|• MP||Mr. Santosh Gangwar (Bharatiya Janta Party)|
|• MLA||Dr. Arun Kumar|
|• Mayor||Dr. I.S Tomar|
|• Total||235 km2 (91 sq mi)|
|Elevation||268 m (879 ft)|
|Population (Census 2011)|
|• Density||1,084/km2 (2,810/sq mi)|
Bareilly (i//; Hindi: बरेली, Urdu: بریلی) is a city in Bareilly district in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Located on the Ramganga, it is the capital of Bareilly division and the geographical region of Rohilkhand. The city is 252 kilometres (157 mi) north of the state capital, Lucknow, and 250 kilometres (155 mi) east of the national capital, New Delhi. Bareilly is the fourth city in Uttar Pradesh with compressed natural gas (CNG) filling stations (after Lucknow, Kanpur and Agra). It is the seventh-largest metropolis in Uttar Pradesh and the 50th-largest in India.
The city, also known as Nath nagari (Land of Lord Shiva), Zari nagari and historically as Sanjashya (where the Buddha descended from Tushita to earth), is a centre for furniture manufacturing and trade in cotton, cereal and sugar. Its status grew with its inclusion on the "counter magnets" list of the National Capital Region (NCR), a list also including Hissar, Patiala, Kota and Gwalior. The city is also known as Bans-Bareilly. Although Bareilly is a production centre for cane (bans) furniture, "Bans Bareilly" is not derived from the bans market; it was named for two princes: Bansaldev and Baraldev, sons of Jagat Singh Katehriya, who founded the city in 1537. Bareilly's 2011 population was 898,167.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Climate
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Culture
- 6 Politics
- 7 Economy
- 8 Public sector undertakings
- 9 Transport
- 10 Education
- 11 Health care
- 12 Defence installations
- 13 Places Of Islamic Interests
- 14 Hindu temples
- 15 Churches
- 16 References
- 17 External links
Bareilly was founded in 1537 by Basdeo, a Katehriya Rajput. The city was first mentioned by the historian Budayuni, who wrote that Husain Quli Khan was appointed the governor of "Bareilly and Sambhal" in 1568. The divisions and revenue of the district "being fixed by Todar Mal" were recorded by Abul Fazl in 1596. The foundation of the modern city of Bareilly was laid by Mukrand Rai in 1657. In 1658, Bareilly became the headquarters of the province of Budaun.
The Mughal policy of encouraging Afghan settlements to control the Katehriyas succeeded if the central government was strong. After Aurangzeb's death, the Afghans (who had become local potentates) began to seize and occupy neighbouring villages.
In 1623 two Afghan brothers from the Barech tribe (Shah Alam and Husain Khan) settled in the region, bringing other Pashtun settlers. With the immigration of Daud Khan, an Afghan slave originally from Roh, Afghanistan, the Afghan Rohillas rose to prominence. His adopted son, Ali Muhammad Khan, established his headquarters in the region and was named governor of Kateher by Aurangzeb; the region was known as "the land of the Ruhelas". After the fall of the Mughal Empire, many Pathans migrated from Rohilkhand. Bareilly (like other cities in Uttar Pradesh) experienced economic stagnation and poverty, leading to the migration of Rohilla Muslim Pathans to Suriname and Guyana as indentured labour.
Ali Muhammad Khan
Ali Muhammad Khan (1737–1749), grandson of Shah Alam, captured the city of Bareilly and made it his capital; he later united the Rohillas in the State of Rohilkhand from 1707 to 1720. He rose to power, and was confirmed to own the lands he had seized. The emperor made him a nawab in 1737 and governor of Rohilkhand in 1740.
Ali Muhammad was succeeded by Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech (1749–1774), whom he appointed regent of Rohilkhand on his deathbed. Barech extended the power of Rohilkhand from Almora in the north to Etawah in the southwest. Under him Rohilla power continued to grow, although the area was torn by strife among rival chieftains and struggles with neighbouring powers (particularly the Nawab Vazirs of Awadh, the Bangash Nawabs and the Marathas).
British East India Company
Under Barech at the 1761 Third Battle of Panipat, Rohilkhand blocked the expansion of the Maratha Empire into northern India. In 1772 it was invaded by the Marathas, repulsing the invasion with the aid of the Nawab of Awadh. After the war, Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula demanded payment for the nawabs' help from Barech. When his demand was refused, the nawab joined the British (under Governor Warren Hastings and his Commander-in-Chief, Alexander Champion) to invade Rohilkhand. The combined forces of Daula and the Company defeated Barech (who was killed in battle at Miranpur Katra, ending Rohilla rule) in 1774.
Rohilkhand was handed over to Daula, and from 1774 to 1800 the province was ruled by the Nawab of Awadh. By 1801, subsidies due under the treaties to support a British force had fallen into arrears. To pay the debt, Nawab Saadat Ali Khan surrendered Rohilkhand to the East India Company in a treaty signed on 10 November 1801. 
During the reign of Shah Alam II, Bareilly was the headquarters of Rohilla Sardar Hafiz Rehmat Khan and many coins were minted. The city was later in the possession of Awadh Nawab Asaf-ud-Daulah, and his coins had Bareilly, Bareilly Aasfabad and the Bareilly kite and fish as identification marks. Coins were then minted by the East India Company.
After the Rohilla War, the change in the power structure increased discontent throughout the district. Increased taxation from 1812 to 1814 increased resentment of the British: "Business stood still, shops were shut and multitudes assembled near the courthouse to petition for the abolition of the tax." The Magistrate Dembleton, already unpopular, ordered the assessment to be made by a Kotwal. A skirmish between rebels and the sepoys (under Captain Cunningham) cost 300–400 lives. In 1818, Glyn[who?] was posted as Acting Judge and Magistrate of Bareilly and the Joint Magistrate of Bulundshahr.
Glyn asked Ghulam Yahya to write an account of "craftsmen, the names of tools of manufacture and production and their dress and manners". The most popular trades in and around Bareilly during the 1820s were manufacturing glass, jewellery, glass and lac bangles and gold and silver thread, crimping, bean drying, wire drawing, charpoy weaving, keeping a grocer's shop and selling kebabs.
Rebellion of 1857
Bareilly was a centre of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The rebellion began as a mutiny of native soldiers (sepoys), employed by the British East India Company's army, against race- and religion-based injustices and inequities on 10 May 1857 in Meerut. It expanded into other mutinies and civilian rebellions, primarily in the major north-central Indian river valleys; local episodes extended northwest to Peshawar (on the northwest frontier with Afghanistan) and southeast (beyond Delhi). There were riots in many parts of Uttar Pradesh, and Muslims in Bareilly, Bijnor and Moradabad called for the revival of a Muslim kingdom.
The Rohillas actively opposed the British, but were disarmed. Khan Bahadur Khan Rohilla, grandson of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, formed his own government in Bareilly in 1857 and a widespread popular revolt in Awadh, Bundelkhand and Rohilkhand took place. In 1857, Khan Bhadur Khan issued silver coins from Bareilly as an independent ruler. When the rebellion failed, Bareilly was subjugated. Khan Bahadur Khan was sentenced to death, and hanged in the police station on 24 February 1860.
Bareilly Central Jail housed a number of political prisoners during the British Raj, including Yashpal (whose marriage while imprisoned on 7 August 1936 was the first such ceremony in an Indian jail). The prison rules were changed, preventing future prison marriages.
Before independence, Muslims constituted nearly half the population of Bareilly. After the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, nearly one-fifth of the Muslim population of the city settled in Pakistan (primarily in Karachi). Hindus and Sikhs migrated from Pakistan, settling in Bareilly.
Bareilly is in northern India, at . On its east are Pilibhit and Shahjahanpur, Rampur on the west, Udham Singh Nagar (Uttarakhand) to the north and Badaun to the south. The city is level and well-watered, sloping towards the south. Its soil is fertile, with groves of trees. A rain forest in the north, known as the tarai, contains tigers, bears, deer and wild pigs. The river Sarda (or Gogra) forms the eastern boundary and is the principal waterway. The Ramganga receives most of the drainage from the Kumaon mountains, and the Deoha also receives many small streams. The Gomati (or Gumti) is also nearby.
|Climate data for Bareilly|
|Average high °C (°F)||21.6
|Average low °C (°F)||8.3
|Precipitation mm (inches)||22.9
|Source: India Meteorological Department (1901-2000)|
Bareilly is on the Ganges plain, with fertile alluvial soil; however, the lower plain is flood-prone. The city is on the Ramganga, with seven other rivers passing through the district. The lower Himalayas are 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of the river.
Bareilly had a 2011 population of 898,167 (477,438 men and 420,729 women). In the 2001 census, the district recorded a 27.66 percent increase over 1991. Provisional 2011 data suggest a density of 1,084 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,810 /sq mi), compared with 879 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,280 /sq mi) in 2001.
The literacy rate in 2011 was 84 percent (compared with the national average of 74 percent), an increase from 81 percent in 2001. Male and female literacy was 90 and 77 percent, respectively. The major languages are Hindi, English, Urdu, Punjabi and Kumaoni.Large swathes of Punjabi khatris settled here in, after 1947's partition from Pakistan.
There were 669,681 children under age six (352,479 boys and 317,202 girls) in 2011, a decline of 6.9 percent from the 2001 census. They comprised 15 percent of the population, down from 19.88 percent in 2001. The district is home to 2.24 percent of the total Uttar Pradesh population, unchanged from 2001.
In 2001, Hindus were 51.81 percent of the population. Other groups are Baniya, Punjabi, Kayasth, Kurmi, Jatav and Deval Patwa Thakurs. Muslims constitute 47.89 percent of the population (90 percent Sunni Hanafi and 10 percent Shia Ithnā‘ashariyyah). Sikhs comprise 0.80 percent of population, Christians 0.26 percent, Buddhists 0.20 percent, Jains 0.02 percent and others 0.02 percent.
Entertainment and performing arts
Bareilly has arts and cultural organisations, art galleries and theatres. The annual Craft Fair at YugVeena Library showcases artists. Influenced by the migrants from nearby regions, Bareilly has a varied culture: Brij (of Mathura), Awadhi (of Lucknow), Pahaari (of the Kumaun region of Uttrakhand) and Harayanvi (of northwest Uttar Pradesh). The city hosts a number of fashion shows. The Bollywood film Woh 5 Din, a suspense thriller, was shot in Bareilly and in 2005's Main, Meri Patni Aur Woh, Rajpal Yadav's wife Veena comes from the city. Bollywood actress and former Miss World Priyanka Chopra is from Bareilly.
Bareilly has a number of restaurants which follow the tradition of naming a cuisine after its creator. The city is known for its Seekh Kabaabs, which are sold throughout the old city. Minced meat (primarily lamb), mixed with spices and aromatic herbs, is grilled on skewers over tamarind charcoal.
Bareilly has two sports stadiums and one cricket academy:
- Dori Lal Agarawal Sports Stadium (city area)
- Major Dhyan Chand Sports Stadium (cantonment area)
- Cricket Academy of Bareilly (CAB)
The city is represented in sports tournaments by club teams and teams representing schools and colleges. Most colleges have home fields on campus.
Other parks include:
- Children's Park, Cantonment
- Phool Bagh, Cantonment
- Company Garden, Civil Lines
- C L Park, Prem Nagar
- Mayur Van Chetna Kendra, University Road
- Maharaja Agrasen Park, Rampur Garden
- Akshar Vihar
- Lichi bagh, Qila
- Mega Rolling Park, Super City
- Gandhi Garden Civil Lines
Several Bollywood songs have references to Bareilly and its musical genres, such as jhumka and kajra.
- "Surma bareilly waala ankhiyon mein aisa daala", a song from the film Kismat sung by Asha Bhosle and Shamshad Begum, refers to Bareilly ("Jhumka Bareilly waala kaanon mein aisa daala. Jhumke ne le li meri jaan, haai re main tere qurbaan").
- The Barra Bazaar (market) in the city was popular during the Mughal period; the song "Jhumka Gira Re, Bareilly ke Bazar mein" (from the film Mera Saaya, sung by Asha Bhosle and written by Shakeel Badauni) mentions the market.
- "Aaja Nachle" (from the film Aaja Nach Le, featuring Madhuri Dixit) connects jhumka and Bareilly.
- "New Delhi mein Bareilly Jaisa Saiyaan", featuring Kajol and Ajay Devgan, from the film U Me Aur Hum
- "Bareilly Ke bazaar mein", featuring Neil Nitin Mukesh, from the film Jail (directed by Madhur Bhandarkar)
- Akhtar Raza Khan (spiritual leader)
- Wasim Barelvi (Urdu poet)
- Rakesh Kapoor (CEO, Reckitt Benckiser)
- Umesh Gautam
- Himmat Bhandari
The 16th Lok Sabha Election for the Bareilly MP was won by Santosh Gangwar of the Bharatiya Janta Party. He defeated Praveen Singh Aron by huge margin to retain his stronghold. Bareilly has been a traditional battleground between the INC and the saffron parties. Regional parties such as the Samajwadi Party, led by Veerpal Singh Yadav, and the Bahujan Samaj Party have a limited influence.
Bareilly was a stronghold of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) for 20 years (1989–2009), when both the Member of Parliament (MP) and the Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) was from the BJP. The city saw the emergence of Hindu nationalism during the last two decades, accompanied by the growth of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, Vishva Hindu Parishad and Bajrang Dal in the region.
Santosh Gangwar was a Member of Parliament for Bareilly for 20 years (1989–2009). He was a former Minister of State for Petroleum and Natural Gas, with an additional charge of Parliament Affairs in the 13th Lok Sabha. Before this, Gangwar was Minister of State of Science and Technology with an additional charge of Parliamentary Affairs from October to November 1999 and chief whip of the BJP in the 14th Lok Sabha. He was narrowly defeated in the 15th Lok Sabha elections in 2009.
Since India began liberalising its economy, Bareilly has experienced rapid growth. Commerce has diversified with mall culture, although the area's rural economy remains agrarian, handicraft (zari-zardosi embroidery work on cloth material), bamboo and cane furniture. The city is equidistant from New Delhi and Lucknow, the capital of Uttar Pradesh.
Public sector undertakings
- Rama Shyama Paper
- Campher and Allied Products
- Keser Enterprises
- J. K. Sugar
- Oswal Overseas
- Bharat Petroleum and Bottling Plants
- N.E. Railway Workshop
- IFFCO Aonla
- Kissan Sahakari Chini Mills
- U.P. Sahakari Katai
- Superior Industries
In 2009, Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation Limited (UPPCL) awarded pilot contracts to supply power to nine cities to companies who will collect revenue for the state government. Bareilly, Agra, Kanpur, Moradabad and Gorakhpur will be part of the first phase.
The Indian government initiated a 10-percent-ethanol-blending programme on a pilot basis in Bareilly and Belgaum in Karnataka. The city also has CNG and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) outlets. Bareilly district was the first to implement India's bio-fuel standard.
The street system in Bareilly is traditional, with most roads oriented towards different cities. The city centre is the intersection of Nainital Road and Bada Bazaar–Shyamganj Road at a street known as Kutubkhana. It is a congested street, and the entry of cars or heavy vehicles is prohibited during the day. The Patel Chowk–Chaupla and Chowki Chauraha–Chaupla Roads run from Lucknow Road to Delhi Road National Highway 24.
Arterial streets include:
- Stadium Road (connecting Pilibhit Road (D.D. Puram) to the ShyamGanj crossroad)
- Macnair Road (connecting Nainital Road to Stadium Road)
- Pilibhit By-pass Road, connecting Pilibhit Road to Lucknow Road (National Highway 24)
- SH-33 Bareilly to Mathura via Subhash Nagar, Budaun and Kasganj
- Mini By-Pass, connecting Delhi Road (National Highway 24) to Nanital Road
- Shyam Ganj–Patel Chowk–Chaupla–Quila–C.B. Ganj Road (National Highway 24)
- Shyam Ganj–Bareilly Cantt–Chowki Chauraha–Chaupla Road
- I.V.R.I. Road (connecting Nainital Road to Pilibhit Road)
- Civil Lines Road
The inter-city satellite bus stand is just outside the city, at the intersection of National Highway 24 and the Pilibhit By-pass Road. The old bus stand in Civil Lines still well-used by state-owned buses to Delhi.
As part of the expansion of National Highway 24 (connecting Lucknow to New Delhi via Shahjahanpur, Bareilly, Rampur, Moradabad and Ghaziabad) to four lanes, two contracts were awarded on a Design, Build, Finance, Operate and Transfer (DBFOT) basis for the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI).
Bareilly has been connected to the rest of India by rail since the 19th century, and a 1909 map shows that Bareilly was a railway junction during the early 20th century. Six rail lines intersect in the city. In 1890 the Bengal and North Western Railway leased the Tirhoot State Railway to increase the latter's revenue, and the Lucknow-Sitapur-Seramow Provincial State Railway merged with the Bareilly-Pilibheet Provincial State Railway to form the Lucknow-Bareilly Railway on 1 January 1891. The Lucknow-Bareilly Railway was owned by the Government of India, and operated by the Rohilkund and Kumaon Railway.
The Oudh and Tirhut Railway was formed on 1 January 1943 by the merger of the Bengal and North Western Railway, the Tirhut Railway (BNW operated), the Mashrak-Thawe Extension Railway (BNW operated), the Rohilkund and Kumaon Railway and the Lucknow-Bareilly Railway (R&K operated). The Oudh and Tirhut Railway was later renamed the Oudh Tirhut Railway; it merged with the Assam Railway and the Kanpur-Achnera section of the Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway to form North Eastern Railway (headquartered in Gorakhpur, with a divisional headquarters in Izzat Nagar), one of the 16 zones of the Indian Railways.
Six railway stations serve the city:
- Bareilly Junction (broad and standard gauge)
- C.B. Ganj Station (broad gauge)
- Chenheti Station (broad gauge)
- City Station (metre gauge)
- Izzatnagar Station (metre and broad gauge)
- Bhojipura Station (metre and broad gauge)
Bareilly is on the Moradabad-Lucknow route. Trains from the north (including Jammu Tawi and Amritsar) and Delhi running east and northeast (to Gorakhpur, Barauni, Howrah, Guwahati and Dibrugarh) pass through Bareilly, and the city is also on the route from Uttarakhand to Kasganj and Mathura. Many trains to railway stations in Uttarakhand pass through Bareilly.
The Indian Air Force has a base at Izzatnagar, on the outskirts of Bareilly. Although it is not open to civilian aviation (except for high government officials), there are plans for a civilian terminal adjacent to the runway.
Bareilly has a number of universities and research institutes, including M. J. P. Rohilkhand University, the Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) and the Central Avian Research Institute (CARI)—the latter two in Izzatnagar. The city has engineering colleges (Institute of Engineering and Technology, A Govt Engineering College at M. J. P. Rohilkhand University Campus), management, law, medical and other colleges. Bareilly College, in the heart of the city, was built in 1837 and is among the oldest educational institutions in India.
The M. J. P. Rohilkhand University (1975), Bareilly College (1837) and a number of private colleges and universities comprise Bareilly's higher-education system. Established in 1889, the Indian Veterinary Research Institute is dedicated to livestock research. With a faculty of 275, in addition to research the institute offers instruction, consultation and technology transfer at the post-graduate level to students from India and abroad.
The city attracts patients from the Kumaun, Rohilkhand and western Nepal regions. During the Vedic period, Bareilly was noted for Ayurvedic treatment. The practitioners of that period promoted the cultivation of Aonla, popularly known as Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica, syn. Emblica officinalis), on the outskirts of Bareilly (leading the area to be named Aonla).
During the 1857 mutiny, Bareilly was besieged for almost a year; hundreds of revolutionaries faced summary trials and execution, and were medically examined. A makeshift medical-examination facility was built near the Kotwali area of the city, which grew into the city's major health-care facility.
For 50 years the facility grew slowly, addressing the spread of infectious diseases. It later served wounded British officers and sepoys during World War II, with an emergency operating theatre and a portable X-ray machine for white officers and soldiers. Bareilly has two medical colleges, one dental college and one ayurvedic college.
In addition to the air-force base, Bareilly is the regimental centre and a major settlement of the Jat Regiment (one of the longest-serving and most-decorated infantry regiments of the Indian Army. The regiment won 19 battle honours from 1839 to 1947, and five battle honours, eight Mahavir Chakra, eight Kirti Chakra, 32 Shaurya Chakras, 39 Vir Chakras and 170 Sena Medals since independence. Bareilly is the regional headquarters of the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP).
Places Of Islamic Interests
- Imam Ahmad Raza Khan Barelvi
- Jhadjhuda saheb
- Shaidanawali Saheb
- Christ Methodist Church,Church Road, Civil Lines
- St. Paul's Church, Izzatnagar
- Freewill Baptist Church, Cantonment
- St. Stephen's Church, Cantonment
- Cathedral of St. Alphonsus de Ligouri, Cantonment
- Masihi Kalisiya Church, Defence Colony, Izatnagar
- English Methodist Church, Civil Lines
- Assembly of Believers Church, Mission Campus
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