Barbital

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Barbital
Barbital.svg
Barbital ball-and-stick.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
5,5-diethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
MedlinePlus a682221
Legal status
Routes Oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Half-life 30.3 (± 3.2) hours
Identifiers
CAS number 57-44-3 YesY
ATC code N05CA04
PubChem CID 2294
DrugBank DB01483
ChemSpider 2206 YesY
UNII 5WZ53ENE2P YesY
KEGG D01740 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:31252 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL444 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C8H12N2O3 
Mol. mass 184.193 g/mol
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Barbital (as known in the United States) or barbitone (as known elsewhere), marketed under the brand names Veronal for the pure acid and Medinal for the sodium salt, was the first commercially available barbiturate. It was used as a sleeping aid (hypnotic) from 1903 until the mid-1950s. The chemical names for barbitone are diethylmalonyl urea or diethylbarbituric acid; hence, the sodium salt (known as medinal, a genericised trademark in the United Kingdom), is known also as sodium diethylbarbiturate. Barbitone was prepared by condensing diethylmalonic ester with urea in the presence of sodium ethoxide, and then by adding at least two molar equivalents of ethyl iodide to the silver salt of malonylurea or possibly to a basic solution of the acid. The result was an odorless, slightly bitter, white crystalline powder.

Synthesis[edit]

Barbitone was first synthesized in 1902 by German chemists Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering.* [1] They published their discovery in 1903 and it was marketed in 1904 by the Bayer company as “Veronal”. A soluble salt of barbitone was marketed by the Schering company as “Medinal.” It was dispensed for “insomnia induced by nervous excitability”.[2][unreliable source?] It was provided in either capsules or cachets. The therapeutic dose was ten to fifteen grains (0.65-0.97 grams). 3.5 to 4.4 grams is the deadly dose but sleep has also been prolonged up to ten days with recovery.

Barbitone can be synthesized in a condensation reaction from urea and diethyl-2,2-diethylmalonate, a diethyl malonate derivative:

Barbital Synthese.svg

Pharmacology[edit]

Barbitone was considered to be a great improvement over the existing hypnotics. Its taste was slightly bitter, but an improvement over the strong, unpleasant taste of the commonly used bromides. It had few side effects. Its therapeutic dose was far below the toxic dose. However, prolonged usage resulted in tolerance to the drug, requiring higher doses to reach the desired effect. Fatal overdoses of this slow acting hypnotic were not uncommon. Pioneering aviator Arthur Whitten Brown (of "Alcock and Brown" fame) died of an accidental overdose.[3]

pH Buffer[edit]

Solutions of sodium barbital have also been used as pH buffers for biological research, e.g. in immunoelectrophoresis or in fixative solutions.[4][5] As barbital is a controlled substance, barbital-based buffers have largely been replaced by other substances.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fischer, Emil; von Mering, Joseph (1903). "Ueber eine neue Klasse von Schlafmitteln". Therapie der Gegenwart 44: 97–101. 
  2. ^ Finley, Ellingwood (1919). "Veronal". The American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy. Retrieved 7 Nov 2005. 
  3. ^ "Arthur Whitten Brown (1886–1948) – Find A Grave Memorial". Findagrave.com. Retrieved 19 April 2014. 
  4. ^ "Wolf D. Kuhlmann, "Buffer Solutions"". 10 September 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2014. 
  5. ^ Steven E. Ruzin (1999). Plant Microtechnique and Microscopy. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 28 July 2014. 
  6. ^ Monthony, JF; Wallace, EG; Allen, DM (Oct 1978). "A non-barbital buffer for immunoelectrophoresis and zone electrophoresis in agarose gels". Clinical Chemistry 24 (10): 1825–7. PMID 568042. 

Further reading[edit]

  • (English) Dombrowski SM, Krishnan R, Witte M,Maitra S, Diesing C, et al. 1998. Constitutive and barbital-induced expression of the CYP6A2 allele of a high producerstrain of CYP6A2 in the genetic backgroundof a low producer strain. Gene221:69–77.
  • Public Domain Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Veronal". Encyclopædia Britannica 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 1037.