|— Russian coal mining settlement —|
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Barentsburg (Russian: Баренцбург) is the second largest settlement on Svalbard, with about 500 inhabitants (2007), almost entirely Russians and Ukrainians. The Russian-owned Arktikugol has been mining coal here since 1932.
Although Svalbard is under Norwegian sovereignty, the unique Svalbard Treaty of 1920 allows citizens of signatory countries equal rights to exploit natural resources. Russia, along with Sweden (via the Sveagruva mine), maintain mining operations on Svalbard as a result. Russia maintains a consulate in Barentsburg, the northernmost diplomatic mission of any kind in the world. Still Barentsburg has a Norwegian mail address and Norwegian phone numbers.
Economic basis 
Barentsburg started as a Dutch mining town in the 1920s. In 1932 the Dutch sold their concession to the Soviet Union. Since 1932 the Russian state-owned Arktikugol Trust has been operating on Svalbard. The main economic activity is coal mining by the Arktikugol (Арктикуголь) company, although tourism is beginning to be developed. The distance from Longyearbyen to Barentsburg is about 55 km but there are no roads connecting the two settlements. Most contact between the two is by boat, or helicopter.
Coal is still mined in Barentsburg and regularly exported to (generally) buyers within Northern Europe. The town relies entirely on mainland Russia for food and coinage. There have been instances in which not enough food was sent, and aid packages were sent from Longyearbyen. Also, the coal company has been known not to pay employees until they finish their three-year contract and return to Russia. Tourism is still only an embryonic industry and is not generating enough income to revive the town.
Science and culture 
A museum of Pomor culture, Arctic flora and fauna, including unique archeological objects preserved in the permafrost, works in the town. Normally it is open when a daily boat from Longyear arrives (in summer months only), and by special arrangement. There is a sport complex, including a swimming pool with heated seawater. Beyond the mining-related activity, there is a scientific research center in Barentsburg. Each summer season, several dozens of researchers from Russia and other countries work here, notably geophysicists, geologists, archeologists, biologists, glaciologists, geographers, etc. Year-round meteorological observatory and the northernmost cosmic rays station work in the town too.
2006 fire 
On October 17, 2006 Norwegian inspectors detected an underground, smoldering fire in Barentsburg, prompting fears that an open fire might break out, which would have forced the evacuation of all of Barentsburg for an indefinite period of time, and also cause unknown environment problems for the entire archipelago. The fire was later contained. Coal mining was restarted four and half years later, at the end of 2010.
The world's second northernmost statue of Lenin (the northernmost is in Pyramiden)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Barentsburg|
- Russian Embassy in Norway website
- Umbreit, Andreas (2009). Spitsbergen (4 ed.). Bradt Travel Guide. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-84162-240-8.
- Barr, Susan (2003). Norway, a consistent polar nation?: analysis of an image seen through the history of the Norwegian Polar Institute. Kolofon. p. 174. ISBN 978-82-300-0026-7.
- Norway Svalbard Coal Fire. International Herald Tribune. November 1, 2006.
- Barentsburg: Kullbrann kan føre til evakuering Aftenposten 1 November 2006
- Staalesen, Atle (2010-11-08). "Russians restarted coal mining at Svalbard". Barents Observer. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- Barentsburg travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Barentsburg Research Base Official site
- Barentsburg Cosmic Ray Station from the Polar Geophysical Institute
- Map and guide, with photos in English Japanese version of site
- Barentsburg photos from Galen R Frysinger site
- Many photos of Barentsburg on this flickr site
- More photos of Barentsburg from a Svalbard site
- Story on Barentsburg from the BBC, December 25, 2006