|Our Lady of Mount Carmel Parish|
Barasoain Church as seen from its plaza
|Location||Malolos City, Bulacan|
|Founded||31 August 1859|
|Dedication||Our Lady of Mount Carmel|
|Events||Seat of First Philippine Republic|
|Associated people||Emilio Aguinaldo
|Heritage designation||Seat of the First Philippine Republic|
|Designated||1 August 1973|
|Architect(s)||Fr. Juan Giron|
|Number of domes||None|
|Number of towers||1|
|Materials||Adobe and concrete|
|Archdiocese||Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila|
|Diocese||Roman Catholic Diocese of Malolos|
|Province||Ecclesiastical Province of Manila|
|Archbishop||His Eminence Luis Antonio G. Cardinal Tagle|
|Bishop(s)||His Excellency, Bishop Jose F. Oliveros|
|Rector||Rev. Msgr. Mario DJ Arenas|
|Vicar(s)||Rev. Fr. Menald Leonardo|
Barasoain Church (also known as Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Parish) is a Roman Catholic church built in 1630 in Malolos City, Bulacan. Having earned the title as the Cradle of Democracy in the East, the most important religious building in the Philippines, and the site of the First Philippine Republic, the church is proverbial for its historical importance among Filipinos.
Founded by Augustinian Missionaries in 1859, the church is also renowned for its architectural design and internal adornments. The original church was burned during the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution however, it was renovated. It is about 42 kilometers away from Manila.
The church recorded some of the important events occurred in the country. While it has been a temporary residence of General Aguinaldo, three major events in Philippine History happened in this church: the convening of the First Philippine Congress (September 15, 1898), the drafting of the Malolos Constitution (September 29, 1898 to January 21, 1899), and the inauguration of the First Philippine Republic (January 23, 1899). By Presidential Decree No. 260, the church was proclaimed as a National Shrine by President Ferdinand Marcos on August 1, 1973. Unusual for newly elected presidents in the Philippines, the church has been a venue in an inaugural affairs. General Emilio Aguinaldo and former president Joseph Estrada were the only two who have been inaugurated in the place.
Historic Barasoain started as a village of Malolos in 16th century and created as an independent town in 1859 and reannexed in Malolos in 1903 and this explains the presence of a stone church here. Barasoain had its first stone edifice in 1871 to replace a temporary one but was burned in May 1884 during the Santacruzan. In 1885, the current structure was started while the belfry was constructed in 1889. The church became the most historic church in 1898 and in 1998 President Joseph Estrada took his oath of office. The facade has Neo-Classic touches and its rounded pediment is echoed by the arches and rose window at the lower part.
The term "Barasoain" was derived from Barásoain in Navarre, Spain to which the missionaries found the place in Malolos in striking similarity. When the Spanish-Filipino revolution broke-out, the Spanish authorities coined the term "baras ng suwail," which means "dungeon of the defiant" because the church was a meeting place for anti-Spanish and anti-colonial illustrados.
The first and the new site
Eight years after the founding of Manila, the Augustinian friars founded the Town of Malolos in 1580. A settlement was made by the Augustinian missionaries and they created Barrio Barasoain in 1630 and a church of nipa and bamboo was constructed near the river between Maluslos (Malolos poblacion) and Barasoain.In 1630 Malolos Friar Curate and Vicario Foraneo Fray Agustin Carreno OSA established the first chapel at the old Ermita of the old Cemetery of Malolos abandoned in 1680 served as the temporary visita of Barasoain, located in front of the Casa Tribunal (Presidencia) now commonly called "Casa Real de Malolos." A big fire in the 17th century destroyed the new church.
Another church was commissioned and constructed on a new site, at its present location—corner of Paseo del Congreso and Antonio Bautista streets. The church constructed under the supervision of Rev. Fr. Francisco Royo, O.S.A., was also made of light materials. In 1884, during the celebration of the Flores de Mayo (Nuestra Señora del Carmen), Patroness of the Parish, the temporary church was burned.
From 1630 to 1859, Barasoain served by the priest are coming from the nearby church, the mother church of the town - Parroquia dela Inmaculada Concepcion of Malolos. Since the formal establishment of Barasoain as an independent parish to Malolos Church in 1859 several priest assigned in the church by Augustinian Order and lately by the Archdiocese of Manila and Diocese of Malolos.
Since the erection of the church, its second church on the second site built by Fray Francisco Royo was destroyed in a fire in 1884. Prompting various renovations from time to time. The present church was the Fray Giron version of the church structure itself was very similar to how the church looked like during Spanish Period.
Also from the past years, Barasoain Church have many changes and variations of its main retablos made of wood during these years: 1925, 1940, 1950, 1990,and finally due to the celebration of the Centennial of Philippine Independence in 1998, Monsignor Moises B. Andrade, together with the National Historical Institute (now NHCP), Provincial Government of Bulacan, then-Municipality of Malolos and Diocese of Malolos decided to revive the original 1885 stone retablo of Barasoain Church hidden in the back of the sanctuary renovations the church a year before 1998 and that was made in 1997.
The church consists of two structures, the church and an adjoining convent. While the left outside of the church is a medieval bell tower, the entrance of which has bamboo arches linings and its sides are rose windows. Its architectural design is simple however, it has paintings in its ceilings and divided nave which makes it look bigger than its actual size. The altar in the inside has glimmering lights despite the church's historical reputation. Aside of which, floral motifs, frescoes of angels and saints embellish the interior of the church. Right in front is a convent which has a museum dedicated to the three historical events that took place in the church. While the Barasoain Church Ecclesiastical Museum has been a repository of important artifacts found within the vicinity of the province,
Philippine bill issue
Before 1998, the image of the church has been depicted in certain monetary bills, namely the English series one peso bill and the Pilipino, Ang Bagong Lipunan, and New Design series ten peso bill together with an image of Apolinario Mabini on the other side. However, it was replaced by a ten-peso coin without the representation of the church. In 2009, local priests and Laban ng Bulacan movement officials led by their chairman John Paul Albert Limpo initiated signature campaign to appeal to the Philippine Bangko Sentral restoring at least the image of the church in any present Philippine bill.
Corollary to the removal of the image, Msgr. Angelito Santiago, then-rector of Barasoain Church once averred, "the people are starting to lose a sense of nationalism and history and a nation’s currency system ought to help bring them back. The petition of the local officials, led by John Paul Albert Limpo, Chairman of Laban ng Bulacan movement, was considered by the government with the restoration of the Barasoain Church replica on the new 200 Philippine bill featured on the front side of the bill which is also depicting President Joseph Estrada taking his oath of office on June 30, 1998 while the reverse portion is President Fidel V. Ramos on the re-enactment of the declaration of Philippine Independence at the Aguinaldo Shrine in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1998 and also shows the Philippine Centennial Logo.
Finally after three years of petition, in December 2010 upon the issuance of the new Philippine Peso bill, the Barasoain Church is finally back in Philippine banknote depicted in the 200-peso bill.
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