|United States Senator
January 3, 1993
Serving with Dianne Feinstein
|Preceded by||Alan Cranston|
|Chairwoman of the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works|
January 4, 2007
|Preceded by||James Inhofe|
|Chairwoman of the Senate Select Committee on Ethics|
January 4, 2007
|Preceded by||George Voinovich|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 6th district
January 3, 1983 – January 3, 1993
|Preceded by||Phillip Burton|
|Succeeded by||Lynn C. Woolsey|
|Marin County Board of Supervisors|
November 11, 1940
Brooklyn, New York
|Residence||Rancho Mirage, California|
|Alma mater||Brooklyn College (B.A.)|
Barbara Levy Boxer (born November 11, 1940) is the junior United States Senator from California (since 1993). A member of the Democratic Party, she previously served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1983–1993).
Born in Brooklyn, New York, Boxer graduated from Brooklyn College. She worked as a stockbroker for several years before moving to California with her husband. During the 1970s, she worked as a journalist for the Pacific Sun and as an aide to U.S. Representative John L. Burton. She served on the Marin County Board of Supervisors for six years and became the board's first female president. With the slogan "Barbara Boxer Gives a Damn", she was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1982, representing California District 6. She sat on the House Armed Services Committee, and was involved in government oversight, passing several procurement reforms.
Boxer won the 1992 election for the U.S. Senate. She previously held the record for the most popular votes in any U.S. Senate election in history, having received 6.96 million votes in her 2004 re-election, until her colleague, Dianne Feinstein, the senior Senator from California, surpassed that number in her 2012 re-election. Boxer is the chair of the Environment and Public Works Committee and the chair of the Select Committee on Ethics, making her the only senator to preside over two committees simultaneously. She is also the Democratic Chief Deputy Whip.
She is currently fourteenth in seniority in the United States Senate.
- 1 Early life and family
- 2 U.S. Representative
- 3 U.S. Senator
- 4 Presidential politics
- 5 Platform and votes
- 5.1 Health care
- 5.2 Education
- 5.3 The economy
- 5.4 The environment
- 5.5 Reproductive rights
- 5.6 Social Security
- 5.7 National security
- 5.8 Iraq War
- 5.9 Surveillance
- 5.10 Election reform
- 5.11 Bush nominees
- 5.12 Foreign policy
- 5.13 Drug Policy Reform
- 5.14 Gun control
- 5.15 Same-sex marriage
- 5.16 Hate Crimes
- 5.17 India-U.S. nuclear deal
- 5.18 Censuring President Bush
- 5.19 PIPA
- 5.20 Congressional scorecards
- 6 Public image, political reception and controversy
- 7 Major speeches and statements
- 8 Congressional service
- 9 Electoral history
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Early life and family
Barbara Levy Boxer was born in Brooklyn, New York, to Jewish parents Sophie (née Silvershein; born in Austria) and Ira Levy. She attended public schools, and graduated from George W. Wingate High School in 1958.
In 1962, she married Stewart Boxer and graduated from Brooklyn College with a bachelor's degree in Economics. While in college she was a member of Delta Phi Epsilon sorority and was a cheerleader for the Brooklyn College basketball team.
Boxer worked as a stockbroker for the next three years, while her husband went to law school. Later, the couple moved to Greenbrae, Marin County, California, and had two children, Doug and Nicole. She first ran for political office in 1972, when she challenged incumbent Peter Arrigoni, a member of the Marin County Board of Supervisors, but lost a close election. Later during the 1970s, Boxer worked as a journalist for the Pacific Sun and as an aide to John Burton, then a member of Congress. In 1976, Boxer was elected to the Marin County Board of Supervisors, serving for six years. She was the Board's first woman president.
Boxer's husband, Stewart, a prominent attorney in Oakland, represents injured workers in worker's compensation cases, keeping a very low political profile. Many cases are referred to him by labor unions, including the Teamsters. In 2006, the Boxers sold their house in Greenbrae, where they had lived for many years, and moved to Rancho Mirage. Their son, Douglas, a lawyer, practices with Stewart and is a member of the Oakland Planning Commission, having been appointed to that office by then-mayor Jerry Brown.
Boxer was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1982, defeating Dennis McQuaid. Her slogan was "Barbara Boxer Gives a Damn." In the House, she represented California District 6 (Marin and Sonoma Counties) for five terms.[dead link]
In 1992, Boxer was embarrassed by the House banking scandal, which revealed that more than 450 congressional representatives and aides, herself included, wrote overdraft checks covered by overdraft protection by the House Bank. In response, she issued a statement saying "in painful retrospect, I clearly should have paid more attention to my account" and wrote a $15 check to the Deficit Reduction Fund for each of her 87 overdrafts.
In 1991, during the Anita Hill Senate hearings, where Hill accused U.S. Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas of sexual harassment, Boxer led a group of women House members to the Senate Judiciary Committee – demanding that the all-white, all-male Committee of Senators take Hill's charges seriously.
Democratic Senator Alan Cranston retired in 1992, creating an open contest, which Boxer won in the U.S. Senate elections that year, defeating Bruce Herschensohn, a conservative television political commentator, by 4.9% after a last-minute revelation that Herschensohn had attended a strip club. In 1998, she won a second term, beating sitting California State Treasurer Matt Fong by 10.1% of the vote. After facing no primary opposition in the 2004 election, Boxer defeated GOP candidate Bill Jones, the sitting California Secretary of State, by a margin of 20 percentage points. In 2010, Boxer defeated GOP candidate Carly Fiorina, former chief executive officer of Hewlett-Packard, by a margin of 10 percentage points.
- Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation
- Subcommittee on Aviation Operations, Safety, and Security
- Subcommittee on Consumer Protection, Product Safety, and Insurance
- Subcommittee on Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and Coast Guard
- Subcommittee on Surface Transportation and Merchant Marine Infrastructure, Safety, and Security
- Subcommittee on Science and Space
- Committee on Environment and Public Works (Chair)
- Committee on Foreign Relations
- Subcommittee on Near Eastern and South and Central Asian Affairs
- Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs
- Subcommittee on International Operations and Organizations, Human Rights, Democracy and Global Women's Issues (Chair)
- Subcommittee on International Development and Foreign Assistance, Economic Affairs, and International Environmental Protection
- Select Committee on Ethics (Chair)
A member of the Senate Democratic Leadership, Boxer serves as the Democratic Chief Deputy Whip, which gives her the job of lining up votes on key legislation.
The following is an incomplete list of legislation that Boxer introduced in the Senate.
- HIV Organ Policy Equity Act (S. 330; 113th Congress) - a bill that would allow organs from HIV positive patients to be donated and transplanted into patients that are also HIV positive, a procedure that is currently illegal. This change would allow hundreds of additional organ transplants to take place in the United States each year.
On January 6, 2005, Boxer joined Representative Stephanie Tubbs Jones (D-Ohio) in filing a U.S. Congressional objection to the certification of Ohio's Electoral College votes in the 2004 U.S. presidential election. She called the objection her "opening shot to be able to focus the light of truth on these terrible problems in the electoral system". The Senate voted the objection down 1–74; the House voted the objection down 31–267. It was only the second Congressional objection to an entire State's electoral delegation in U.S. history; the first instance was in 1877.
As a superdelegate, Boxer had declared that she would support the winner of the California primary, which was won by Hillary Clinton. However, she reneged on that pledge and remained neutral, only officially backing Barack Obama's candidacy the day after the last primaries, once he had garnered enough delegate votes to clinch the nomination.
Platform and votes
Senator Boxer is part of a coalition to increase medical research to find cures for diseases. In 2007, she authored successful bipartisan legislation with Senator Gordon Smith to combat HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis globally. In 1997, she authored a Patients' Bill of Rights. She has written a bill to make health insurance tax-deductible and another bill to let any American buy into the same health insurance program that members of Congress have. She supports comprehensive prescription drug coverage through Medicare and the right of all consumers to purchase lower-cost prescription drugs re-imported from Canada.
In October 2002, Boxer urged the Bush Administration to take specific steps to address the causes of the steep increase in autism cases in California. She wrote Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Tommy Thompson to establish a common national standard for the diagnosis of autism; instruct the CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to convene a task force to review the current literature on autism and conduct its own study if necessary; and direct the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to work with the states to create a national chronic disease database.
In March 2010, Boxer voted to support the health care reform proposed by the Obama Administration and Democratic 111th Congress by voting yes on the Health Care Reconciliation Act and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
Boxer established the Excellence in Education award to recognize teachers, parents, businesses and organizations that are working to make positive changes in education. Since 1997 Senator Boxer has presented the Excellence in Education Award to 38 recipients.
Senators Boxer and John Ensign (R-NV) are the authors of the Invest in the USA Act. This legislation, which was signed into law in October 2004 as a small part of the more comprehensive American Jobs Creation Act, is intended to encourage American companies to bring overseas profits back to the United States, to create jobs in the U.S., and stimulate domestic economic growth.
In March 2004, Boxer offered an amendment to the Federal budget to create a $24 billion jobs reserve fund. The amendment would set aside funds for a variety of investments to improve the economy and create jobs by establishing a manufacturing jobs tax credit for companies that create jobs in the United States, expanding investment in science research and development, providing a tax credit to small businesses to pay for health insurance for their employees, and expanding trade adjustment assistance to help those who lose their jobs because of foreign trade. The Boxer amendment would also end the tax break that companies receive after moving plants overseas.
Senator Boxer further distinguished herself by being one of only eight members of the Senate to vote against the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act in 1999.
Boxer has introduced the National Oceans Protection Act (NOPA) of 2005. Some of the provisions of this act are: strengthen ocean governance; protect and restore marine wildlife and habitats; address ocean pollution; improve fisheries management. The bill also addresses needs regarding marine science, research and technology, marine mammals, coastal development, and invasive species.
Boxer is an original cosponsor of Senator Jim Jeffords' (I-VT) Clean Power Act. This legislation would reduce emissions of three pollutants coming from power plants; sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and mercury, and also reduce emissions of carbon dioxide .
As the new head of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee in January 2007, Boxer wants to reduce energy consumption. She is attempting to curb global warming by leading pilot programs. The few things that she and some of her fellow Senators are doing could cut electricity consumption by as much as 50 percent in their Capitol Hill offices.
Senator Boxer was the Senate sponsor of the Northern California Coastal Wild Heritage Wilderness Act, which was signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 17, 2006. The bill protected 275,830 acres (1,116 km2) of federal land as wilderness and 21 miles (34 km) of stream as a wild and scenic river, including such popular areas as the King Range and Cache Creek. Senator Boxer worked with Senator Dianne Feinstein and Representative Mike Thompson (the bill's House sponsor) in the five-year effort to pass the legislation.
Boxer along with her colleague Dianne Feinstein voted in favor of subsidy payments to conventional commodity farm producers at the cost of subsidies for conservation-oriented farming.
Boxer maintains a strong stance in support of reproductive rights and the "pro-choice" movement. Boxer authored the Freedom of Choice Act of 2004 and participated in the floor fight for passage of the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act.
Boxer is an original cosponsor of the Title X Family Planning Services Act of 2005, S.844, by Senator Hillary Clinton (D-NY). This legislation aims to improve access to women's health care. It authorizes funding for family planning services grants; allows states to provide such services to individuals who may not be eligible for Medicaid; prohibits health insurance providers from excluding contraceptive services, drugs or devices from benefits; establishes a program to disseminate information on emergency contraception; requires hospitals receiving federal funding to offer emergency contraception to victims of sexual assault; provides grants to public and private entities to establish or expand teen pregnancy prevention programs; and requires that federally funded education programs about contraception be medically accurate and include information about health benefits and failure rates.
She was strongly critical of the Stupak-Pitts Amendment, which would prevent taxpayer-funded abortions possibly resulting in women not being able to pay with their own funds for abortion coverage Affordable Health Care for America Act.
Boxer supports the current system of Social Security, and opposed President George W. Bush's plan for partial privatization of Social Security. She introduced the 401(k) Pension Protection Act to protect retirement by requiring the diversification of 401(k) plans. A modified version of the bill was signed into law as part of the 1997 tax bill.
Following the Enron scandal, Boxer again worked to ensure that retirement plans are diversified. She also introduced a bill to prohibit accounting firms from auditing and consulting for the same company.
After the September 11, 2001 attacks, Boxer authored a bill to protect commercial airliners against attacks by shoulder-fired missiles, and wrote the law allowing airline pilots with special training to carry guns in the cockpit.
Boxer wrote the High-Tech Port Security Act, and sponsored the Chemical Security Act to address terrorist threats against chemical plants. Senator Boxer also cosponsored comprehensive rail security legislation.
In October 2002, Boxer voted against the joint resolution passed by the U.S. Congress to authorize the use of military force by the Bush Administration against Iraq. In June 2005, Senators Boxer and Russ Feingold (D-WI) cosponsored Senate Resolution 171 calling for a timeframe for U.S. troop withdrawal from Iraq.
Boxer's petition demanding an exit strategy from Iraq drew 107,218 signatures.
Boxer was sharply critical of General Petraeus testimony regarding the political and military situation in Iraq in 2007, charging him with reporting while wearing 'rosy glasses'.
In June 2008 Boxer spoke in the Senate in opposition to the FISA Amendments Act of 2008, a pending bill in the United States Congress to amend the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, and later broke with her counterpart Sen. Dianne Feinstein and voted against it.
Boxer voted in support of the 2002 Help America Vote Act, which mandated the use of voting machines across the country, among other provisions. On February 18, 2005, Senators Boxer, Hillary Clinton, and Representative Stephanie Tubbs Jones introduced the Count Every Vote Act of 2005, which would provide a voter verified paper ballot for every vote cast in electronic voting machines and ensure access to voter verification for all citizens. The bill mandates that this ballot be the official ballot for purposes of a recount. The bill sets a uniform standard for provisional ballots and requires the Federal Election Assistance Commission to issue standards that ensure uniform access to voting machines and trained election personnel in every community. The bill also mandated improved security measures for electronic voting machines. The bill did not pass.
During the confirmation hearings for the United States Secretary of State nominee Condoleezza Rice in January 2005, Boxer challenged her to admit to alleged mistakes and false statements made by the Bush Administration in leading the United States into the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and ultimately voted against confirmation, along with twelve other senators. The dissent was the highest vote against a Secretary of State nominee since 1825 when Henry Clay was so named.
Boxer voted against John Bolton's nomination for U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations in the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and filibustered him on the Senate floor. As a result of the strong Democratic opposition Bolton could not obtain Senate approval. However, President Bush bypassed the Senate by employing the constitutional right of recess appointment, only the second time such an appointment has been used for a United States ambassador to the United Nations since the UN's founding in 1945. Recess appointments themselves have been used numerous times by various presidents.
In 2002, Senator Boxer voted against the U.S. invasion of Iraq. She has subsequently referred to that vote as the best vote of her career. She also voted against the first Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm) while a member of the House in 1991 and was a very vocal protester against the Vietnam War in the 1970s.
Drug Policy Reform
Senator Boxer has come out against reforming marijuana policy and is opposed to the California Ballot measure to legalize and tax marijuana for those 21 and older in the state.
The Human Rights Campaign gave Boxer ratings of 100%, 88% and 100% for the 107th, 108th, and 109th sessions of Congress, respectively, indicating a support of the HRC's slate of pro-gay rights legislative issues. In 1996, she was one of fourteen Senators to vote against the Defense of Marriage Act and also voted against the Federal Marriage Amendment in 2004 and 2006, although when San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom issued a directive to the city-county clerk to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples she stated that she supported California's domestic partnership law but agreed with its definition that marriage was between a man and a woman. However, her 2010 re-election campaign website states that "Senator Boxer supports marriage equality." She opposed Proposition 8, a constitutional amendment that prohibited same-sex marriage in California, and supported the Uniting American Families Act.
India-U.S. nuclear deal
Boxer is one of the most outspoken critics of the nuclear energy deal between the United States and India. Boxer is of the opinion that India should not get help from the U.S. in the civilian nuclear energy sector until it breaks its relationship with Iran.
Censuring President Bush
- American Civil Liberties Union – 83% for 2005–2006
- Americans for Democratic Action – 95% for 2006
- American Land Rights Association – 11% for 2006
- Americans for Tax Reform – 5% for 2006
- AFL-CIO – 100% in 2006
- Campaign for America's Future – 100% for 2005–2006
- Conservative Index-John Birch Society – 20% for Fall 2004
- Children's Defense Fund – 100% for 2006
- Drum Major Institute – 100% for 2005
- Family Research Council – 0% for 2006
- FreedomWorks – 17% for 2006
- Gun Owners of America – 0% for 2006
- Humane Society of the United States – 100% for 2005–2006
- League of Conservation Voters – 100% for 2006
- NARAL Pro-Choice America – 100% for 2006
- National Association of Wheat Growers – 0% for 2005
- National Education Association – 100% for 2005–2006
- National Federation of Independent Business – 0% for 2005–2006
- National Journal – Composite liberal score of 95% for 2006
- National Organization for Women – 96% for 2005–2006
- National Rifle Association – F for 2006
- National Right to Life Committee – 0% for 2005–2006
- National Taxpayers Union – 11% for 2006
- Population Connection – 100% for 2006
- Republican Liberty Caucus – 10% for 2005
- Secular Coalition for America – 90% on 2006 scorecards
- United States Chamber of Commerce – 25% for 2006
Public image, political reception and controversy
Criticizing Condoleezza Rice's judgment
Boxer criticized then United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice's judgment in relation to the war in Iraq: "I personally believe – this is my personal view – that your loyalty to the mission you were given, to sell the war, overwhelmed your respect for the truth."
In January 2007, Boxer was in the news for comments she made when responding to Bush's plans to send an additional 20,000 troops to Iraq. "Who pays the price?" Boxer asked Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. "I'm not going to pay a personal price. My kids are too old and my grandchild is too young. You're not going to pay a personal price with an immediate family. So who pays the price? The American military and their families... not me, not you." When Rice interjected, Boxer responded by saying, "Madam Secretary, please. I know you feel terrible about it. That's not the point. I was making the case as to who pays the price for your decisions. And the fact that this administration would move forward with this escalation with no clue as to the further price that we're going to pay militarily... I find really appalling."
The New York Post and White House Press Secretary Tony Snow considered this an attack on Rice's status as a single, childless female and referred to Boxer's comments as "a great leap backward for feminism". Rice later echoed Snow's remarks, saying "I thought it was okay to not have children, and I thought you could still make good decisions on behalf of the country if you were single and didn't have children." Boxer responded to the controversy by saying "They're getting this off on a non-existent thing that I didn't say. I'm saying, she's like me, we do not have families who are in the military."
Keith Olbermann accused the commentators, particularly Rush Limbaugh, of making Boxer's comments into an issue when the same people were not outraged when "Laura Bush said Secretary Rice would never be elected president because she was not married."
She has made cameo appearances as herself in several television shows, including Murphy Brown (1994), Gilmore Girls (2002) and Curb Your Enthusiasm (2007), as well as a cameo (as herself) in the 2000 film Traffic. On November 2, 2005, she made an appearance on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart to discuss her new novel “A Time To Run”.
In September 2012 it was reported that she and retiring Republican Senator Olympia Snowe will appear together in an NBC sitcom. She and Senator Snowe appeared in Parks and Recreation season 5 premiere.
Awards and honors
Major speeches and statements
- Excerpts from Senator Boxer's Senate Floor Statement on the Resolution Authorizing the Use of Military Force against Iraq, October 10, 2002 at the Wayback Machine (archived October 17, 2002)
- Transcript from the Confirmation Hearing of Condoleezza Rice, January 18, 2005
- Senate Floor Debate on the Confirmation of Condoleezza Rice as Secretary of State, January 26, 2005 at the Wayback Machine (archived March 31, 2005)
- On the Nomination of Alberto Gonzales to be Attorney General, February 1, 2005 at the Wayback Machine (archived February 6, 2005)
- On the President's Budget, February 7, 2005 at the Wayback Machine (archived February 8, 2005)
- On Social Security, February 11, 2005 at the Wayback Machine (archived February 25, 2005)
- Senate Floor Debate on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, March 16, 2005 at the Wayback Machine (archived March 31, 2005)
- Statement on Earth Day, April 20, 2005 at the Wayback Machine (archived April 21, 2005)
- On the Iraq War, July 6, 2005 at the Wayback Machine (archived August 25, 2005)
- title=On Karl Rove's CIA Leak, July 20, 2005
- On the Energy Bill, July 29, 2005 at the Wayback Machine (archived August 25, 2005)
- On Her Opposition to the Confirmation of Chief Justice Nominee John Roberts, September 21, 2005 at the Wayback Machine (archived September 27, 2005)
- Addressing World Affairs Council of Northern California (Video), October 13, 2006
|Office||Branch||Location||Elected||Term began||Term ended|
|Representative||Legislative||Washington, D.C.||1982||January 3, 1983||January 3, 1985|
|Representative||Legislative||Washington, D.C.||1984||January 3, 1985||January 3, 1987|
|Representative||Legislative||Washington, D.C.||1986||January 3, 1987||January 3, 1989|
|Representative||Legislative||Washington, D.C.||1988||January 3, 1989||January 3, 1991|
|Representative||Legislative||Washington, D.C.||1990||January 3, 1991||January 3, 1993|
|Senator||Legislative||Washington, D.C.||1992||January 3, 1993||January 3, 1999|
|Senator||Legislative||Washington, D.C.||1998||January 3, 1999||January 3, 2005|
|Senator||Legislative||Washington, D.C.||2004||January 3, 2005||January 3, 2011|
|Senator||Legislative||Washington, D.C.||2010||January 3, 2011||January 3, 2017|
Boxer was first elected to the Senate by a 4.9% margin in 1992. She was reelected in 2010, defeating businesswoman Carly Fiorina.
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- Barrett, Ted. GOP senator: Bush plan could match Vietnam blunder CNN, January 11, 2007
- White House Spokesman Blasts Sen. Boxer's Exchange With Secretary Rice. FoxNews.com, January 12, 2006.
- "Exchange Turns Into Political Flashpoin", The New York Times, January 12, 2007
- Countdown With Keith Olbermann, MSNBC: January 15, 2007 broadcast transcript.
- "Olbermann bestows "Worst Person" honors on Kristol, Limbaugh". Media Matters for America. January 16, 2007. Archived from the original on February 16, 2007. Retrieved January 16, 2007.
- "Barbara Boxer". IMDB. Retrieved November 4, 2007.
- Len Sousa (September 22, 2007). "Curb Your Enthusiasm". Slant magazine. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved November 4, 2007.
- The San Francisco Chronicle http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Sen-Snowe-ready-to-make-sitcom-debut-3870532.php
|url=missing title (help).
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Project Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at The Library of Congress
- Johnston, Robert D. "Barbara Boxer" Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia
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- NPR: Barbara Boxer: Rice Hearings and the 2004 Vote, Terry Gross, February 10, 2005
- Progressive Magazine: Barbara Boxer Interview, Ruth Conniff, July 2005
- Barbara Boxer speaks at The World Affairs Council of Northern California video, October 13, 2006
|United States House of Representatives|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 6th congressional district
Lynn C. Woolsey
|United States Senate|
|U.S. Senator (Class 3) from California
Served alongside: Dianne Feinstein
|Chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee
|Chairman of the Senate Ethics Committee
|Party political offices|
|Democratic Party nominee for United States Senator from California (Class 3)
1992, 1998, 2004, 2010
Most recent nominee
|Chief Senate Democratic Deputy Whip
|United States order of precedence (ceremonial)|
|United States Senators by seniority