Barbara Billingsley

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Barbara Billingsley
June and Ward Cleaver Leave it to Beaver 1958.JPG
Barbara Billingsley and Hugh Beaumont as June and Ward Cleaver in Leave It to Beaver
Born Barbara Lillian Combes
(1915-12-22)December 22, 1915
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Died October 16, 2010(2010-10-16) (aged 94)
Santa Monica, California, U.S.
Cause of death
Polymyalgia
Resting place
Woodlawn Memorial Cemetery
Education Washington Preparatory High School
Alma mater Los Angeles Junior College
Occupation Actress
Years active 1945–2007
Spouse(s) Glenn Billingsley (m. 1941; div. 1947)
Roy Kellino (m. 1953; died 1956)
William Mortensen (m. 1959; died 1981)
Children 2

Barbara Lillian Billingsley (December 22, 1915 – October 16, 2010)[1][2] was an American film, television, voice and stage actress. She gained prominence in the 1950s movie The Careless Years, acting opposite Natalie Trundy, followed by her best–known role, that of June Cleaver on the television series Leave It to Beaver (1957–63) and its sequel Still the Beaver (1985–88, retitled in season two as The New Leave It to Beaver).

Early life[edit]

Billingsley was born Barbara Lillian Combes in 1915 in Los Angeles, California, the youngest child of patrolman Robert Collyer Combes (1891–1950)[3] and his first wife, the former Lillian Agnes McLaughlin.[4] She had one elder sibling, Elizabeth (1911–1992).[5] Her parents divorced sometime before her fourth birthday, and her father, who later became an assistant chief of police,[3] remarried.[6] After her divorce, Lillian Combes went to work as a foreman at a knitting mill.[7]

Career[edit]

Early years[edit]

After attending Los Angeles Junior College for one year, Billingsley traveled to Broadway, when Straw Hat, a revue in which she was appearing, attracted enough attention to send it to New York City. When, after five days, the show closed, she took an apartment on 57th Street and went to work as a $60–a–week fashion model. In 1941 she married Glenn Billingsley, Sr. She landed a contract with MGM Studios in 1945 and moved with her husband to Los Angeles the following year. That same year, Glenn Billingsley opened a restaurant in that city.

She had mostly uncredited roles in major motion picture productions in the 1940s. These roles continued into the first half of the 1950s with supporting roles in Three Guys Named Mike (1951), opposite Jane Wyman, The Bad and the Beautiful (1952), and the sci-fi film Invaders from Mars (1953). In 1952, Billingsley had her first guest–starring role on an episode of The Abbott and Costello Show. In 1955, she won a co-starring role in the sitcom Professional Father, starring Stephen Dunne and Beverly Washburn. The series lasted one season. The following year, Billingsley had a recurring role on The Brothers (with Gale Gordon and Bob Sweeney) as well as an appearance with David Niven on his anthology series Four Star Playhouse. In 1957, she co–starred opposite Dean Stockwell and Natalie Trundy in The Careless Years, which was her first and only major role in film.

Billingsley also appeared in guest roles on The Pride of the Family, Schlitz Playhouse of Stars, Letter to Loretta, General Electric Summer Originals, You Are There, and Cavalcade of America.

Leave It to Beaver[edit]

After Billingsley signed a contract with Universal Studios in 1957, she made her mark on TV as everyday mother June Cleaver on Leave It to Beaver, alongside other 1950s family sitcoms such as Father Knows Best, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, Make Room For Daddy and The Donna Reed Show. It debuted on CBS in 1957, to mediocre ratings and was soon cancelled. However, the show was picked up by ABC the following year where it became a hit and aired for the next five seasons. The show was featured in over 100 countries. Also starring on Beaver were Hugh Beaumont, in the role of Ward Cleaver, June's husband and the kids' father, as well as unfamiliar child actors Tony Dow in the role of Wally Cleaver and Jerry Mathers as Theodore "Beaver" Cleaver.

In the show, Billingsley often could be seen doing household chores wearing pearls and earrings. The pearls, which in real-life were Billingsley's trademark, were in turn her idea to have her alter ego wear on television. The actress had what she termed "a hollow" on her neck[3][8] and thought that wearing a strand of white pearls would lighten it up for the cameras. In later seasons, she started wearing high heels to compensate for the fact that the actors who played her sons were growing up and getting taller than she was.[3][9] So associated was the pearl necklace with the character, that an entire episode of the sequel series dealt with the necklace when lost. Billingsley had one regret about the show's lasting success: residual payments ended after six reruns in standard 1950s actors' contracts.[10]

"She was the ideal mother," Billingsley said of her character in 1997 in TV Guide. "Some people think she was weakish, but I don't. She was the love in that family. She set a good example for what a wife could be. I had two boys at home when I did the show. I think the character became kind of like me and vice versa. I've never known where one started and where one stopped." As for the idealized TV family on Leave It to Beaver, which continues in reruns on cable more than half a century after its debut, Billingsley had her own explanation for the Cleavers' enduring appeal. "Good grief," she told TV Guide, "I think everybody would like a family like that. Wouldn't it be nice if you came home from school and there was Mom standing there with her little apron and cookies waiting?" Billingsley, however, did question her character's reactions to the Cleaver children's misbehavior, basing her concern on personal experience as the mother of two sons. As co-producer Joseph Connelly explained, "In scenes where she's mad at the boys, she's always coming over to us with the script and objecting. 'I don't see why June is so mad over what Beaver's done. I certainly wouldn't be.' As a result, many of Beaver's crimes have been rewritten into something really heinous like lying about them, in order to give his mother a strong motive for blowing her lady-like stack."[11]

After six seasons and 234 episodes, the popular series was canceled due to the cast's desire to move on to other projects, especially Mathers, who retired from acting to enter his freshman year in high school. The younger actor considered Billingsley a mentor, second mother and a close professional friend:

As I say, Barbara was always, though, a true role model for me. She was a great actress. And a lot of people, you know, when they see her talk jive talk, they always say she can do other things besides be a mom on Leave It to Beaver. And I tell them, Airplane! (1980), she's been a great comedian all her life. And in a lot of ways, just like All in the Family, we kind of stifled her, because her true talent didn't really come out in Leave it To Beaver. She was the straight woman, but she has an awful lot of talent.

After the show's cancellation, Mathers remained her close friend for more than forty-five years. They were reunited on The New Leave It to Beaver. Billingsley, Mathers, Dow, Frank Bank and Ken Osmond also celebrated the show's 50th anniversary together.

After Beaver[edit]

When production of the show ended in 1963, Billingsley had become typecast as saccharine sweet and had trouble obtaining acting jobs for years. She traveled extensively abroad until the late 1970s. After an absence of 17 years from the public eye (other than appearing in two episodes of The F.B.I. in 1971), Billingsley spoofed her wholesome image with a brief appearance in the comedy Airplane! (1980), as a passenger who could "speak jive". She stated that the role gave her as much publicity as Beaver, and revived her career.[12] Returning to TV work, she appeared on Mork & Mindy and The Love Boat.

In 1983, she reprised her role as June Cleaver in the Leave It to Beaver reunion television movie entitled Still the Beaver in 1983. Hugh Beaumont had died the year before of a heart attack, so she played his widow. She also appeared in the subsequent revival of the series, The New Leave It to Beaver, from 1985 to 1989. During the run of The New Leave It to Beaver, Billingsley became the voice of Nanny and The Little Train on Muppet Babies from 1984 to 1991. For her performance as Nanny, she received subsequent Daytime Emmy Award nominations for Outstanding Performer in a Children's Series in 1989 and 1990.

After The New Leave It to Beaver ended its run in 1989, Billingsley appeared in guest roles on Parker Lewis Can't Lose, Empty Nest and Murphy Brown. She also reprised her role as June Cleaver in various television shows including Elvira's Movie Macabre, Amazing Stories, Baby Boom, Hi Honey, I'm Home!, and Roseanne. In 1998, she appeared on Candid Camera, along with June Lockhart and Isabel Sanford, as audience members in a spoof seminar on motherhood. Billingsley final film role was as "Aunt Martha" in the 1997 film version of Leave It to Beaver. She made her final onscreen appearance in the 2003 television movie Secret Santa.

On October 4, 2007, she and her surviving castmates, Jerry Mathers, Tony Dow, Ken Osmond and Frank Bank, were reunited on ABC's Good Morning America, to celebrate Leave It to Beaver's 50th anniversary.

Personal life[edit]

Billingsley was married three times and had two children. She married Glenn Billingsley, Sr. (1912–1984) in 1941. Glenn Billingsley was a restaurateur who was a nephew of Sherman Billingsley, the owner of the Stork Club.[13] His businesses included Billingsley's Golden Bull, Billingsley's Bocage, and the Outrigger Polynesian restaurants in Los Angeles, and a Stork Club in Key West, Florida, where the couple lived briefly after their marriage.[13] They had two sons, Drew and Glenn, Jr., and divorced in 1947.[14]

In 1953, she married British-born movie director Roy Kellino. They were married until Kellino's death in 1956.[15] Billinglsley's third and final marriage was to Dr. William S. Mortensen. They married in 1959 and remained together until Mortensen's death in 1981.[15][16]

Death[edit]

Billingsley died of polymyalgia at her home in Santa Monica, California, on October 16, 2010, at the age of 94.[16] She is interred at Woodlawn Cemetery in Santa Monica, California.[17]

Filmography[edit]

Film
Year Title Role Notes
1945 So You Think You're Allergic Blonde with Hives Short subject
Uncredited
1945 Adventure Dame #2 Uncredited
1946 Up Goes Maisie Barb's Friend at Maisie's Engagement Party Uncredited
1946 Two Sisters from Boston Party Guest Uncredited
1946 Faithful in My Fashion Mary - Department Store Clerk Uncredited
1946 Three Wise Fools Sister Mary Leonard Uncredited
1946 Undercurrent Party Guest Uncredited
1946 The Secret Heart Saleswoman Uncredited
1947 The Arnelo Affair Weil Uncredited
1947 The Sea of Grass Bridesmaid Uncredited
1947 Living in a Big Way G.I. Bill's Wife Uncredited
1947 The Romance of Rosy Ridge Wife Uncredited
1947 The Unfinished Dance Miss Morgan Uncredited
1948 The Argyle Secrets Elizabeth Court
1948 Souvenirs of Death Johnny's Mom Uncredited
1948 The Saxon Charm Mrs. Maddox Uncredited
1948 The Valiant Hombre Linda Mason
1948 Act of Violence Voice role Uncredited
1949 The Sun Comes Up Nurse Uncredited
1949 Caught Store customer in flowered hat Uncredited
1949 I Cheated the Law Ruth Campbell
1949 Air Hostess Madeline Moore
1949 Any Number Can Play Gambler Uncredited
1949 Prejudice Doris Green
1949 A Kiss for Corliss Miss Hibbs, Harry's Secretary Uncredited
1950 Shadow on the Wall Olga
1950 Trial Without Jury Rheta Mulford
1950 Pretty Baby Edna the Receptionist
1950 Dial 1119 Dorothy, Editor's Secretary Uncredited
1951 Three Guys Named Mike Ann White
1951 Inside Straight Miss Meadson
1951 Oh! Susanna Mrs. Lark Uncredited
1951 The Tall Target Young Mother Uncredited
1951 Angels in the Outfield Hat Check Girl in Restaurant Uncredited
1951 Two-Dollar Bettor Miss Pierson Credited as Barbara Billinsley
1952 Invitation Miss Alvy - Simon's Secretary Uncredited
1952 Young Man with Ideas Aggie - Party Guest Uncredited
1952 Woman in the Dark Evelyn Courtney
1952 The Bad and the Beautiful Evelyn Lucien, Costume Designer Uncredited
1953 The Lady Wants Mink Phyllis Uncredited
1953 Invaders from Mars Kelston's Secretary Uncredited
1954 Day of Triumph Claudia - Wife of Pilate Uncredited
1957 The Careless Years Helen Meredith
1980 Airplane! Jive Lady Alternative title: Flying High!
1987 Back to the Beach Announcer
1988 Going to the Chapel
1997 Leave It to Beaver Aunt Martha
Television
Year Title Role Notes
1952 Rebound Pat 2 episodes
1953 The Abbott and Costello Show Becky the Cashier Episode: "Television"
1953 Crown Theatre with Gloria Swanson Episode: "Half the Action"
1953 The Pepsi-Cola Playhouse Segment: "When a Lovely Woman"
1953-1954 City Detective Lita
Barbara Fuller
2 episodes
1953-1955 Four Star Playhouse Various roles 3 episodes
1953-1955 Schlitz Playhouse of Stars Various roles 6 episodes
1953-1957 Cavalcade of America Dorothea Meadows
Harriet Kohler
2 episodes
1954 The Pride of the Family Episode: "Albie's Old Flame"
1954 The Lone Wolf Jean Arnold Episode: "The Long Beach Story (a.k.a. The Smuggling Story)"
1954 Fireside Theater Episode: "The Whole Truth"
1955 Professional Father Helen Wilson 18 episodes
1955 You Are There Catherine Green Episode: "Eli Whitney Invents the Cotton Gin (May 27, 1793)"
1956 Matinee Theater Episode: "Summer Cannot Last"
1956 The Loretta Young Show Connie Episode: "Tightwad Millionaire"
1956 General Electric Summer Originals Episode: "Jungle Trap"
1956 The Ford Television Theatre Mrs. Sloan Episode: "Catch at Straws"
1956-1957 The Brothers Barbara 5 episodes
1957 Panic! Mrs. Mason Episode: "The Subway"
1957 Mr. Adams and Eve Episode: "That Magazine"
1957 Studio 57 June Cleaver Episode: "It's a Small World"
1957-1963 Leave It to Beaver June Cleaver 235 episodes
1971 The F.B.I. Joan Connor
Mrs. Rankin
2 episodes
1982 Mork & Mindy Louise Bailey Episode: "Cheerleader in Chains"
1983 Still the Beaver June Cleaver Television movie
1983 High School U.S.A. Mrs. McCarthy Television movie
1983-1987 The Love Boat Phyllis Cowens
June Cleaver
2 episodes
1983-1989 The New Leave It to Beaver June Cleaver 101 episodes
1984 Elvira's Movie Macabre June Cleaver Episode: "The Human Duplicators"
1984 Silver Spoons Miss Bugden Episode: "I Won't Dance"
1984-1991 Muppet Babies Nanny (Voice) 107 episodes
1985 Amazing Stories June Cleaver Episode: "Remote Control Man"
1987 The New Mike Hammer Sister Superior Paula Episode: "Who Killed Sister Lorna?"
1987 Bay Coven Beatrice Gower Television movie
1988 Baby Boom June Cleaver Episode: "Guilt"
1989 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Mirahda (Voice) Episode: "Invasion of the Turtle Snatchers"
1989 Monsters Episode: "Reaper"
1991 Parker Lewis Can't Lose Ms. Musso's Mother Episode: "Jerry: Portrait of a Video Junkie"
1991 Hi Honey, I'm Home! June Cleaver Episode: "Make My Bed"
1991 Empty Nest Winifred McConnell Episode: "My Nurse Is Back and There's Gonna Be Trouble..."
1993-1994 The Mommies Caryl's mother
Jeanne - Marilyn's Mom
2 episodes
1994 Murphy Brown Mrs. Stritch Episode: "Crime Story"
2000 Mysterious Ways Abby Westmore Episode: "Handshake"
2003 Secret Santa Miss Ruthie Television movie

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Barbara Billingsley Dies". 
  2. ^ McLellan, Dennis (October 16, 2010). "Barbara Billingsley, mother on 'Leave It to Beaver,' dies at 94". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 20, 2010. Retrieved October 16, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d Adam Bernstein (October 16, 2010). "Barbara Billingsley, 94, dies; actress was model mom on 'Leave It To Beaver'". Washington Post. 
  4. ^ Combes's status as a patrolman with the Los Angeles Police Department is stated on his 1917 draft registration, accessed on ancestry.com on October 17, 2010. The website indicates that Combes was then married with two children. According to U.S. Federal Census information, Combes, like his first wife, was the child of an American father and an English mother. He was a native of Sea Cliff Village, Oyster Bay, New York; his father, Henry P. Combes (1860–1920), was a carpenter, and his mother, the former Helen Merritt (1864–1949), was a reporter. Information cited on 1900 U.S. Federal Census, accessed on ancestry.com on October 17, 2010.
  5. ^ Only one sibling, Elizabeth, is cited on 1920 and 1930 U.S. Federal Censuses, accessed on ancestry.com on October 17, 2010. The birth and death dates for Elizabeth Combes (later known as Elizabeth "Betty" McLaughlin) are cited on ancestry.com.
  6. ^ The 1920 U.S. Federal Census for Los Angeles, California, gives the entire Combes household as Lillian Combes, head of household and divorced, and two daughters, Elizabeth, aged eight, and Barbara, aged four; the same census states that Robert Collyer Combes, a 28-year-old divorced "police officer", was living as a lodger elsewhere in the city. The 1930 U.S. Federal Census states that Robert Collyer Combes, by then a captain in the Los Angeles police force, was living with his new wife, Maria S. Combes (1903–1999), and that the couple had been married since 1925. Maria Combes's birth and death dates are listed on the Social Security Death Index, accessed on ancestry.com on October 17, 2010.
  7. ^ Mother's occupation stated in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census, accessed on ancestry.com on October 17, 2010
  8. ^ Good Morning America, ABC, October 2007
  9. ^ Mathers, Jerry. ...And Jerry Mathers as "The Beaver". Berkley Boulevard Books, 1998.
  10. ^ Lawrence Arnold (October 16, 2010). "Barbara Billingsley, Iconic TV Mom June Cleaver, Dead at 94". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on October 20, 2010. Retrieved October 16, 2010. 
  11. ^ Nina Clare Liebman, Living Room Lectures: The Fifties Family in Film and Television (University of Texas Press, 1995), page 70
  12. ^ Billingsley, Barbara (interview) (May 27, 2010). Barbara Billingsley on speaking "jive" in "Airplane". YouTube. 
  13. ^ a b Ralph Blumenthal, Stork Club: America's Most Famous Nightspot and the Lost World of Cafe Society (Back Bay, 2001), page 13
  14. ^ "Leave It to Beaver's Barbara Billingsley Loved Being America's Mom". people.com. October 16, 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2014. 
  15. ^ a b Bygre, Duane (October 16, 2010). "'Leave It to Beaver' Mom Barbara Billingsley Dies". hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved June 7, 2014. 
  16. ^ a b Pollack, Michael (October 16, 2010). "Barbara Billingsley, TV’s June Cleaver, Dies at 94". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 22, 2010. 
  17. ^ Rohit, Parimal M. (July 17, 2011). "Santa Monica Consolidates Cemetery Prices". smmirror.com. Retrieved June 7, 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Applebaum, Irwyn. The World According to Beaver. TV Books, 1984, 1998.
  • Mathers, Jerry. ...And Jerry Mathers as "The Beaver". Berkley Boulevard Books, 1998.

External links[edit]