraine. At the same time, Fedir Batulins’ky, priest (1800–1802) and Stefan Batulins’ky, priest (1804– - 1820) conducted their religious missions at the St. Uspensky Orthodox Church in Bar, Ukraine. Pavlo Batulins’ky (1838–1844) served as a priest at the St. Uspensky Orthodox Church in Bar, Ukraine, and then he became a key owner and a cathedral bishop in Kam’yanets soon after this. Vasiliy Kuz’mins’ky, priest (1844–1849) and Simeon Karchevs’ky, priest (1849–1861) worked to continue the religious missions at the St. Uspensky Orthodox Church in Bar, Ukraine. In addition, Simeon Karchevs’ky was a head of the Bar Orthodox Religion School at the same time. Grigory Yankovs’ky, priest (1861–1881), Ivan Korchins’ky, priest (1881–1892), Pavlo Savluchins’ky, priest (1892), Afanasiy Dvernits’ky, priest (1892–) were recognized for their outstanding religious mission services at the St. Uspensky Orthodox Church in Bar, Ukraine.

It is necessary to note that the St. Uspensky Orthodox Church in Bar, Ukraine was closed for the renovation in 1838–1851. The full restoration of the St. Uspensky Orthodox Cathedral in Bar, Ukraine was also done in 1975. The “gold plated” domes were installed and the facade renovation works were completed at the St. Uspensky Orthodox Cathedral in Bar, Ukraine in 2013.

At present time, there are the two old icons at the St. Uspensky Orthodox Cathedral in Bar, Ukraine: 1. The St. Michael Myrlikiys’ky Miracle Man icon, created in Bari, Italy in the 16th century and presented by Bona Sforza; and 2. The God’s Mother icon with the silver frame, created in the 17th century, which saved the cathedral from the fire in 1737 and 1760.

Roman Catholic St. Anna Cathedral and St. Uspenskaya Orthodox Church, Town of Bar, Vinnytsia Region, State of Ukraine

2. The Rome Catholic St. Michael Cathedral, built in 1550 (the soft wood); and then, it was renamed as the St. Anna Rome Catholic Cathedral, re-built in 1811 (the stone); it was renovated by Y. Tamanchuk, architector in 1900 – July 26, 1906 (the red bricks) [11] [12]

The Dekanat Bar includes the following Roman Catholic Churches: Bar - Parafia St. Anny; Berezówka - Parafia St. Józefa; Brahiłów- Parafia St. Trójcy Przenajświętszej; Czemeryskie- Parafia St. Jana Chrzciciela; Czerniowce- Parafia St. Mikołaja B. M.; Jałtuszków- Parafia St. Matki Bożej Szkaplerznej; Kopajgród- Parafia Zesłania Ducha Świętego; Koziarówka - Parafia Najświętszego Serca Pana Jezusowego; Kuryłowce- Parafia St. Matki Bożej Nieustającej Pomocy; Łuczyniec - Parafia Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Malczowce - Parafia Trójcy Przenajświętszej; Meżyrów - Parafia Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Mohylów Podolski - Parafia Nawiedzenia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Mołczany- Parafia St. Wojciecha; Mytky- Parafia St. Józefa; Ozarzyńce - Parafia Nawiedzenia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Sokół- Parafia Najświętszego Serca Pana Jezusa; Śnitków - Parafia Niepokalanego Poczęcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Tarasówka- Parafia St. Jana Nepomucena; Wendyczany - Parafia Najświętszego Serca Pana Jezusa; Wierzbowiec - Parafia St.Michała Archanioła; Wilchowiec- Parafia Matki Bożej Nieustającej Pomocy; Wyszczeolczydajew - Parafia Miłosierdzia Bożego; Zatoki - Parafia St. Antoniego Padewskiego; Zhmerynka - Parafia św. Aleksego.

Pokrovsky Monastery, Town of Bar, Vinnytsia Region, State of Ukraine

3. The former St. Pokrovsky Monastery, which is now known as the Benedictine Sisters-Missioners Monastery. In the beginning, the first monastery was founded by Knight Vereshagin in the woods near Semenivky not so far away from Bar, Ukraine. Then, the monastery was built, using the stone, in Bar, Ukraine in 1551. It was re-built in 1701–1781. The history of old monastery has the three periods: 1) the Orthodox period, 2) the Catholic period, 3) the Basilian period. During the newest historical period, Cyril Podolsky initiated the foundation of the St. Pokrovsky orthodox monastery for males in 1837. The monastery was re-organized for females and chaired by Sister Melitina on July 20, 1881. The red bricks cathedral with the bells was built in 1908. The monastery was closed in 1959-1995. The Benedictine Sisters-Missioners of Bar re-opened the monastery in 1996.[13]

4. The Old Bar Fortress, built in 1537,[14]

Greek Catholic Church, Town of Bar, Vinnytsia Region, State of Ukraine

5. The Greek-Catholic church, opened in 1996.

6. The St. Trinity Brailiv Monastery, made of red bricks, is in the process of construction under the management by Viktor Terlets'ky, priest and under the patronage by Simeon, Archbishop of Vinnytsia and Mogyliv-Podil's'ky at Garmaky near Bar, Ukraine since December 10, 2002. The St. Trinity Brailiv Monastery is intended for the females.

7. The St. Michael Orthodox Church in the beginning of the Bunyakovsky Street is being re-built. The idea is to re-create the old St. Michael church, which was built at this place a few hundreds years ago. Mr. Pogrebnyak, businessman is a main sponsor of construction works.

The old castles in Bar, Ukraine require more investments,[15]

The old synagogue was destroyed during the World War II, hence it could be rebuilt in the case of funds availability in the future. [16][17] [18] [19]

Religion in Bar, Ukraine (2014),[16][20][21][22]
Christianity
  
97%
No Religion
  
1.5%
Judaism
  
1%
Islam
  
0.1%
Others/unspecified
  
0.4%

Recreation[edit]

Green Trees Park at Old Fortress in Town of Bar, Vinnytsia Region, State of Ukraine
The Ukrainian Folk Festival in Town of Bar, Vinnytsia Region, State of Ukraine in 2013
The Ukrainian Folk Festival with Ukrainian Cultural Traditions Presentation in Bar, Ukraine in 2013.

There is a green trees park at the old fortress on the Riv river banks in the center of Bar, Ukraine. It is possible to find the numerous acacias, pines, maples and some other sorts of trees. The soft climate, frequent rain, warm summer season and rich fertile soil encourage the green trees to grow to a giant size. Indeed, some old green trees grow up to 40m – 50m high.

There is a stadium, where a local football (soccer) team plays the games with other Ukrainian teams.

Education[edit]

There is a modern library in Bar. Margaret Hankamp, JD, New York Law School, New York University, USA worked on the Bibliomist program[23] to modernize the central library. The Bibliomist is a part of Global Libraries initiative of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF).

There are a few educational institutions in the Town of Bar, for example: the Humanitarian Pedagogical College named after Mikhail Grushevsky, where the students can study the English language and other subjects;,[24][25] the Automobiles and Roads College, founded by Tunik;[26][27] the Buildings Construction College;[28] the specialized music school,[29] a cinema and a contemporary art gallery.

Economy[edit]

There are several industrial companies in the Town of Bar, for instance, the Bar Industrial Machinery Plant.[30]

On the relatively short distance from Bar, there is a big natural gas compressor station, which pumps the natural gas over the transcontinental Urengoi-Pomary-Uzhgorod pipeline and the Union pipeline to the Polish, German and other European customers,.[31][32]

There is a modern Air Traffic Control Center with the beyond-visual-range-radar nearby, which provides air traffic control services in the English language for aircraft in the Vinnytsia region of Ukraine.[33] There is also an airport, which helicopters and light airplanes can use.

A photograph with panoramic view on Bar, Ukraine, which is made from aircraft

Healthcare[edit]

The local medical clinic and hospital provide a wide range of medical services to the people in Bar, Ukraine. The local doctors respect the well established medical treatment approaches and traditions within the medical school by Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov. The complex medical treatments are done in collaboration with the doctors from the medical clinics in Vinnytsia, Kyiv and other places. The medical qualifications by the doctors are constantly monitored and improved during the courses, seminars and consultations with the professors from the Vinnytsia National Medical University named after the Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov in Vinnytsia, Ukraine.

Transport[edit]

There is a railway station nearby.[34][35]

There is an inter-city bus station in Bar.

Media[edit]

The main local newspaper is The Barchany,[36] which discusses the local news mostly. The other newspaper is The Podol'sky Krai,[37][38] which provides information on the local news and developments.

Notable people[edit]

  • Danylo Nechay, a Ukrainian Cossack military commander and political activist, was born in Bar in 1612.
  • Viktor Bunyakovsky, noted as a mathematician of the 19th century, was born in the city in 1804.
  • Joseph Barondess, a writer, a labor leader and a political figure in New York City's Lower East Side Jewish community in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century, was born in Bar in 1867.[39]
  • Batsheva Katznelson, an Israeli politician, who served as a member of the Knesset for the General Zionists between 1951 and 1955, was born in Bar in 1897.[40]
  • Jacobo Timerman was born in Bar in 1923, and became internationally renowned as an editor and journalist in Argentina.
  • Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky wrote a few of his well-known writings while living in Bar. His house is a place of interest for the Ukrainian and foreign tourists and it is under reconstruction.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Чисельність наявного населення України" (in Ukrainian). State Service of Statistics. Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  2. ^ "Bar". Encyclopediaofukraine.com. Retrieved 2014-07-31. 
  3. ^ "page=145&news=419". 
  4. ^ "GISMETEO.RU: Погода в России. Точный прогноз погоды (метеопрогноз) на сегодня, завтра, выходные, неделю, месяц.". 
  5. ^ Climatological Information for Vinnitsa, Ukraine, Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
  6. ^ "Офіційний сайт м.Бар | Барська міська рада". Bar-city.com.ua. Retrieved 2014-07-31. 
  7. ^ "Собор Успіння Пресвятої Богородиці м.Бар -". 
  8. ^ "Історія". 
  9. ^ "Успенский Собор". 
  10. ^ "³�ницька єпархія Української Православної Церкви". 
  11. ^ "WINNICKI obw., Bar. Diecezja Kamieniecko-Podolska. Ko�cioły oraz kaplice". 
  12. ^ "Костел Св. Анны , Костел Св. Анни Бар, ул. Св. Николая, 12". Bar.glo.ua. Retrieved 2014-07-31. 
  13. ^ "Покровский монастырь в Баре , Покровський монастир у Барі Бар, ул. Монастырская, 55". Bar.glo.ua. Retrieved 2014-07-31. 
  14. ^ "Барский замок , Барський замок Винница, Бар, ул. В. Буняковського, 7". Bar.glo.ua. Retrieved 2014-07-31. 
  15. ^ "Vinnitsa investment". Vininvest.gov.ua. 1932-02-27. Retrieved 2014-07-31. 
  16. ^ a b "Bar, Ukraine Virtual Jewish History Tour - Jewish Virtual Library". 
  17. ^ "BAR - ukraine - International Jewish Cemetery Project". 
  18. ^ http://www.rtrfoundation.org/webart/UK-arch-d2.pdf
  19. ^ "ukraine". 
  20. ^ http://www.bar.church.ua
  21. ^ http://www.bar-library.com/index.php?page=145&news=300
  22. ^ http://www.bar-library.com/index.php?page=145&news=296
  23. ^ "Bibliomist - Бібліоміст". 
  24. ^ "Блог - Барський гуманітарно-педагогічний коледж". 
  25. ^ випускниця 2014 (17 October 2014). "Барский гуманитарно-педагогический колледж им. Михаила Грушевского". 
  26. ^ Безсмертный Іван. "Барский автомобильной-дорожный техникум : Главная". 
  27. ^ BRABUS (15 October 2014). "Барский автомобильно-дорожный техникум Национального транспортного университета (БАДТ НТУ)". 
  28. ^ Сергій (5 September 2014). "Барский профессиональный строительный лицей". 
  29. ^ "Барская детская музыкальная школа". 
  30. ^ "Производство оборудования для пищевой промышленности. Барский машзавод. Бармаш". 
  31. ^ "Germany praises condition of Ukrainian gas transport system". 
  32. ^ "Ukraine together with Germany began a real project GTS modernization - InvestUkraine". 
  33. ^ "Uksatse - Air Traffic Service". 
  34. ^ "�ар (Україна). Расписание поездов по станции Бар (Украина) - e-kassa.com". 
  35. ^ "Бар,Винницкая обл.: расписание поездов и электричек". 
  36. ^ "?????? "???????" - ????????? ???? ????? ???". 
  37. ^ "�ОДОЛЬСКИЙ КРАЙ, РЕДАКЦИЯ РАЙОННОЙ ГАЗЕТЫ (Винницкая обл., Барский р-н, г. Бар) — сайт, контакты, адреса, телефоны, продукция и услуги, интернет реклама". 
  38. ^ "�ÎÄÎËÜÑÊÈÉ ÊÐÀÉ, ÐÅÄÀÊÖÈß ÐÀÉÎÍÍÎÉ ÃÀÇÅÒÛ, ÊÎÌÌÓÍÀËÜÍÎÅ ÃÏ: àäðåñ, òåëåôîí, ñàéò - ïîäîëüñêèé êðàé, ðåäàêöèÿ ðàéîííîé ãàçåòû, êîììóíàëüíîå ãï â Áàðå è Áàðñêîì ðàéîíå - 321932". 
  39. ^ "Joseph Barondess Papers". Americanjewisharchives.org. Retrieved 2014-07-31. 
  40. ^ "Knesset Member, Batsheva Katznelson". Knesset.gov.il. Retrieved 2014-07-31. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Grushevsky M., Barskoe Starostvo: Historical Notes: XV-XVIII, St. Vladimir University Publishing House, Bol'shaya-Vasil'kovskaya, Building no. 29-31, Kiev, Ukraine, 1894; Lviv, Ukraine, ISBN 5-12-004335-6, pp. 1 – 623, 1996.
  • Podolynnyi A., Town of Bar, Mayak Publishing House, Odessa, Ukraine, 1990, pp. 1 – 62.
  • Kozak O., Yoltukhovsky M., Mesnyankin E., Bakalets' O., Navrotsky S., Petrina M., Neptunsky B., Sharovatova L., Lozinsky I. (editors), Bar: Key to Eastern Podillya, AMJ Marketing, Uslugi reklamowo-marketingowe, Marcin Jadach, 82-200 Malbork, ul. Jagiellonska 2/27, Poland, ISBN 978-83-927080-8-7, pp. 1 – 71.
  • Bondarczuk I., Nawrocki S., Jaltuchowski M., Telega J., Czornyj A., Bodnarczuck S., Mejdbrajer S. (editors), Bar, Wykonawca: Max, Joanna Moroczek, 86-200 Stronno, ul. Topolowa 9, Poland, pp. 1 – 91, 2001.
  • Storozhuk A., Podil's'ky Bar and its Suburbs: History and Present (Events. Features. Facts), Humanitarian - Pedagogical College, Bar, Ukraine, UDK 94 (477.44), pp. 1 – 282, 2010.
  • Yoltukhovsky M. P., Magdeburg Right and Self - Administration in Bar and its Surrounding Districts in XVI - Beginning of XX Centuries, Grigorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 8 – 11, 2011.
  • Mesnyankin E. I., Role of Bona Sforza and Bernard Pretvich in Adaptation of Magdeburg Right in Town of Bar, Grigorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 15 – 19, 2011.
  • Batig M. I., Bar Monastery of Fathers Vasyliyan and Bar Vasyliyan School, Grigorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 93 – 97, 2011.
  • Kharitonova I. V., Historical Centers of Spiritual Life in Town of Bar, Grigorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 104 – 115, 2011.
  • Khilins'ka L. V., Regional Humanitarian College in History of Town of Bar, Grigorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 116 – 122, 2011.
  • Filipova S. M., History of Development of Bar District Library, Grigorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 138 – 142, 2011.
  • Savchuk P. N., History and Present of Bar Humanitarian - Pedagogical College named after M. Grushevsky, Grigorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 149 – 151, 2011.
  • Kryzhanivsky O. A., Matyushenko O. M., Rehabilitation Center for Young People with Disabilities in Town of Bar, Grigorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 152 – 155, 2011.
  • Grigorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 1 – 337, 2011.
  • Giyom Levasser de Boplan, Description of Ukraine, 1650; Kravets Ya. (translator), Kamenyar Publishing House, Lviv, Ukraine, ISBN 5-7745-0300-3, pp. 1 – 301, 1990.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 49°04′30″N 27°40′34″E / 49.07500°N 27.67611°E / 49.07500; 27.67611