Barbados–Canada relations

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Barbados-Canada relations
Map indicating locations of Barbados and Canada

Barbados

Canada

Barbados-Canada relations are the relations between the countries of Canada and Barbados. In 1907, the Government of Canada opened a Trade Commissioner Service to the Caribbean region located in Bridgetown, Barbados. Following Barbadian independence from the United Kingdom in November 1966, the Canadian High Commission was established in Bridgetown, Barbados on 27 September 1973. There is a High Commission of Barbados in Ottawa and a Barbadian Consulate in Toronto. The relationship between both nations today partly falls under the larger gambit of Canada–Caribbean relations.

History[edit]

The relationship between the nations of Barbados and Canada extends as far back as the late 17th century.[1] During this period, Barbados and the current provinces of Canada were a series of colonial possessions of Great Britain and France. In the early most instances of trade between the two regions, Barbados and Canada found themselves able to fill niche markets between one another's markets. The Bluenose vessels were instrumental to trade as Barbados and other islands exported their sugar and rum to the area of Canada, in return Canada exported salted cod and lumber supplies to the West Indies.[citation needed] This trade continued for a number of years, however these ties eventually weaned as the influence of the Thirteen American colonies grew in importance for Canada, Barbados, and the wider West Indies region.

In 1907, the Government of Canada opened its Trade Commissioner Service to the Caribbean region.[2] This was located on the current grounds of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Bridgetown, Barbados.

By the early 20th century several large Canadian financial institutions looked towards expansion into the West Indies. On 16 February 1911 the Royal Bank of Canada marked the opening of their first commercial branch in Barbados.[3] then in 1920, CIBC did the same,[4] and finally Scotiabank followed the first two in 1956.[5]

Economic relations[edit]

Today, the relations between both nations has flourished in recent years.[citation needed] A growing legion of Canadian businesses and companies have established operations offering services in Barbados. Barbados is one of the largest recipients of Canadian Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)..[6]

During the Fifth Barbados Charity Ball held in Canada David Thompson, the Prime Minister of Barbados and also its Minister of Finance announced that Canadians represent some 75% of the international financial community in Barbados.[7] The Canadian government has also played an extremely critical role in the continuation of the Barbados-based Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) since its inception and acts as a significant lending country to the institution.[citation needed]

Politics[edit]

Around the time of the various colonies of Canada entering into the agreement for confederation. The powerful Barbados Agricultural Society, (BAS) which was made up of influential Bajan plantation owners put together a proposition for Barbados to take part in this Canadian confederation as well. The proposal was made to Sir Francis Hincks, but the deal didn't proceed and Barbados' interest subsided.[8] It was not until the 1950s, just prior to the country of Barbados negotiating independence from the United Kingdom, that yet another movement for establishing some form of political association with Canada was broached yet again. This time spurred by several Barbadian members of parliament.[9]

In 2007, Canada's Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced the desire to heighten Canada's profile in the Americas. As part of his plan, Harper and his Canadian envoy visited several nations of Latin America and the Caribbean regions which included Barbados. Stephen Harper took part in several closed door meetings with the then Barbadian prime minister Owen Arthur and the other heads of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) group of nations.[10] Since Harper's visit, Canada and Barbados have concluded a mutual open skies agreement[11] and are currently in the process of working on a bilateral free trade agreement which will encompass Barbados and the rest of CARICOM.

The Canadian High Commission to Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean also spoke of the possibility of Barbadian and Canadian Companies forming joint ventures. At the time it was proposed that such an agreement could encompass infrastructure projects in the country of Barbados.[12]

In addition to the Prime Minister's visit to Barbados, the Canadian Governor-General Michaëlle Jean also visited Barbados that same year where and met personally with the Governor-General of Barbados.[13]

The overall relationship of Canada and Barbados are frequently overshadowed in media by the bilateral double taxation agreement between both nations.

In 2008, the three largest stock exchanges in the Caribbean (Jamaica, Barbados, and Trinidad and Tobago) mulled the possibility that the Caribbean Stock Exchanges might seek to associate in some way with the Toronto Stock Exchange.[14] All three of these exchanges are currently seeking to join their three bourses into a more effective single Caribbean-wide unit known as the Caribbean Exchange Network (CXN)[15]

In 2009 The Hon. Peter Kent, Minister of State of Foreign Affairs (Americas), saluted Barbados on achieving the country's 43rd anniversary of independence. In a press release the minister stated, "Canada salutes the people of Barbados as they mark their country's independence, Canada and Barbados have a long tradition of very close relations based on common values, people-to-people links and shared Commonwealth history."[16]

Among the most recent deals signed, the Crown Corporations known as the Barbados Water Authority and Canadian Commercial Corporation signed a $58 million deal in 2013 for the CCC to help rollout fully digital water meters across the island of Barbados. The deal was facilitated through the Canadian High Commission office in Barbados.[17]

In 2014 a trade mission from Barbados visited Nova Scotia to strengthen the level of trade among the two Atlantic regions.[18]

Migration[edit]

It is estimated that there are roughly 3,000–4,000 Canadian-born permanent residents living in Barbados and roughly the same number of Barbadian-born nationals living in Canada. A number of women from Canada come together to form The Canadian Women’s Club of Barbados social club.[19]

Canadians in Barbados[edit]

Barbadians in Canada[edit]

  • Brett Callaghan (Canadian professional racing jockey) – Callaghan is the managing director of the website TotallyBarbados.com[20] the website won the award as "The Caribbean's Leading Overall Travel Information Website" on 14 December 2007 by the World Travel Award. Brett has also launched www.TotallyToronto.net[21] promoting Toronto to the world.
  • Austin Clarke – A renowned novelist for his literary work. Clark won the Giller Prize for The Polished Hoe in 2002, as well as the Commonwealth Writers Prize in 2003. Other works of his include, "Growing Up Stupid Under the Union Jack" a book about Barbados during the colonial years.
  • Anne Cools – Cools a Conservative party member, became the first person of afro-descent to be appointed Canadian Senate. Cools first entered into Canadian politics in 1978. She was appointed to the Senate in 1984.
  • Dr. William Duguid – A former member of the Barbados House of Assembly (M.P. for Christ Church West) living in Canada part-time.
  • Alan Emtage – Emtage developed one of the first examples of an Internet search utility.
  • Joe Fortes – Joe Fortes was the first official lifeguard in the city of Vancouver at the turn of the 20th century. He is most famous for his contribution to society.

Tourism[edit]

During the 1970s Canada became the largest source of tourists to Barbados. In 1979, roughly 97,000 Canadians visited the island of Barbados.[22] Over time Barbados has seen market share from Canada shift towards lower cost Caribbean destinations such as Cuba or the Dominican Republic. Still yet many Canadians vacation in Barbados including past prime ministers. In 1965 one of Canada's former Prime Ministers, John Diefenbaker was saved by a would be future prime minister of Canada, John Turner after The Hon. Diefenbaker waded out too far in usually strong surf one morning.[23] Something which surely could have altered the political landscape in Canada.

On Monday, 3 November 2008 WestJet commenced the airline's inaugural flight to Barbados. The main competitory of WestJet on this route is Air Canada.[24] The airline announced the start of a four-flights per week schedule going from Toronto, Ontario to Barbados. During the post-inaugural flight ceremony held at the executive lounge of the Grantley Adams International Airport the Barbadian Minister of Tourism Richard Sealy said that the Barbados Tourism Authority was currently seeking to increase its tourism from Canada. He also offered opportunity to collaborate in the future with WestJet should they need a regional Caribbean hub. According to the Barbados Advocate newspaper Sealy stated "We are game if Westjet is interested, in becoming the regional hub for more of your business and we would certainly like to see not four flights a week, but eventually, if we can have a daily service. Grantley Adams is already an established hub and we can feed business into the other territories. So I think there are some possibilities for even greater levels of cooperation with Westjet" he remarked to his Canadian counterparts.[22]

Bilateral agreements[edit]

Date Agreement name Law ref. number Note
1967 Canadian Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (C/MSAWP),[25][26] Formerly: Canadian Farm Labour programme (CFLP)
January 1980 Double Taxation Agreement,[27][28] E102234 – CTS 1980 No. 29
January 1986 Social Security Agreement,[29][30]
January 1997 Foreign Investment Protection Agreement[31] CTS 1997/4
May 2003 Transfer of Offenders Treaty[32] E104967
March 2008 Open Skies Agreement[33] No. H 067/08 The 2008 agreement supersedes the 1985 air agreement.

Diplomatic offices[edit]

Both nations maintain direct high-level diplomatic representatives.

High Commission of Barbabos in Ottawa[edit]

The High Commission is the primary diplomatic mission of Barbados in Canada. Among the initial diplomatic missions to be established by Barbados after the attainment of independence from Britain

The Barbadian High Commission presently ranks 14th on Canadian Government's "Ambassadors by Order of Precedence" list.[34]

Initially the Office of the Barbados High Commission was established in June 1967 at: 151 Slater Street, Suite 200.[35] It remained for a number of years before relocating.

The High Commission further represents the Government of Barbados in many areas including helping to facilitate the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program in Canada.[36] In years past it collaborated with various institutions in Canada including: the National Council of Barbadian Associations of Canada Inc. (NCBAC), the Barbados (Ottawa) Association Inc., and the Barbados Family & Friends Club. As of 26 July 2008 E. Evelyn Greaves is the resident Barbados government representative and High Commissioner to Canada, having succeeded Glyne Samuel Hyvesta Murray.[37]

In 1989 the Barbados High Commission then under High Commissioner established the annual Errol Barrow Memorial Trust of Canada which awards worthy Canadians with educational scholarships.[38] The 2013 fundraiser dinner and awards was hosted at the Ottawa City Hall.

The High Commissioner has participated in a number of community events in Ottawa including a major fund raising campaign for the Queensway-Carleton Hospital Care Grows West expansion-project for which over CAD$5 million was raised.[39]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Canadian Manufacturer's and Exporters Conference later this month – 2007[dead link]
  2. ^ "Women in Trade Mission to Jamaica and Barbados – January 20–25, 2008". International.gc.ca. 28 October 2009. 
  3. ^ "The Caribbean and Bahamas". RBC Royal Bank. 
  4. ^ "Barbados – A Unique Offshore Domicile – Wealth Management – Barbados". Mondaq.com. 
  5. ^ http://scotiabank.com/cda/content/0,1608,CID9903_LIDen,00.html
  6. ^ http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/cprp-gepmc.nsf/eng/00020.html
  7. ^ Thompson, David (2 June 2008). "Address by Prime Minister the Hon. David Thompson". Barbados Government Information Service (BGIS). Archived from the original on 12 July 2009. Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  8. ^ Stewart, Alice R. (1950). "Canadian—West Indian Union, 1884–1885". Canadian Historical Review (University of Toronto Press) 31 (4): 369–389. doi:10.3138/CHR-031-04-02. ISSN 0008-3755. Retrieved 12 June 2010. 
  9. ^ Grottke, Hans (30 December 1961). "New Canada-West Indies Trade Pact Is Foreseen". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 12 June 2010. "Hans The possibility of a tightly-knit economic union between Canada and the West Indies Federation was foreseen here yesterday by Sir Archibald Cuke, former president of the Barbados Legislative Council." 
  10. ^ Government of Barbados: Barbados wants better relations with Canada[dead link]
  11. ^ http://www.tc.gc.ca/mediaroom/releases/nat/2008/08-h067e.htm
  12. ^ Canadians keen to be building partners: (17 December 2007), Nation Newspaper
  13. ^ "Canada's G-G drops in". Nationnews.com. 15 May 2010. 
  14. ^ TTSE eyes US, Canada[dead link]
  15. ^ Getting a regional stock exchange off the ground[dead link]
  16. ^ Kent, Peter (30 November 2009). "Minister of State Kent Marks Barbados's Independence Day". Minister of State for Foreign Affairs (Americas). Retrieved 2009-11-30. 
  17. ^ M, R.S. (18 October 2013). "US$58M deal". The Barbados Advocate. Retrieved 30 May 2014. "BWA signs contract with Canada for the roll out of close to 100 000 smart meters" 
  18. ^ ERSKINE, BRUCE (May 26, 2014). "Barbados seeks to boost trade ties with Nova Scotia". BUSINESS REPORTER. The Chronicle Herald. 
  19. ^ The Canadian Women’s Club of Barbados
  20. ^ "10-Minute Manager – Never a challenge he couldn't meet". Nationnews.com. 15 May 2010. 
  21. ^ "Totally Toronto". Totally Toronto. 
  22. ^ a b "Westjet touches down". Barbadosadvocate.com. 4 November 2008. 
  23. ^ John Diefenbaker,
  24. ^ "WestJet opens up Canada market". Nation Newspaper. Retrieved 14 June 2010. 
  25. ^ "WTO – Canada's Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program Presentation by Elizabeth Ruddick Citizenship and Immigration Canada" (PDF). 
  26. ^ Government of Barbados on bilateral relations with Canada[dead link]
  27. ^ "Government of Barbados list of Agreements". Barbados.gov.bb. 
  28. ^ Agreement Between Canada and Barbados for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income and on capital[dead link]
  29. ^ Agreement on Social Security Between Canada and Barbados[dead link]
  30. ^ "Agreement on Social Security between Canada and Barbados". .servicecanada.gc.ca. 26 March 2013. 
  31. ^ Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of Barbados for the reciprocal promotion and protection of investments
  32. ^ Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of Barbados on the Transfer of offenders[dead link]
  33. ^ "Canada announces open skies agreement with Barbados". Tc.gc.ca. 12 January 2011. 
  34. ^ Foreign Representatives in Canada: Ambassadors by Order of Precedence
  35. ^ "Barbados High Commission established" (PDF). The Ottawa Journal. 28 June 1967. p. Pg. 51. Retrieved 2 March 2014. (subscription required (help)). "Barbados High Commission - It is noted for general information that the Office of the High Commissioner for Barbados in Canada has been established at Suite 200, 151 Slater, Street Ottawa 4, Ont." 
  36. ^ Canada’s Seasonal Agricultural Workers Programme, Ministry of Labour, Government of Barbados
  37. ^ Current Foreign Representatives in Canada: Heads of Missions, Office of Protocol, Canada
  38. ^ Errol Barrow Memorial Trust of Canada
  39. ^ Best, Tony (23 October 2011). "SEEN UP NORTH: Barbados’ best for a good cause". Nation newspaper (Nation Publishing). Retrieved 9 March 2014 – via layurl=. "Barbados’ High Commissioner Evelyn Greaves and his wife Fran, were what the doctor ordered for a Barbados-themed gala that raised funds for the Queensway Carleton Hospital’s Care Grows West expansion campaign." 

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