Barabanki district

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This article is about the district. For its eponymous headquarters, see Barabanki city.
Barabanki district
बाराबंकी ज़िला
بارابنکی ‏ضلع
district
Barabanki district is located in Uttar Pradesh
Barabanki district
Barabanki district
Location in Uttar Pradesh, India
Coordinates: 26°55′N 81°12′E / 26.92°N 81.20°E / 26.92; 81.20Coordinates: 26°55′N 81°12′E / 26.92°N 81.20°E / 26.92; 81.20
Country  India
State Uttar Pradesh
Region Awadh
Division Faizabad
District Barabanki
Headquarters Barabanki
Tehsils
  1. Nawabganj
  2. Fatehpur
  3. Ramsanehi Ghat
  4. Haidergarh
  5. Ram Nagar
  6. Sirauli Ghauspur
Government
 • Body Public Works Department (disambiguation)
 • District Magistrate Ministhy S, IAS
 • Superintendent of Police Mr. Anand Kulkarni, IPS
Area
 • Total 3,894.5 km2 (1,503.7 sq mi)
Elevation 125 m (410 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 2,673,581
 • Density 686.50/km2 (1,778.0/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Hindi, Urdu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 225 xxx
Telephone code 5248
ISO 3166 code IN-UP-BB
Vehicle registration UP 41
Sex ratio 893/[2]
Literacy 47.39%
Lok Sabha constituency 1
Vidhan Sabha constituency 6
Civic agency Public Works Department (disambiguation)
Climate Cfa (Köppen)
Precipitation 1,050 millimetres (41 in)
Avg. summer temperature 43.0 °C (109.4 °F)
Avg. winter temperature 3.3 °C (37.9 °F)
Website barabanki.nic.in
Location coordinates[3]
Data[4]

The Barabanki district is one of four districts of Faizabad division, lies at the very heart of Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh state of India, and forms as it were a centre from which no less than seven other districts radiate. It is situated between 27°19' and 26°30' north latitude, and 80°05' and 81°51’ east longitude; it runs in a south-easterly direction, confined by the nearly parallel streams of the Ghaghara and Gomti. With its most northern point it impinges on the Sitapur district, while its north-eastern boundary is washed by the waters of the Ghagra, beyond which lie the districts of Bahraich district and Gonda district. Its eastern frontier marches with Faizabad district, and the Gomti forms a natural boundary to the south, dividing it from the Sultanpur district. On the west it adjoins the Lucknow district. The extreme length of the district from east to west may be taken at 57 mi (92 km), and the extreme breadth at 58 mi (93 km); the total area is about 1,504 sq mi (3,900 km2): its population amounts to 2,673,581, being at the rate of 686.50 to the square km. The Barabanki city is the district headquarters. Barabanki district has been known to be a favourite haunt of saints and ascetics, literatteurs and intellectuals, besides being a battlefield for freedom fighters.

The district under British rule had an area of 1,769 sq mi (4,580 km2). In 1856 it came, with the rest of Oudh, under British rule. During the Sepoy war of 1857-1858 the whole of the Bara Banki talukdars joined the mutineers, but offered no serious resistance after the capture of Lucknow.[5][6]

It stretches out in a level plain interspersed with numerous jhils or marshes. In the upper part of the district the soil is sandy, while in the lower part it is clayey and produces finer crops.[6] The district is well fed by rivers Ghaghra (forming the northern boundary), Gomti (flowing through the middle of the district) and Kalyani and their tributaries, for the major part of the year. Some rivers dry out in the summer, and get flooded during the rainy season, creating havoc. The changing course of the river Ghagra changes the land area in the district, year to year.

The principal crops are rice, wheat, pulse and other food grains and sugarcane. Trade in agricultural produce is active. Both the bordering rivers are navigable; and the district is traversed by two lines of the Northern Railway and North-Eastern Railway, with branches having total length of 131 km.[7] It has good road connectivity also including National Highways (NH 24A, NH 28, NH 28C & NH 56A), State Highways and various link roads.

The minority population in the district is over 24 per cent.[8]

Contents

History[edit]

Barabanki Clock Arch

The district of Barabanki also known as the Entrance to Poorvanchal, has the privilege of being the penance ground to numerous saints and ascetics. This is a place of great antiquity.

There are several ancient sayings to the naming of this district. It was known before the Muslim conquest as Jasnaul, from Jas, a raja of the Bhar tribe, who is said to have founded it before 1000 AD. With a change of proprietors came a change of name. The Muslim owners divided the lands into twelve shares, over which the respective proprietors quarrelled so incessantly that they were called the Barah Banke, or twelve quarrelsome men. Banka, in Awadhi, meaning a bully or brave. Others derive the name from ban, meaning wood or jungle, and interpret Barabanki as the twelve shares of jungle.[5]

District Barabanki was known as Dariyabad with its headquarters at Dariyabad town established by an officer in the army of Mohammed Shah Shariqi by the name Dariab Khan. It remained the district headquarters till 1858 AD,[9] The headquarters were later moved to Nawabganj in 1859 AD. the other popular name of Barabanki.[5]

Legends[edit]

Ramayan era[edit]

It is said that in ancient times this district was part of the kingdom ruled by Suryavanshi kings, whose capital was Ayodhya. King Dashrath and his famous son, Ram were of this dynasty. Guru Vashisht was their Kulguru, and he preached and taught the young royal princes of the dynasty at Satrikh, initially known as Saptrishi.

Mahabahrat era[edit]

Parijat tree at Kintoor, Barabanki

This district was under the rule of the Chandravanshi kings for a very long period. During the Mahabharat era, it was part of the 'Gaurav Rajya' and this part of land was known by the name Kurukshetra. Pandav along with their mother Kunti had spent some time on the banks of river Ghaghra during their exile.

Parijaat tree a sacred baobab tree in the village of Kintoor on the banks of Ghaghra.[10] Near a temple (known as Kunteshwar Mahadev temple) established by Kunti, is a special tree called Parijaat which is said to grow from Kunti's ashes.[11] Historically, though these saying may have some bearing or not, but it is true that this tree is from a very ancient background.[12]

Bazaar Dharam Mandi (Dhamedi) and the famous Lodheshwar Mahadev Mandir's Shivling are other proof that this region had an important place even five thousand years ago during the Mahabharat period.

Pre-historic[edit]

Greater part of Barabanki was included in Pachhimrath country (the territory between rivers Ghaghra and Gomti[13]), one of the five divisions of the kingdom of Rama.[14]

Before 1000 AD, Jas, a raja of the Bhar tribe is said to have founded the locality of Jasnaul which later, after the Muslim conquest of the region came to be known as Bara Banki or Barabanki.[5]

After 1000 till 1525[edit]

Indian Shia Muslims take out a Ta'ziya procession on day of Ashura in Barabanki, India, Jan, 2009.

The Muslims had made their first permanent settlement in this district at Satrikh, in 421 AH. / 1030 AD.[5]

Sihali, was conquered, and its sovereign, a Siharia Chhattri, was killed. Kintur was captured, and its Bhar queen, Kintama slain.[5]

As per the historical documentation available, in 1030 AD this region was attacked by Sayyed Salar Masood, nephew of Mahmood of Ghazni. In 1032 AD Salar died.[5]

The battle in which Bhar chief Sohil Deo (or Sohel Dal) of Sahet-Mahet a small northern kingdom (he was the conqueror of Sayyed Salar Masood) was subversed[clarification needed] by Sri Chandradeo, the Rathor monarch of Kannauj was fought in Satrikh village of the district.[15]

In 1049 AD / 441 AH, the Kings of Kanauj and Manikpur were defeated and driven from Oudh by Qutub-ud-din of Medina. The Muslim invasion was more successful in Bara Banki than elsewhere. In 586 AH. / 1189 AD, Sihali was conquered by Shekh Nizam-ud-din of Herat, Ansari. Zaidpur was occupied by them in 636 AH, when Sayyad Abd-ul-Wahid turned out the Bhars, altering the name of the town from Suhalpur. The colony of Musalman Bhattis is reported to have arrived about the same time, although some place it as early as 596 AH. / 1199 AD. They came from Bhatnair or Bhattiana, in the Punjab and Rajputana and settled at Mawai Maholara.[5]

After 1350 AD Muslim immigrants started to settle in great number in the district until nearly to middle of eighteenth century.[16] At the Muslims first permanently settled in Oudh.[17]

Rudauli was occupied about 700 AH, in the reign of Alla-ud-din Khilji, whose forces had just about the same time destroyed Anhalwara, Chittor, Dcogir, Mandor, Jessulmere, Gagraun, Bundi, in fact nearly every remaining seat of Chhattri power. Rasulpur was conquered about 1350 AD / 756 AH. Daryabad was founded about 850 AH / 1444 AD, by Dariab Khan Subahdar. Fatehpur was colonized by Fateh Khan, a brother of Dariab Khan, and about the same time. The villages of Barauli and Barai, near Rudauli, were occupied, and gave their name to large estates about the middle of the fifteenth century.[5]

Simultaneously, however, with this latter immigration of the Muslims there was one of Chhattris. The mysterious tribe of Kalhans, which numbers some twenty thousand persons, are said to be descended from Achal Singh, who came in as a soldier of fortune with Dariab Khan about 1450 AD. Raja Achal Singh is a great name in the Middle Ages of Oudh; he had large property—some state that his capital was Bado Sarai, on the old bank of the Ghagra.[5]

At this time Ibrahim Shah Sharqi, reigned at Jaunpur. Oudh was the battle ground—the border land between Sharqis of Jaunpur and the Lodis of Delhi—and their princes, as the tide of conquest surged backwards and forwards. Dariab Khan settled Hindu soldiers as garrisons,—the war being now one between Muslims, and no longer one of religion. The Kalhans are said to have come from Gujarat, the same nursery of Chhattris from which the Ahban, the Pan war, the Gahlot, the Gaur, the Bais, and many other Oudh clans, are believed to have emigrated.[5]

The isolated Suryavanshi estate of Haraha and the Somvanshi Bahrelia estate of Surajpur were established by small colonies of Chhattri soldiers, who had been dismissed from service about eighteen generations ago (in 1877).[5]

Mughal era (1526–1732)[edit]

During the reign of the great Mughal emperor Akbar this district was divided under the sirkars of Oudh, Lucknow and Manikpur.[5][18] The following parganas are mentioned in Akbar's time vide Ain-i-Akbari:

Number Muhals of Ain-i-Akbari Parganas as of 1878 Sarkars of Ain-i-Akbari
1 Ibrahimabad Ibrahimabad Oudh
2 Basorhi Basorhi Oudh
3 Bakteha Baksaha Oudh
4 Daryabad Daryabad Oudh
5 Rudauli Rudauli Oudh
6 Sailuk Sailuk Oudh
7 Subeha Subeha Oudh
8 Satrikh Satrikh Oudh
9 Bhitauli Bhitauli Lucknow
10 Dewa Dewa Lucknow
11 Kumbhi Dewa Lucknow
12 Kursi Kursi Lucknow
13 Kahanjra Kursi Lucknow
14 Siddhaur Siddhaur Lucknow
15 Sidhipur Siddhaur Lucknow
16 Sihali Khiron Lucknow
17 Bhilwal Haidergarh Manikpur
Ref:Gazetteer of the province of Oudh, By Oudh, William Charles Benett Printed at the Oudh government press, 1878, #451,452,454

Nawabs of Awadh (1732–1856)[edit]

In 1165 AH. / 1751 AD, the Raikwars seem to have headed a great Hindu movement to shake off the Musalman Government.[5]

Safdar Jang, the wazir, had been absent at Delhi; his naib, Newal Rae, had been defeated and killed at the Kali nadi three years before by the Bangash Afghans of Farukhabad, who then overran the whole province except a few of the fortified towns. In 1749 AD, Safdar Jang himself, with an army of 60,000 men, was defeated by them ; and if at this time the Oudh Chhattris had risen, the Mughal authority might have been overthrown, but they waited till after Safdar Jang, in 1750 AD / 1164 AH, had bribed or beaten the Rohillas out of the country.[5]

Then the tribes gathered themselves together under the leadership of Anup Singh, the Raja of Ramnagar Dhameri; the Janwar of Balrampur, the Bisens of Gonda, and numerous other lords assembled their forces for an attack on Lucknow, now denuded of the troops which had gone into Rohilkhand. The Shekhzadas of Lucknow came out to meet the enemy, they were joined by the Khanziidas of Mahmudabad and Bilahra, who were connected with them by marriage.[5]

The battle was fought at Chheola Ghat on the Kalyani, on the road to Lucknow. The Musalmans, headed by Nawab Muizz-ud-din Khan of Mahmudabad, won the day. The Balrainpur raja was killed it is said, and an immense number of the allied host, some 15,000 were killed or wounded on both sides. Nor would this number be at all remarkable when large armies, inflamed against each other by religious hatred in addition to the ordinary motives, fought at close quarters. From this event dates the rise of the Khanzadas. The Raikwars were proportionately depressed; the estates of both Baundi and Ramnagar were broken up, and but a few villages left with the raja. The process of agglomeration commenced again, seventy years afterwards, about 1816, on the death of the sagacious Saadat Ali Khan, and before annexation, in 1856, the Ramnagar raja had recovered the whole family estate and added to it largely, while his brother of Baundi had similarly added 172 villages to his domain.[5]

The principal chiefs of Bara Banki during the last years of Nawabi were:—[5]

Taluqa of Ramnagar — The large property consisted of 253 villages belongs to Raja Sarabjit Singh. The Raja was the head of the Raikwar clan, who immigrated to Oudh from the hill country about Kashmir in about 1400 A. D. It is a curious fact that whereas all Rajputs place a special value on the wood of the neem tree, the Raikwars alone are forbidden to use it.

Taluqa of Haraha — The proprietor of this taluqa was Raja Narindr Bahadur, the head of the Surajbans Thakurs. His father, Raja Chbatarpat Singh, is yet alive. Both father and son were afflicted with mental incapacity. The estate, which consisted of sixty-six villages, paid a revenue of Rs. 55,000, was under the management of the local authorities. Certain members of the Raja's family held the estates of Ranimau Qiampur in a separate qubuliat in the Nawabi, and they have thus escaped being placed under the taluqdar's sanad.

Taluqa of Surajpur — This estate comprised fifty-six villages. The proprietor was Raja Udatt Partab Singh, the head of Bahrelia Bais Thakurs. The Raja was mentally and physically unfit to manage his estate ; but so long as his maternal grandfather, Udatt Narain, lived there was no fear of under-proprietors, tenants or patwaris defrauding the family.

The late Raja Singji was a most formidable and violent landholder until he was attacked by Maharaja Man Singh, captured and taken prisoner to Lucknow, where he died in jail. It was mainly owing to the bad example set by Singji that the Daryabad district was so turbulent under the native Government, that amils and chakladars were to use a native expression unable to breathe in it— (Nak men dam karta tha.)

Taluqa of Jahangirabad — The taluqdar of Jahangirabad was a Qidwai Sheikh, Raja Farzand Ali Khan. He owed his position to two circumstances:

  1. his marriage with the daughter of Raja Razzaq Bakhsh, the late proprietor of the taluqa;
  2. to a fortuitous incident which occurred about three years before annexation.

Farzand Ali was the darogah in charge of the Sikandarbagh at Lucknow. On one occasion of the last king of Oudh visiting the garden, he was struck with the appearance of this young man, and presenting him with a khilat, directed him to attend at the palace.

With such a signal mark of the royal favour, Farzand Ali's advancement was rapid, and, under the interest of the influential eunuch, Bashir-ud-daula, he obtained a farman designating him the Raja of Jahangirabad. This taluqdar followed the deposed king to Calcutta, and was there during the mutinies. Raja Farzand Ali was very intelligent, and well able to manage his estate with prudence and circumspection.

Taluqa of Barai — Chaudhri Ghulam Farid, a Siddiqi Shekh, was the largest landholder of the Rudauli tahsil. He owned thirty-nine villages. At the summary settlement before annexation, he contemplated depriving the children of his cousin, Mumtaz Ahmad, of their share in the estate, unmindful of the past long possession of his cousin; but at the earnest representations of Sayyad Abdul Hakim, an extra assistant commissioner, who was respected throughout the district, he made a fair division; in fact, he gave them half the estate.

Taluqa of Usmanpur - The Taluqdar of Usmanpur were Bisen rajput. This is the most famous Bisen Khanzada family. This estate was founded by one Kaunsal Singh (Raja Khushal Singh), who obtained an estate as a reward for military service under the Mughal Emperor Humayun. One of his sons Lakhan Singh converted to Islam, and took the name Lakhu Khan. The estate of Usmanpur was founded by Ghanzafar Khan, who was confirmed ownership of Usmanpur and neighbouring villages by the Nawabs of Awadh. He owned forty villages.

Taluqas of Satrikh —This estate comprised 85 villages. All the villages pay their 'Lagan' (Tax)to the Taluqedar of Satrikh. After 1857, Satrikh estate was ruled by Taluqedar Qazi / Kazi Ikram Ahmad and preceded by Qazi Kamaluddin Ahmad. The previous Chaudhry's were dispossessed for resistance to the British during the War of Independence. They were descendants of the original Usmani's who immigrated to Oudh in the early part of the millennium.

Taluqas of Rudauli —there were in all forty-three.

1857 war of independence[edit]

Unlike what occurred in the districts of Hardoi, Gonda, and Lucknow, the whole body of the taluqdars in this district joined the cause of the deposed king and the mutineers. They offered no resistance however, of any moment to the advance of the British troops after the capture of Lucknow ; in the battle of Nawabganj.[5] Many kings and princes opposed the expansion of British rule into this district by waging wars against them. During the British Raj, several kings fought for their independence and laid down their lives doing so, the great revolutionaries. Raja Balbhadra Singh Chehlari along with about 1000 revolutionaries sacrificed their lives for independence from the British rule. In 1857 at Nawabganj Sir Hope Grant defeated the revolutionaries.[17] During the middle of the nineteenth century the revolutionaries put up their last front at Bhitauli which proved unsuccessful in comparison to the strong British forces. Leaving behind the Bhitauli front the aids along with Begum Hazrat Mahal, Nana Saheb entered into the territory of Nepal to continue their freedom struggle from there. The last battle of the First War of Indian Independence was fought in December 1858 AD here in this district.

British (1858–1947)[edit]

The Sadr station (district headquarters) was placed at annexation and also after the mutinies at Daryabad, but owing to the stagnation of water in the immediate vicinity of the town, and to the prevalence of fever, the headquarters were removed in 1859 to Nawabganj, Bara Banki.[19]

During 1869 census of Oudh, total thirteen large towns or kasbahs were identified in the district,[20]

  1. Nawabgunj
  2. Musauli
  3. Rasauli
  4. Satrikh
  5. Zaidpur
  6. Sidhaur
  7. Dariabad
  8. Ichaulia
  9. Rudauli
  10. Ram Nagar
  11. Bado Sarai
  12. Kintoor
  13. Fatehpur

Following were tahsils and parganas during 1869 census:

Tahsil Pargana
Nawaba Ganj Nawabganj
Patabganj
Satrikh
Sidhaur
Ram Nagar Ramnagar
Bhitouli
Bado Sarai
Fatehpur
Mohammedpur
Sani Ghat Dariabad
Surajpur
Rudauli
Mawai Mahulara
Barsorhi

In 1870 before addition of two parganas from Lucknow (i.e. Kursi & Dewa) and one pargana each from Rae Bareli (i.e. Haidergarh) & Sultanpur (i.e. Subeha), Bara Banki district had area of 1,285 sq mi (3,330 km2) and had following subdivisions:[19]

Tahsil Pargana No. of Villages Area (in acres) Major Talukas & Talukdars
Nawabaganj Nawabganj 77 50,484 I.— Jehangirabad, Raja Farzand Ali Khan
II.— Sohailpur Bhanmau, Mir Buniad Husen and Amjad Husen.
III.— Satrikh, Kazi Sarfraz Ali.
IV.— Simrawan, Bissein Thakur Sheo Sahai.
V.— Shahpur, Ghulam Abbas and Mahomed Amir.
VI.— Gaddia, Shekh Zainulabdin.
VII.— Usmanpur, Thakurain Zahur-un-nissa.
Partabganj 54 35,834
Satrikh 43 29,358
Siddhaur 224 90,377
Daryabad-Rudauli
(later named to Ram Sanehi Ghat)
Daryabad 241 136,931 I.— Surajpur Raja Udatpertab Singh, Burhelia Thakur.
II.— Haraha, Raja Narindur Bahadur, Surajbans Thakur.
III.— Kamiar, Shere Bahadur, Kalhans Thakur.
IV.— Rampur, Rai Ibram Bali, Kaisth.
V.— Saidanpur, Latafat-ullah and Inayat-ullah.
VI.— Nirauli, Chaudhri Husen Baksh.
VII.— Amirpur, Inayat Rassul.
VIII.— Purai, Mahomed Abid.
IX.- Daryabad, Rai Rajeshwar Bali.
Surajpur 107 61,645
Rudauli 196 110,553
Mawai 51 45,469
Barsorhi 44 21,958
Ramnagar Ramnagar 168 71,756 I.— Ramnagar, Raja Sarabjit Singh, Raikwar Thakur.
II.— Bilheri, Raja Ibad Ali.
III.— Mahmudabad, Raja Amir Hussan Khan.
IV.— Bhatwamau, Badshah Husen Khanzada.
V.— Muhammadpur, Ganga Singh, Raikwar.
Fatehpur 251 98,532
Muhammadpur 83 39,568
Bado Sarai 56 30,541
Total 1,595 323,011

In 1871 talukdars held about half the district and number 53, village zemindars number 5,397, and under-proprietors 1,354. Following is details of talukas:[19]

Name of Taluka Name of Talukdar No. of Villages Area (in acres)
Ramnagar Raja Sarabjit Singh 358 108,286
Huraha Raja Nurindur Bahadur Singh 66 29,960
Bhanmau Mir Umjad Hosein 10 5,233
Jehagerabad Raja Farzand Ali Khan 72 22,751
Surajpur Raja Talaywand Koer 64 36,388
Mahmudabad Raja Amir Hassan Khan 89 28,680
Man Singh Maharaja Man Singh 16 13,009
Malaraiganj Nawab Ali Khan 11 3,235
Shahabpur Mahomed Amir and Gholam Abbas 8 3,578
Simrawan Thakur Sheosahai 8 4,188
Sohailpur Mir Umjad Hosein 8 2,458
Ushdamow Panday Bahadur Singh 16 3,684
Usmanpur Thakur Roshun zama Khan 25 7,238
Kharkha Mahomed Hosein 10 4,593
Guddia Shaikh Zainulabdin 12 1,933
Satrikh Kazi Ikram Ahmed 85 9,420
Gootiah Hakim Kurrum Ali 13 5,549
Subeha Surfaraz Ahmed 1 564
Sulaunpur Nawab Ali Khan 6 3,892
Kotwa Abid Ali 1 331
Motree Bhugwant singh 1 1,040
Tribadiganj Raja Thakurpershad Tribadi 2 813
Lillowly Buxshee Harpershad 11 2,510
Nurhowl Shaik Boo Ali 3 1,465
Mirpur Nusserudeen 4 2,416
Baytowly Maharaja Runbir Singh 5 3,535
Rampur Thakur Gooman Singh 1 357
Jubrahpur Thakur Ruder Pratab Singh 2 700
Bilharrah Raja Ibad Ali Khan 41 15,838
Muhammadpur Thakur Ganga Singh 26 4,981
Bhatwamau Badsha Hasan Khan 23 8,459
Rampur Rai Ibram Balli 35 13,571
Kumyar Shere Bahadur 10 13,430
Sydanpur Latafat-ul-lah and Mayet-ul-lah 13 5,428
Pushka Naipal Singh 4 2,129
Raneemau Outar Singh 14 5,687
Nurrowly Chaudhri Razah Husain 45 23,157
Barrai Chaudhri Gholam Farid and Mahboob-ul-Rahamn 46 16,039
Purai Meer mahomaed Abid 14 6,722
Amirpur Chaudhri Ishan Russul 13 4,557
Burrowly Chaudhri Wazeer Ali 25 3,871
Nearah Shere Khan 13 2,993
Retch Raghunath Singh 1 2,183
Total 1,158 4,36,574

In 1877 Barabanki was one of the three districts of the then Lucknow division.[21] Its area was 1,768 sq mi (4,580 km2) and population was 1,113,430.

As per 1877 Gazetteer of the province of Oudh there were:[5]

  • Four tehsils:
    • Nawabganj
    • Ram Sanehi Ghat
    • Fatehpur
    • Haidergarh
  • Nine thanas:
    • Nawabganj
    • Zaidpur
    • Tikaitnagar
    • Sanehi Ghat
    • Bhilsar
    • Fatehpur
    • Kursi
    • Ramnagar
    • Haidergarh
  • Courts, following were officers with civil, criminal and revenue powers:
    • a deputy commissioner
    • two assistant commissioner
    • three extra assistant commissioner
    • four tehsildars
    • four honorary magistrates

Independence movement[edit]

In 1921 Gandhiji started the Non-cooperation Movement, thereby igniting the flame of independence once again. Here too, the district leading from the front, opposed the arrival of Prince of Wales to India. In the War of Independence against the British from the year 1922 to 1934 during the Khilafat movement the district participated whole heartidely in the growing movement against foreign fabrics, etc.[22] Protests were organised and large number of freedom fighter courted arrests at the Government High School, Nawabganj, Shri Rafi Ahmad Kidwai was also arrested. During 1922 Khilafat Movement, 1930 Salt Movement, and in 1942 AD the Quit India Movement, the people of this district actively participated in these movements thereby giving sleepless nights to the British Raj. As a result, the District Congress Office was sealed. But, the local leaders continued their protests remaining underground. The Haidergarh Post office was looted on 24 August 1942 as a mark of protest by the revolutionaries. Similar incidents took place at the HPO Barabanki and Satrikh. The people of this district enthusiastically respond to the call of Satyagraha and large numbers courted arrest. On 26 October 1942, Brij Bahadur and Hans Raj alias Sardar planted a bomb in police out post at Barabanki, the incidence is known as Barabanki Out post Bomb Case. [23]

Geography[edit]

The district is for the most part flat to monotony, there is an utter absence of mountains; the most elevated point is about four hundred and thirty feet above the sea; and there are few points of view from which any expanse of country can be surveyed. The verdure and beauty of the groves with which it is studded in every direction redeem the prospect from bare ugliness, and when the spring crops are green and the jhils yet full of water, the richness of the landscape is very striking. Here and there patches of uncultivated waste are to be seen, but a high assessment and security of tenure are rapidly converting them into waving fields of corn. Towards the north, especially along the old bank of the Ghaghra, the ground is undulating and richly wooded, while to the south there is a gentle slope down to the Gomti. The monotonous level is broken on the north by an abrupt fall, the ridge running parallel to the Ghaghra at a distance of from one mile (1.6 km) to three miles (5 km), is said to indicate what was formerly the right bank of the river. The district is intersected at various parts by rugged ravines.

Location and boundaries[edit]

Barabanki district is situated about 29 km in the East direction of Lucknow the Capital of Uttar Pradesh. This district being one of the four districts of Faizabad division, is located in the heart of Awadh region and it lies between Latitudes 26° 30' North and 27° 19' North and Longitudes 80° 58' East and 81° 55' East. District Barabanki is surrounded by district Faizabad in the East, districts Gonda and Bahraich in the North East, district Sitapur in the North West, district Lucknow in the West, district Rae Bareli in the South and district Sultanpur in the South East. The river Ghaghra forms the North Eastern Boundary separating Barabanki from Bahraich and Gonda.[24]

Area[edit]

According to the 1991 census the area of the district was 4401 km². The districts were reconstituted and Tehsil Rudauli of this district was merged with district Faizabad, thereby reducing the land area of the district. Now the area of the district stands reduced to 3895.4 km². The area is liable to vary from year to year due to the slightest change in the course of the river Ghaghra, because this slight variation makes a noticeable change in the overall area of the district.[24]

Topography[edit]

The district can be topographically divided into three main regions.[24]

  1. Tarai region, the area in the North East towards river Ghaghra.
  2. Gomti par region, the wide area from South West to South East of the district.
  3. Har region, which is situated at some height to the Gomti Par region, the whole tract is gently undulating land with gentle slope from the North West to South East.

River system and water resources[edit]

The district is well fed by rivers Ghaghra, Gomti and Kalyani with their tributaries for major part of the year. Although some of them dryout during summers and create havoc during rainy season by flooding.[24]

Ghaghra[edit]

The principal river in the district is the Ghaghra, at a short distance from Bahramghat; in the Fatehpur tahsil the rivers Chauka and Sarda meet, and their united stream is called the Ghaghra. Both those component rivers take their rise in the Himalaya and at their confluence form a stream, which at Bahramghat is in the rainy season from one and a half to two miles (3 km), and in the dry season half mile in breadth. The Gogra divides the Bara Banki district from the districts of Bahraich and Gonda. It flows in a south-easterly direction past Faizabad, and finally empties itself into the Ganges at Arrah, above Dinapore. This river is navigable for flat-bottomed steamers as far as Bahramghat; but the traffic is at present confined to country boats which ply in considerable numbers between Bahramghat and Sarun district. It has been stated that the ancient course of the river is indicated at a distance of from one to two miles (3 km) from the existing right bank by a ridge about 20 feet (6.1 m) high. The low lands between the ancient and present channels generally have fine crops of rice, but the water sometimes lies too long after the rains and rots them, and the spring crops cannot be sown. The river is not utilized for purposes of irrigation. Some portion of Tehsil Fatehpur and some portion of Tehsil Ram Sanehi Ghat falls on its banks.

The Ghaghraflows for forty-eight miles on the border of the district; the dry weather discharge is 19,000 cubic feet (540 m3). The principal ferries are at Kaithi, Kamiar, and Paska Ghat; there is a boat-bridge during the cold season at Bahramghat.

Gomti[edit]

Next in importance is the Gomti, which runs through the tahsil of Haidargarh and some portion of the tehsil Ram Sanehi Ghat and separates the Bara Banki district from the districts of Lucknow, Sultanpur and Faizabad. It runs like the Ghagra in a south-easterly direction, has a well-defined bank and a stream which is fordable in the dry weather, and is about 40 yards broad. There is considerable traffic on the Gumti by country boats.

The Gomti flows for 105 miles (169 km) through, or on the border of the district, but its course is so circuitous that the direct distance from the point of entrance to that of exit is only forty-two miles; it is not therefore so useful for navigation, and it lies too low for irrigation; its dry weather discharge is 500 cubic feet (14,000 L). Its water is actually at a lowest level than that of the Ghagra. At the junction of the Kalyani the former is only 301 feet (92 m) above the sea; at Rudauli, the watershed between it and the Ghagra the altitude is 340 feet (100 m); and at Kaithi Ghat the Ghagra is 314 feet (96 m).

Kalyani[edit]

Kalyani is a small river of local origin. It rises in the Fatehpur tahsil, and after wandering through the district in a most tortuous course, empties itself into the Gomti near the village of Dwarkapur. It flows through the district along with its tributaries, covering most of central portion of the district. Kalyani creates havoc during the rains, flooding considerable part of the district, though during summers there is hardly any water in certain sections of the river. It is an important source of water for major period of the year, with banks precipitous at a number of places.

In the rains of 1872, the river Kalyani presented a vast volume of water 269 feet (82 m) broad, 337 feet (103 m) deep, rushing along with a velocity of 5.74 miles per hour and with a discharge of 51,540 cubic feet per second (1,459 m3/s). In ordinary monsoons the highest discharge is about a quarter less than this.

The river is crossed by the railway with a girder bridge with (6) six openings, each of 60 feet (18 m).

Jamuriha and Reth[edit]

View of Jamuriya Nala (a brook) from Railway Station Road Bridge, Barabanki. This brook flows through the Barabanki city and divides the city in two halves.
View of Reth river in Barabanki city as seen from railway bridge crossing over it

The Jamuriha and Reth, both in the Nawabganj tehsil, are the only other streams in this district worthy of notice. Their general characteristics are the same: steep and rugged banks broken by innumerable ravines, mere drains in dry weather but becoming angry torrents during the rains; they flow into the Gomti. Haidergarh, Deviganj, Choury and Alapur are settlements worth mentioning on the banks of the river Reth, while Jamuriha passes through Barabanki city (Barabanki reveneue village on one side and Nawabganj Tehsil hq on other).

Tanks, jheels and wetlands[edit]

There are numerous tanks and jheels, especially in the tehsils of Daryabad, Ram Sanehi Ghat, and Nawabganj. Seven per cent, of the area is covered with water; many of the tanks are in course of being deepened, the earth taken out of them being used to replenish cultivated land, and doubtless much more would be done in this direction but for the difficulty of adjusting conflicting rights in the tanks. Some of the jheels are navigable by small boats for purposes of sport or pleasure. The finest jheel in this district, that named Bhagghar, is situated in the Ramnagar pargana; it does not cover above two square miles. There is another in Dewa, covering about five square miles with water and marsh. Parva, Nardahi, and Ganhari Jheel are the wetlands in the district.[25]

Geology[edit]

The district being a part of the plains, conforms to the same geological sequence as the plain itself. The soil structure of the district is composed of alluvial soil, the soil brought in by the rivers. The upper belt is called Uparhar and the soil texture is yellowish clay. The basin land of the rivers is mostly sandy soil, and the land adjacent to the rivers is sandy loam. The only mineral of any note found in the district is sand, which is available in sufficient quantity on river banks, and is used in construction works. The district is also noted for its deposits of brickearth.[24]

The Gomti-Kalyani doab[edit]

This doab is a fertile area of about 146,526 ha lies in the district and is bounded by Kalyani river on the North and the Gomti river and its tributary on the South. On the west, the area extends up to the Sarda Sahayak feeder channel and on the east up to the confluence of the Gomti and Kalyani rivers.[26][27]

Climate[edit]

The district lies in the plains of the state, and hence its climatic conditions are quite similar to the average climatic condition of the plains. Hot to very hot in summers, cold to quite cold during winters and humid to very humid and sultry during rainy season. Most of the rain occurs from June to September and often in November to January. The winter sets in November and continues till February end. The maximum temperature recorded in 1997–98 was 47.5 °C and minimum was 2.5 °C. The average rainfall recorded for 1997–98 was 1056 mm.[24]

Flora and fauna[edit]

Flora[edit]

One of the sayings is that Barabanki got its name due to excessive forests. But, unfortunately today very little land area remains as a token of forest in this district. With passage of time, pressure of the increasing population and the need to grow more food, ultimately became the reason for clearing of the majority of forest cover for cultivation. As of today, majority of the forest cover in Barabanki district is on uneven land scape and consists of a mixed variety of vegetation mainly bushes. The forests are small and scattered. The total area under forests is approximately 5308 hectares. with 29% in tehsil Ramsanehi Ghat, 27% in tehsil Fatehpur and 15% in tehsil Haidergarh. Most of the forest cover is on the banks of the river Gomti and Kalyani. In addition to this, on 1034 km of PWD roads in the district are trees on both its sides. The trees like Shishum, Arjuna, Kanji, Khair, Saagaun, Subabul, Neem, Eucalyptus, Babul, Kanju, Gold Mohar, Kesia, Akesia, Mango and Jamun are found in sufficient numbers.

Groves[edit]

The land area under groves, gardens and plantations is fairly distributed throughout the district, Groves in the district consist mostly of mango and are concentrated in tehsil Nawabganj, Ramnagar and Fatehpur.

Fauna[edit]

Animals in the wild have greatly decreased in number and variety in the district due to excessive hunting and poaching during the past century. The various animals found there are Neel Gai (Blue bull), Hiran (deer), Barasingha (Swamp deer), Padha (Blackbuck), Chital (Spotted deer), fox, jackal, porcupine. The Neel Gai has become a menace to the farmers in the district due to their rising numbers. However, all the above animals are on the protected list.

Birds[edit]

The birds of the district are similar to those of the adjoining districts. The chief game of birds found are several varieties of ducks, King Fisher, partridges, pigeons, peacock and several other water birds.

Reptiles[edit]

A number of varieties of snakes and other reptiles are found almost everywhere in the district especially in the rural areas. Some of the poisonous snakes found there are Cobra, Krait and Rat snake. Several non-poisonous snakes have also been noticed and python being the main among them. The other reptiles found in the district are the chameleon and Bichhkhopra.

Fish[edit]

Fish are found in the rivers, streams, ponds, canals, catchment areas and artificial reservoirs of the district. There are a number of species of fish which have been found in this district so far, the chief being the rohu (Labeo rohita), nain (cirrhina mrigala), mangur (clarius batrachus), saul (ophiocephelus spp.), katla.

Administration and Divisions[edit]

Administrative set up[edit]

Office of District Magistrate/Collector
Barabanki Head Post Office
Barabanki Kotwaali

District Barabanki was known as Dariyabad with its headquarters at Dariyabad town established by an officer in the army of Mohammed Shah Shariqi by the name Dariab Khan. It remained the district headquarters till 1858 AD. The district headquarters was shifted to Nawabganj in 1859 AD now known as Barabanki. This was done during the expansion of the district by the British, when Kursi from district Lucknow and Haidergarh from district Rae Bareli were added to the, then Dariyabad district.

Barabanki is one of the four constituent districts of Faizabad Division. The other districts being Faizabad district, Sultanpur district and Ambedkar Nagar district. The Division is headed by the Divisional Commissioner.

As of 2003–04 district contained 7 Tehsils, 17 Development Blocks, 154 Nyay Panchayat and 1140 Gram Sabhas.[28]

As per 1991 data there were 1812 habitated villages and 31 inhabited villages. In 2001 there were 14 towns and cities, 2 Nagar Palika Parishads, 1 Cantonment area, 10 Nagar Panchayats and 1 Census Town.[28]

Land administration[edit]

District Barabanki has been divided into six subdivisions, popularly known as tehsils. The District Revenue Administration is headed by the District Collector (also known as District Magistrate), with office at the collectorate, and these tehsils are under the charge of Sub-divisional Magistrates. The six tehsils are:

  1. Nawabganj
  2. Fatehpur
  3. Ramsanehi Ghat
  4. Haidergarh
  5. Ram Nagar
  6. Sirauli Ghauspur

Development[edit]

The District level developmental activities are coordinated by the Chief Development Officer having his office in DRDA at collectorate. Block Development Officers, who head each of the Development Blocks into which the district is sub-divided carry out the development schemes on behalf of government. Barabanki encompasses 15 such Blocks, they are:

  1. Banki
  2. Masauli
  3. Dewa
  4. Harakh
  5. Fatehpur
  6. Haidergarh
  7. Dariyabad
  8. Suratganj
  9. Siddhaur
  10. Pure Dalai
  11. Nindura
  12. Trivediganj
  13. Ram Nagar
  14. Sirauli Ghauspur
  15. Banikodar

The district level offices for monitoring the developmental activities of Blocks at Barabanki are located at Vikas Bhawan.

Law and order[edit]

The Law and order administration is jointly coordinated by the District Magistrate and the Superintendent of Police. The district is subdivided into 22 Police Stations / Thanas. Each Police Station / Thana is headed by an officer of the rank of Inspector or sub-inspector of police. 12 Police Stations are rural and 9 are rural.[28]

  1. Haidergarh
  2. Satrikh
  3. Dariyabad
  4. Baddupur
  5. Dewa
  6. Kursi
  7. Zaidpur
  8. Mohammadpur
  9. Ram Nagar
  10. Fatehpur
  11. Safderganj
  12. Kotwali
  13. Ramsanehi Ghat
  14. Asandra
  15. Subeha
  16. Tikait Nagar
  17. Lonikatra
  18. Masauli
  19. Kothi
  20. Ghungter
  21. Badosarai
  22. Jahangirabad

Urban[edit]

The district has 14 urban administrative bodies for the administration and provision of civil amenities in towns. The towns in the district are:

  1. Nawabganj Nagar Parishad for Barabanki Town
  2. Zaidpur Nagar Panchayat for Zaidpur Town Area
  3. Fatehpur Nagar Panchayat for Fatehpur Town Area
  4. Dariyabad Nagar Panchaya for Dariyabad Town Area
  5. Ramnagar Nagar Panchayat for Ramnagar Town Area
  6. Satrikh Nagar Panchayat for Satrikh Town Area
  7. Haidergarh Nagar Panchayat for Haidergarh Town Area
  8. Dewa Nagar Panchayat for Dewa Town Area
  9. Siddhaur Nagar Panchayat for Siddhaur Town Area
  10. Tikaitnagar Nagar Panchayat for Tikaitnagar Town Area
  11. Rudauli Nagar Parishad for Rudauli Town
  12. Banki Nagar Panchayat for Banki Town Area
  13. Cantonment Board for Cantonment Area in Barabanki
  14. Rampur Bhavanipur Census Town

Electoral[edit]

Parliament and State Assembly[edit]

Barabanki district has got seven state-assembly constituencies which fall under two parliamentary constituencies, they are:

S No No of Assembly Constituency Name of Assembly Constituency Assembly Constituency Reservation Status Total Booths in Assembly Constituency Net Voters in Assembly Constituency No of Parliamentary Constituency Name of Parliamentary Constituency Parliamentary Constituency Reservation Status Net Voters in Parliamentary Constituency Ref
1 266 Kursi General 343 295030 53 Barabanki SC 1435692 [29]
2 267 Ram Nagar General 323 260400 [30]
3 268 Barabanki General 322 289765 [31]
4 269 Zaidpur SC 359 302189 [32]
5 272 Haidergarh SC 327 288308 [33]
6 270 Dariyabad General 337 304073 54 Faizabad (partial) General 1506120 [34]
7 271 Rudauli (partial) General 304 282890 [35]
State Assembly[edit]

Sitting MLAs :[36]

  1. Fareed Mahfooj Kidwai, 266-Kursi,Current Planning Minister of Uttar Pradedsh
  2. Arvind Kumar Singh 'GOP', 267-Ramnagar
  3. Dharmraj yadav, 268-Barabanki
  4. Ramgopal, 269-Zaidpur
  5. Rajeev Kumar Singh, 270-Dariyabad
  6. Shri Ram Magan, 272-Haidergarh
State Council[edit]

Barabanki district sends two members to state-council. Sitting members are:[36]

  1. Arvind Yadav
  2. Ram Naresh Rawat

Basic amenities[edit]

Following is the list of public amenities (1999-2002 data):[28]

Road transport[edit]

National Highways 24A, 28, 28C and 56A pass through the district. It is well connected to other cities by means of roadways. Passenger road transport services in the state of U.P. started on 15 May 1947 with the operation of bus service on the LucknowBarabanki route by the erstwhile U.P. Government Roadways.[37]

  • Bus Station/Bus Stop 93

Railway[edit]

Both the Northern Railway and the North Eastern Railway pass through Barabanki district.

  • Length of railway line: broad gauge 131 km
  • Railway Stations/Halts: 19

Communication services[edit]

  • Urban Post Office 26
  • Rural Post Office 339
  • Telegraph Office 19
  • telephone Connections 25691

Public distribution system[edit]

  • Rural Fair Price Shops 1094
  • Urban Fair Price Shops 118
  • Bio-gas Plants 4645
  • Cold Storage 16

Electricity[edit]

  • Total Electrified Villages 1103
  • Total Electrified Towns/Cities 13
  • Electrified Schedule Caste localities 1149

Water supply[edit]

Area covered under water supply using taps/ handpumps of India Mark-2:

  • Village 1812
  • Towns/City 14

Entertainment[edit]

  • Cinema Halls 2
  • Total No. of seats in Halls 2675

Demographics[edit]

Decadal Growth Rate of Population (1901-2011) of Barabanki District
Sex Ratio (1901-2011) of Barabanki District

According to the 2011 census Barabanki district has a population of 2,673,581,[38] roughly equal to the nation of Mauritania[39] or the US state of Iowa.[40] This gives it a ranking of 107th in India (out of a total of 640).[38] The district has a population density of 740 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,900 /sq mi) .[38] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 26.40%.[38] Barabanki has a sex ratio of 887 females for every 1000 males,[38] and a literacy rate of 47.39%.[38]

As per 'Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011 Uttar Pradesh Series 10' report of Census of India 2011,[41] Barabanki district stood at 28 position out of 71 districts of UP by having 1.63% population of state, in 2001 census it was at 32 position with 1.61% population; Barabanki District rose to 25 position with sex ratio of 908 in 2011 from that of 30 with sex ratio of 887 in 2001; density wise the district maintained its position at 46 although density in 2011 increased to 739 from that of 623 in 2001; the district was at 56 position in state with overall literacy rate of 63.76%. Indian census, 2011 in its 'Provisional Population Totals' report for Uttar Pradesh gives following stat for the district:[42]

Total Population Males Females Percentage Decadal Growth 2001-2011 Sex Ratio Density (persons per km2.) Child Population (0–6 years) Child Sex Ratio (0–6 years) Male Literacy Female Literacy Total Literacy
3,257,983 1,707,951 1,550,932 21.86 908 740 504,272 930 63.76 72.49 54.10

Annual Health Survey 2010-11[2] gave following stats for the district:

Crude Birth Rate Crude Death Rate Natural Growth Rate Infant Mortality Rate Neo-natal Mortality Rate Post Neo-natal Mortality Rate Under Five Mortality Rate Sex Ratio at Birth
/
Sex Ratio (0- 4 Years)
/
Sex Ratio (All Ages)
/
Total 26.0 7.6 18.4 71 55 16 95 930 922 893
Urban 26.4 7.7 18.7 72 57 15 97 936 933 896
Rural 21.1 6.1 15.0 - - - - 838 780 857

As per Annual Health Survey 2010-11[43] district's stats for wealth index were:

Lowest (20%) Highest (20%)
Total 33.8 7.1
Urban 35.2 4.9
Rural 10.3 42.9

As per AHS 2010-11,[43] district's effective literacy rate was 67.6 (Rural - 66.5, Urban - 80.9) for males it stood at 77.1 (Rural - 76.4, Urban - 85.8) and for females it was 56.9 (Rural - 55.3, Urban - 75.3). Also, 1.518% of total population had some kind of disability and rate of severe injury was 188 per 100,000 person while rate of major injury was 122 per 100,000 person and rate of minor injury stood at 423 per 100,000 person. Out of 100,000 person 691 were suffering from Diarrhoea/Dysentery, 966 out of 100,000 person were suffering from Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI), out of 100,000 person 3,698 suffered from some kind of Fever, 5,592 out of 100,000 suffered from one or another type of Acute Illness. 98.3% of persons suffering from Acute Illness were taking treatment from any source (6.6% taking treatment from Government Source). Out of 100,000 person 5036 were having some kind of Symptoms of Chronic Illness of which 83.1% sought Medical Care. 139 out of 100,000 person were suffering from Diabetes. 418 out of 100,000 person were suffering from Hypertension. 234 out of 100,000 person were suffering from Tuberculosis. 578 out of 100,000 person were suffering from Asthma/Chronic Respiratory Diseases. 801 out of 100,000 person were suffering from Arthritis. 4964 out of 100,000 person were suffering from any kind of Chronic Illness of which 45.5% were getting Regular Treatment (20.3% getting Regular Treatment from Government Source).

18.3% of population was having habit of chewing with tobacco while 1.1% were in habit of chewing without tobacco. 15% of population was having habit of smoking. 4.2% population was having habit of drinking alcohol.

Minority population is about 23% of the total population of the district. Barabanki is a category "A" district i.e. having socio-economic and basic amenities parameters below the national average.[44]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Barabanki district
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
77.51%
Islam
  
22.04%
Others
  
0.55%

According to various religion-wise percentage of population in the district is Hindus 77.51, Muslims 22.04, Sikhs 0.12, Jains 0.11, Buddhists 0.09, Christians 0.08, others not specified 0.05. In U.P. the religion-wise percentage of population is Hindus 80.61, Muslims 18.50, Sikhs 0.41, Jains 0.12, Buddhists 0.18, Christians 0.13, Others not specified 0.05.[45]

Languages[edit]

Among many languages spoken in the district are Awadhi, a vernacular in the Hindi continuum spoken by over 38 million people, mainly in the Awadh region.[46]

Economy[edit]

Agriculture[edit]

Farmer with bullock cart

The economy of the district mainly depends upon Agriculture.[47] Agriculture is the main source of livelihood in Barabanki.[48] Agriculture, bio-gas plants, animal husbandry, small-scale industries provide direct and indirect employment to the people of district.[49][50]

In Barabanki net irrigated area is 84.2 per cent as compared to U.P. 79.0 per cent. The intensity of irrigation in Barabanki is 176.9 per cent when it is 140.0 per cent in U.P. In district Barabanki irrigation facility is above the state average. In Barabanki most of irrigation is done by private Tubewells and canals, which are 69.0 and 29.9 per cent respectively, whereas in U.P. it is 87.9 and 20.9 per cent respectively. In Barabanki irrigation by state Tubewells and other sources like pond/river, etc. are comparatively less than the state average.

In district Barabanki subsistence agriculture is practiced. Farmers rotate up to five crops round the year.[51] The dominant crops are cereals mainly paddy and wheat covering 34.4 and 31.3 per cent respectively lands of gross cropped area, whereas in U.P., it is 23.1 and 40.6 per cent respectively. Overall in Barabanki, cereal crops occupy 68.4 per cent area when in U.P., it occupies 73.2 per cent area. In Barabanki overall pulses occupy 10.1 per cent, when in U.P., it is 11.6 per cent. Total foodgrains area in Barabanki is 78.5 per cent, when in U.P., it is 84.9 per cent. Area under sugarcane is quite less, i.e. 3.6 per cent, whereas in U.P., it is 9.5 per cent. Potato covers 2.8 per cent area, which is more than U.P., i.e. less than 2.0 per cent. Wheat, rice and maize are chief food crops of the district.[52][53] Opium, menthol oil, sugarcane, fruits (mango, banana, Mushroom, etc.), vegetables (potato, tomato, etc.) floweres (Gladiolus, etc.), spices, etc. are chief cash crops of district.[54][55][56][57][58][59] District also exports Mangoes and vegetables.[60]

Barabanki district is leading the country in menthol farming. Barabanki’s menthol cultivation is spread over 20,000 acres (81 km2). Barabanki houses an industry that makes menthol crystals and also has a mandi for the oil.[60][61][62][63]

Livestock based farming system is also found in the district[64] Broiler farming is also done in the district.[57] Bee keeping is also practiced in the Dewa block of the district.[49][57] Fish cultivation is also prevalent in the district.[57]

District has Regional Agriculture Seed Testing & Demonstration Station of Department of Agriculture of government of India.[65]

In 2004 Indian Council of Agricultural Research's National Academy of Agricultural Research Management has established a Krishi Vigyan Kendra under Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology in the district.[66] Institute for Integrated Society Development has established one Rural Technology Development and Dissemination Centre in the year 2002 at Nindura Block of Barabanki District.[49] National Fertilizers Limited has established a Soil Testing Lab in the district.[67] Information and Communication Technologies has a centre in the district.[68]

Cottage industry[edit]

Barabanki Handloom Cluster in Uttar Pradesh is famous for weaving since the Nawab period of Lucknow. About 95% of the turnover of this handloom cluster is exported. Most of the facilities are outsourced by cluster actors as the demands of the export market are heavy and time bound.[71] The products are apparels Scarfs, Shawls and Stoles, which have a good export market.[72] These products are broadly categorized into two segments:
  • Rayon fiber
  • Cotton yarn
Barabanki has emerged as an handkerchief production hub from where unfinished product is taken and supplied back after they are finished.[73] Scarves from Barabanki were displayed at the national handloom expo - 2013 held at Kozhikode from 16 February – 7 March 2013, national handloom expo is an exhibition to showcase diverse range of handloom products from different regions in the country.[74]
Zardozi- In 2013 the Geographical Indication Registry (GIR) accorded the Geographical Indication (GI) registration to the Lucknow Zardozi – the world renowned textile embroidery from Lucknow. The Zardozi products manufactured in areas in Lucknow and six surrounding districts of Barabanki, Unnao, Sitapur, Rae Bareli, Hardoi and Amethi became a brand and can carry a registered logo to confirm their authenticity.[75]
  • Kshetriya Shree Gandhi Ashram, Lucknow road, Barabanki

Industry[edit]

There are 6 industrial areas in the District Barabanki,[76]

  1. UPSIDC, Kursi Road, Barabanki
  2. Industrial Area, Dewa Road, Barabanki
  3. Industrial Area, Rasool Panah, Fatehpur, Barabanki
  4. Mini Industrial Area, Ismailpur, Dewa, Barabanki
  5. Mini Industrial Area Amarsanda, Barabanki
  6. Mini Industrial Area Sohilpur, Harkh, Barabanki

Barabanki has following industries and factories:

The Company is engaged in manufacturing of polyester staple fibre, polyester, and tow with technology from Du Pont, USA.
  • U.P. State Spinning Mill, Barabanki
  • U.P. State Sugar Corp. Ltd, Barabanki
  • DSM Sugar, Rauzagaon, Barabanki, U.P.[78]
  • Hally Industries pvt. ltd, Barabanki
Company has achieved ISO 9001,9002,9004,ISO9001:2000 QMS Certification and KVQA Certificate from Netherland for manufacture and supply of all types of medium and high quality superior Welding Electrodes for supply in the Indian Railways. It further owns a Wire-drawing unit and a Rice Mill.
4.4 km Dewa road, Somaiya Nagar, Barananki
Having solvent extraction plant & vegetable oil refinery (Saheli Brand).
  • J.R. Organics Ltd. (formally Somaiya Organics Ltd)
  • Bharat Rubber Industries
Company has achieved ISO 9001:2000 QMS Certification from SWISO for manufacture and supply of Rubber to Metal Bonded and Extrusion Rubber Production and Ribber Moulded Items. The consultancy services were provided by TQ Vision, New Delhi.[80]
  • Shree Shyam Industries, Tehsil Fatehpur

Solar power plant[edit]

The first 2 megawatt-capacity solar power plant project of Uttar Pradesh is situated in village Sandauli of Barabanki district, it was inaguarted on 10 May 2012 and become operational in January 2013.[81][82] The plant has been set up by company named Technical Associates Ltd.[83]

Banking[edit]

Culture[edit]

Cultural heritage[edit]

The land of Barabanki district possesses a rich heritage in keeping with its glorious past. This district since its inception has been the meditorium for numerous saints and ascetics, sanctum sanctorum of Sadhna for the literary intellectuals and battlefield for the freedom fighters. For bringing the whole world under one umbrella, Sufi Saint Haji Waris Ali Shah of international fame, motivated people through the message of Jo Rab Wahi Ram i.e. the supreme power, God is One, is the flower of this fertile land.[84] Satnami Saint Shri Jagjiwan Das and Saint Malamat Shah lit the torch of communal harmony for the countrymen at large. The place of pilgrimage of the kanwariyas Mahadeva, the Kurukshetra of Mahabharat and the Parijaat tree - the animate symbols of Mahabharat era are also present as mile stones of the spiritual tilt of this sacred land of Barabanki district.

In 2011-12 more than 19.57 lakh visitors visited twin sites of Deva Sharif shrine and Mahadeva temple.[85]

Dr Rai Rajeshwar Bali (13th Taluqdar of Rampur-Daryabad Estate) was instrumental in bringing the Hindustani classical music which was earlier confined to temples, to the public when he opened one of the first music colleges of India called the Bhatkhande College of Hindustani Music in Lucknow. For this he invited Pundit V. N. Bhatkhande to his court and requested him to write the grammar of Hindustani Classical Music.

Notable personalities[edit]

Royalty[edit]

Notable royals in Barabanki's history include:

son of Raja Muhammad Imam Khan (died 1760s) of the large Mahmudabad Estate in Sitapur from his wife a Shia Shaykhzadah woman, inherited the smaller portion of the estate in Belehra (town near Fatehpur), Bara Banki.[86][87]
ruler of Mahmudabad Estate in Sitapur was the son of the Shi‘i Belehra (village near fatehpur) branch of the family. He was adopted in 1836 by widow of Raja Musahib Ali Khan (son of Raja Muhammad Imam Khan) as they had no male issue.[86][87]
ruler of Kintoor was active in the First War of Indian Independence against the British.[88][89]
fought the British forces bravely and sacrificed his life along with around 1000 other revolutionaries fighting the last battle of the First War of Indian Independence at Obri around 2 km from Barabanki on the confluence of riverlets Rait and Jamuria.[90][91][92][93]

Defence[edit]

was a commissioned officer in Indian Air Force. He was killed in a mid air accident while flying Jaguar fighter airplane when his plane blew up during a routine vigil sortie at the Indo-Pak border post of Naalia in Gujarat.[92]

Sports[edit]

Notable athletes from Barabanki include:

popularly known as K.D. Singh 'Babu' was a hockey player. He was captain of Indian Olympic Hockey team for the 1952 Helsinki Olympics Games, where the team under his captaincy won another Olympic Hockey Gold medal.[92]

Literary[edit]

Sant[edit]
was a renowned linguist of Ramkatha literature. His poetic collection was published by the name Geetavali ki Teeka, Kalpdroom.[92]
was the propounder of the Satnaami sect. Agh Vinaash, Maha Pralay, Gyan Prakash, Shabd-Sagar, Param Granth, Prem-Path, Aagam Paddhati are his important works.[92]
He spread the message of Nirgun Bramh by writing Nirgun Sagar, Hari Charitr Katha, Ram Charit, Ram Baavni, Ram Virhini.[92]
Sufi[edit]
who not only won the recognition of his contemporaries but who exerted after his death one of the most powerful influences in Awadh spiritual history.[96][97]
be literary tradition of Sufi-atic poetry. He was author Hans-Jawahir.[92]
was sajjada nashin of Makhdoom Sheikh Sarang. He died on 17 December 2008 at in Manjhgawa Sharif. He was the son of Syed Danish Ali Shah. He claimed to be from progeny of Hazrat Ali (cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Mohammad). He was born at Khairabad in Sitapur, Uttar Pradesh. His tomb is situated in Majhgawan Shareef in Barabanki.
Hindi/Awadhi[edit]
Urdu/Persian (19th century)[edit]
was chief of the bureau of Awadh in time of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah. He compiled the official dictionary Taj-ul-Lughat.[98]
was by profession a postmaster. He wrote History of Bengal in his two works, Muqaddimah, Riyaz-uz-Salatin.[99]
scholar and poet of Persian and Urdu who wrote under the pen name Raunaq.[100]
in fourteenth century forsaken Iran for Awadh in the time of Hulagu the II-Khanid Mongol ruler. The Nishapuri Sayyids of Kintoor produced several outstanding Shi‘i religious scholars in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.[86][101]
in fourteenth century forsaken Iran for Awadh in the time of Hulagu the II-Khanid Mongol ruler. The Nishapuri Sayyids of Kintoor produced several outstanding Shi‘i religious scholars in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.[86][101]
author of books Kashf al-hujub wa'l-astar `an al-kutub wa'l-asfar; A'inah-'i haqq-nama; Shudhur al-`iqyan fi tarajim al-a`yan, 2 vols. A'inah," a primary source is Kintoori's biographical dictionary of Shi‘i ulama, an extremely useful source, remains in manuscript and has not been used by writers on Imami Shi‘ism in the West.[86][102][103]
principal Sadr Amin at the British court in Meerut. He was also author of Tathir al-mu'minin 'an najasat al-mushrikin.[86][103][104]
son of Mufti Syed Quli Khan Kintoori author of book Abaqat ul Anwar fi Imamat al Ai'imma al-Athar.[86][101][105][106][107]
Urdu/Persian (20th century)[edit]
was a religious scholar (a Mujtahid), a physician, a phrmacologist and an alchemist.[108][109]

Politicians[edit]

Others[edit]

  • Shaikh Abd al-Quddus Gangohi (1456–1537) bin Shaykh Muhammad Ismail bin Shaykh safi al-djn Hanafi Ghaznavi Chishti Gangohi
was among the most prominent Sufi Shaykhs of the Sabiri branch of the Chishti silsila.[112] In his early youth, ‘Abd al-Quddus wrote a treatise, Rushd-nama (The Book of Piety), that seeks to reconcile the teachings of Gorakh-nath with Chishti Sufism.[113]
was a follower of Qadiri order.[114]
was paternal grandfather of Ayatollah Khomeini. He was born in Kintoor. He left India in about 1830 to make a pilgrimage to the shrine city of Najaf in present-day Iraq, and to study at one of its famous seminaries and never returned.[101][115][116][117]
cousin of Syed Hamid Husain Kintoori, was the daroghah of Awadh.[86]
a participant of 1857 War of Independence.[118]
son of Syed Iʿjāz Ḥusayn, he became a pioneer encouraging the education of girls in the next generation as one of the key responses to the shock of the loss of power and prestige with the advent of formal empire after 1857. He also served as a professor of law at Aligarh. He was founder of Karmat College, Lucknow.[119][120][121][122]
originally belongs to village Muhammadpur, Tehsil Fatehpur, is an internationally known historian,[123][124] author [125] and ex-Vice-Chancellor of Jamia Millia Islamia University at Delhi.[126]

Education[edit]

Schools and intermediate colleges[edit]

  • Aliya Montessory School, Fatehpur, Barabanki
  • Anand Bhawan School, Barabanki city
  • Anand Vihar Convent Inter College, Barabanki city
  • Anand Vihar Convent School, Masauli, Barabanki
  • Anand Vihar Convent Inter College, Chandanapur, Ram Nagar, Barabanki
  • Arif Husain Montessori School
  • Aryan Public School, R.S.Ghat, Barabanki
  • Avadh Montessory School, Fatehpur, Barabanki
  • Awadh Public School, Palhari Chauraha, Faizabad Road, Barabanki city
  • Azimuddin Ashraf Islamia Inter College, Barabanki city
  • B.P.Verma Inter College, Sirauli Ghauspur, BBK
  • Baba Gurukul Academy, Barabanki city
  • Balajee Public School, Barabanki city
  • Barabanki Public School, Barabanki city
  • Central Academy, Barabanki city
  • City Inter College, Barabanki city
  • City Montessori School, Barabanki city
  • D.A.V. Inter College, Barabanki city
  • Eram Inter College, Barabanki city
  • Foundation School, Barabanki city
  • Government Inter College, Barabanki city
  • Government Girls Inter College, Barabanki city
  • Government Girls Inter College,Ram Sanehi Ghat-Barabanki
  • Gyandeep Public School
  • Ingenious Public School
  • Jai Hind Inter College
  • Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Sonikpur, Trivediganj, Barabanki
  • King George Inter College, Barabanki city
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya, Barabanki city
  • Lal Bahadur Shastri Inter College, Daryabad, Barabanki
  • Lord Balajee Public School, Barabanki city
  • Maharani Lakshmi Bai Memorial Inter College, Barabanki city
  • Maharishi Vidya Mandir, Barabanki city
  • Modern Public Inter college, Barabanki city
  • National Inter College, Fatehpur
  • New Play Way Junior High School, Barabanki city
  • Pioneer Montessori Inter College, Barabanki city
  • Rajkiya Inter College, Harakh
  • Ram Sevak Yadav Smarak Vidyalaya, Barabanki city
  • Saint Anthony's Inter College, Barabanki city
  • Sarvodaya Vidya Mandir Inter College, Bishunpur, Fatehpur, Barabanki
  • Shaheed Bhagat Singh Inter College, Sharifabad, Barabanki
  • Shri P.D. Jain Inter College, Tikait Nagar
  • Shri Sita Ram Bal Vidya Mandir, Tikait Nagar
  • Saraswati Shishu Mandir, Barabanki city
  • Saraswati Vidya Mandir Inter College, Barabanki city
  • Shayam Bal Vidya Mandir
  • Shayam Shishu Mandir
  • Sri Durga Vidya Mandir Inter College, Surajpur, Barabanki
  • Waris chidren's academy Inter College, Barabanki city
  • waris children's Academy Inter college,tehsil-fatehpur,Barabanki

Degree colleges[edit]

  • Ganga Devi Lal Bahudur Degree College, Purey Rudra Kothi
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Post-Graduate Degree College, Barabanki city
  • Munsi Raghunandan Prasad Sardar Patel Mahila Degree College, Barabanki cityekhar
  • Pioneer Degree College, Barabanki city
  • Ram Sewak Yadav Degree College, village Kanojiya
  • Rudauli Degree College, Rudauli
  • Sai P.G.College, Fatehpur
  • Chaudhary Charan Singh Mahavidyalay, Bardari, Barabanki
  • Sh. Mohanlal Verma Educational Institute, Palhari, Barabanki
  • Patel Panchayati Mahavidyalay, Ram Sanehi Ghat, Barabanki
  • Geetanjali Inter college Munshiganj Barabanki
  • Sahyogi RB degree college, barabanki
  • ideal degree college, amershanda kurshi road, barabanki, utter pradesh
  • Gramyanchal P.G.College, Haidergarh, Barabanki

Engineering colleges[edit]

Polytechnic institute[edit]

Medical/Dental hospitals and colleges[edit]

  • Chandra Dental College & Hospital, Lucknow Road
  • Hindustan Institute of Medical Sciences (HIMS), Lucknow Road
  • Sagar Institute of Technology and Management - Department of Pharmacy, Faizabad Road
  • Sherwood College of Pharmacy, Lucknow Road
  • Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences, Gadia, Faizabad Road

Other professional institutions[edit]

Research institutions[edit]

  • International Rice Research Institute, Tikarhar Road, Kursi, Barabanki[127]
  • Centre for Research and Development of Waste and Marginal Lands, Hemapurwa-Baina, Tikarhar Road, Kursi, Barabanki[127]

Health services[edit]

Hospitals[edit]

  • Barabanki Government Ladies Hospital, Barabanki city
  • Rafi Ahmad Kidwai Memorial Government General Hospital, Barabanki city

Nursing homes[edit]

  • Ambika Nursing Home, Barabanki city
  • Astha Hospital, Barabanki city
  • Barabanki Nursing Home, Barabanki city
  • Divya Clinic and Surgical Center, Barabanki city
  • Jain Nursing Home, Barabanki city
  • Warsi Hospital, Barabanki city
  • Hind hospital, safedabaad Barabanki

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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